List of dog diseases

This list of dog diseases is a continuously updated selection of diseases and other conditions found in the dog. Some of these diseases are unique to dogs or closely related species, while others are found in other animals, including humans. Not all of the articles listed here contain information specific to dogs. These articles are marked with an asterisk (*).

Infectious diseases

Viral infections

*Rabies (hydrophobia) is a fatal viral disease that can affect any mammal, although the close relationship of dogs with humans makes canine rabies a zoonotic concern. Vaccination of dogs for rabies is commonly required by law. Please see the article dog health for information on this disease in dogs. [cite web | title = Rabies: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/102300.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Canine parvovirus is a sometimes fatal gastrointestinal infection that mainly affects puppies. It occurs worldwide. [cite web|author=Carter, G.R.; Wise, D.J.|year=2005|title=Parvoviridae|work=A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology| url=http://www.ivis.org/advances/carter/Part2Chap9/chapter.asp?LA=1#Canine_parvo|accessdate=2006-11-26]
*Canine coronavirus is a gastrointestinal disease that is usually asymptomatic or with mild clinical signs. The signs are worse in puppies.cite web|author=Carter, G.R.; Wise, D.J.; Flores, E.F.|year=2006|title=Coronaviridae|work=A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology| url=http://www.ivis.org/advances/carter/Part2Chap24/chapter.asp?LA=1#CanineCoro|accessdate=2006-11-26]
*Canine distemper is an often fatal infectious disease that mainly has respiratory and neurologic signs. [cite web | title = Canine Distemper: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/56700.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Kennel cough is an infectious respiratory disease which can be caused by one of several viruses or by "Bordetella bronchiseptica". It most commonly occurs in dogs in close confinement such as kennels. [cite web | last = Fenwick| first = B. | coauthors = Keil, D.J. | title = Canine Respiratory Bordetellosis: Keeping up with an Evolving Pathogen | work = Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases | year = 2000 | url = http://www.ivis.org/advances/Infect_Dis_Carmichael/keil/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1 | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Canine influenza is a newly emerging infectious respiratory disease. Up to 80 percent of dogs infected will have symptoms, but the mortality rate is only 5 to 8 percent. [cite web | title = Control of Canine Influenza in Dogs: Questions, Answers, and Interim Guidelines
publisher = American Veterinary Medical Association | date = 2005-12-01 | url = http://www.avma.org/public_health/influenza/canine_guidelines.asp | accessdate = 2006-11-26
]
*Infectious canine hepatitis is a sometimes fatal infectious disease of the liver.cite book|author=Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C.|title=Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine|edition=4th ed.|publisher=W.B. Saunders Company|year=1995|id=ISBN 0-7216-6795-3]
*Canine herpesvirus is an infectious disease that is a common cause of death in puppies less than three weeks old. [cite journal | last = Hoskins | first = Johnny | title = Herpesvirus: DVMs must manage infected litters | journal = dvm | date = May 1, 2005 | url = http://www.dvmnewsmagazine.com/dvm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=162444 | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Pseudorabies is an infectious disease that primarily affects swine, but can also cause a fatal disease in dogs with signs similar to rabies. [cite web | title = Pseudorabies: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/102200.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Canine minute virus is an infectious disease that can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal signs in young puppies. [cite web|author=Carmichael, L.|year=2004|title=Neonatal Viral Infections of Pups: Canine Herpesvirus and Minute Virus of Canines (Canine Parvovirus-1)|work=Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases|url=http://www.ivis.org/advances/Infect_Dis_Carmichael/carmichael/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1|accessdate=2006-06-25]

Bacterial infections

*Brucellosis is a sexually transmitted bacterial disease that can cause uveitis, abortion, and orchitis in dogs.
*Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by a spirochaete. Symptoms include liver and kidney failure and vasculitis. [cite journal|author=Heuter, Kerry J.,Langston, Cathy E.|title=Leptospirosis: A re-emerging zoonotic disease|journal=The Veterinary Clinics of North America|year=2003|volume=33|pages=791–807]
*Lyme disease* is a disease caused by "Borrelia burgdorferi", a spirochaete, and spread by ticks of the genus "Ixodes". Symptoms in dogs include acute arthritis, anorexia, and lethargy. There is no rash as is typically seen in humans. [cite web | last = Straubinger| first = R.K. | title = Lyme Borreliosis In Dogs | work = Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases | year = 2000 | url = http://www.ivis.org/advances/Infect_Dis_Carmichael/straubinger/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1 | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by "Ehrlichia canis" and spread by the brown dog tick, "Rhipicephalus sanguineous". Signs include fever, vasculitis, and low blood counts.
*Rocky Mountain spotted fever* is a rickettsial disease that occurs in dogs and humans. It is caused by "Rickettsia rickettsii" and spread by ticks of the genus "Dermacentor". Signs are similar to human disease, including anorexia, fever, and thrombocytopenia. [cite web | title = Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/57304.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*"Clostridium" species are a potential cause of diarrhea in dogs. Associated species include "C. perfringens" and "C. difficile". [cite web | last = Marks | first = Stanley L. | title = Bacterial Gastroenteritis in Dogs & Cats--More Common Than You Think | work = Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2003 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2003&PID=6689&O=Generic | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]

Fungal infections

*Blastomycosis* is a fungal disease caused by "Blastomyces dermatitidis" that affects both dogs and humans. Dogs are ten times more likely to be infected than humans. The disease in dogs can affect the eyes, brain, lungs, skin, or bones. [cite web | last = Mordecai | first = Adam L. | coauthors = Bain, Perry J.; Latimer, Kenneth S. | title = Blastomycosis In Dogs and Cats | publisher = College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Georgia | url = http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/mordecai/index.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Histoplasmosis* is a fungal disease caused by "Histoplasma capsulatum" that affects both dogs and humans. The disease in dogs usually affects the lungs and small intestine. [cite web | last = Edison | first = Laura | coauthors = Bain, Perry J.; Latimer, Kenneth S.; Roberts, Royce E. | title = Canine and Feline Histoplasmosis | publisher = College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Georgia | url = http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/edison/index.php | accessdate = 2006-11-26 ]
*Coccidioidomycosis* is a fungal disease caused by "Coccidioides immitis" that affects both dogs and humans. In dogs signs include coughing, fever, lethargy, and anorexia. Many cases include lameness due to bome lesions. [cite web | title = Coccidioidomycosis | work = The Center for Food Security & Public Health | publisher = Iowa State University | year = 2004 | url = http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/coccidioidomycosis.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-11-27 ]
*Cryptococcosis* is a fungal disease caused by "Cryptococcus neoformans" that affects both dogs and humans. It is a rare disease in dogs, with cats seven to ten times more likely to be infected. The disease in dogs can affect the lungs and skin, but more commonly the eye and central nervous system. [cite web | last = Reynolds | first = Cecily A. | coauthors = Bain, Perry J.; Latimer, Kenneth S. | title = Canine and Feline Cryptococcosis | publisher = College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Georgia | url = http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/reynolds/index.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-27 ]
*Ringworm is a fungal skin disease that in dogs is caused by "Microsporum canis" (70%), "Microsporum gypseum" (20%), and "Trichophyton mentagrophytes" (10%). Typical signs in dogs include hair loss and scaly skin. [cite web | title = Dermatophytosis: Cats and Dogs | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/71303.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-27 ]
*Sporotrichosis is a fungal disease caused by "Sporothrix schenckii" that affects both dogs and humans. It is a rare disease in dogs, with cat and horse infections predominating in veterinary medicine. The disease in dogs is usually nodular skin lesions of the head and trunk. [cite web | title = Sporotrichosis | work = The Center for Food Security & Public Health | publisher = Iowa State University | year = 2006 | url = http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/sporotrichosis.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-11-27 ]
*Aspergillosis* is a fungal disease that in dogs is caused primarily by "Aspergillus fumigatus". Infection is usually in the nasal cavity. Typical signs in dogs include sneezing, nasal discharge, bleeding from the nose, and ulcerations of the nose. [cite web | title = Aspergillosis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/51102.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-27 ]
*Pythiosis is a disease cause by a water mould of the genus "Pythium", "P. insidiosum". It occurs primarily in dogs and horses, but can also affect humans. In dogs it affects the gastrointestinal system and lymph nodes, and rarely the skin. [cite journal|author=Grooters, Amy M.|title=Pythiosis, lagenidiosis, and zygomycosis in small animals|journal=The Veterinary Clinics of North America|year=2003|volume=33|pages=695–720|doi=10.1016/S0195-5616(03)00034-2]
*Mucormycosis is a collection of fungal and mold diseases in dogs including pythiosis, zygomycosis, and lagenidiosis that affect the gastrointestinal tract and skin.

Protozoal diseases

*Giardiasis* is an intestinal infection in dogs caused by the protozoa "Giardia lamblia". The most common symptom is diarrhea. The zoonotic potential of giardiasis is controversial. [cite web | title = Giardiasis: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/21300.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-28 ]
*Coccidiosis can be caused by a variety of coccidian organisms in dogs, most commonly "Isospora". There are usually no symptoms, but diarrhea and weight loss may occur. [cite web | title = Coccidiosis of Cats and Dogs | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/21206.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-28 ]
*Leishmaniasis* is spread by the sandfly, and in the dog as well as human has both cutaneous and visceral forms. The dog is considered to be the reservoir for human disease in the Americas. [cite web | title = Leishmaniasis in Dogs | publisher = College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Georgia | url = http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/NSEP/Brazil2002/leishmania/Eng/index.htm | accessdate = 2006-11-28 ]
*Babesiosis* is spread by members of the family Ixodidae, or hard ticks. The two species of the genus "Babesia" that affect dogs are "B. canis" and "B. gibsoni". Babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia in dogs. [cite web | last = Cleveland | first = C. Wyatt | coauthors = Latimer, Kenneth S.; Peterson, David S. | title = An Overview of Canine Babesiosis | publisher = College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Georgia | url = http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/clerk/cleveland/index.php | accessdate = 2006-11-28 ]
*Neosporosis* is caused by "Neospora caninum" [cite journal | last = Reichel | first = MP | coauthors = Ellis JT, Dubey JP | title = Neosporosis and hammondiosis in dogs. | journal = J Small Anim Pract | volume = 48 | issue = 6 | pages = 308–312 | year = 2007 | pmid = 17547641 | doi = 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00236.x]

Other infections

*Protothecosis in dogs is caused by a mutant form of green algae and is usually disseminated. Symptoms include weight loss, uveitis, and retinal detachment.

Parasites

*Intestinal parasites
**Hookworms* are a common parasite of dogs. Most common is "Ancylostoma caninum", followed by "Uncinaria stenocephala" and "A. braziliense". Signs include diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
**Tapeworms* are also common and in the dog are usually "Dipylidium caninum", which is spread by ingesting fleas and lice. Also common is "Taenia pisiformis", spread by ingesting rabbits and rodents. Rare tapeworm infections are caused by species of the genera "Echinococcus", "Mesocestoides", and "Spirometra". There are usually no symptoms.
**Roundworms (see also toxocariasis) infecting the dog include "Toxocara canis" and "Toxascaris leonina". Signs are usually mild, but may include diarrhea, pot-bellied appearance, poor growth, and vomiting.
*Fleas* in dogs cause itching and hair loss. The most common flea in dogs is the cat flea, "Ctenocephalides felis", followed by the dog flea, "C. canis". [cite web | title = Fleas and Flea Allergy Dermatitis: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/71600.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-03 ]
*Ticks* are an external parasite of the dog and can spread diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. They can also cause a neurological disorder known as tick paralysis. [cite web | title = Ticks: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/72100.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-03 ]
*Heartworm disease in dogs is spread by mosquitoes and is spread by the parasite "Dirofilaria immitis". Signs include cough, difficulty breathing, and death. [cite web | title = Canine Heartworm Disease | publisher = American Heartworm Society | year = 2005 | url = http://www.heartwormsociety.org/CanineHeartwormInfo.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-03 ]
*Mites
**Ear mites in dogs are microscopic members of the species "Otodectes cynotis". Symptoms include itching, inflammation, and black debris in the ear.cite book|last=Griffin|first=Craig E.|coauthors=Miller, William H.; Scott, Danny W.|year=2001|title=Small Animal Dermatology|edition=6th ed.|publisher=W.B. Saunders Company|id=ISBN 0-7216-7618-9]
**Cheyletiellosis is a mild pruritic skin disease in dogs caused by "Cheyletiella yasguri". Humans can be transiently infected.
**Chiggers*, also known as harvest mites, can cause itching, redness and crusting in dogs.
**Mange in dogs include demodectic mange and sarcoptic mange. Demodectic mange is caused by "Demodex canis". Signs include hair loss, redness, and scaling, and is not contagious to humans. Sarcoptic mange is caused by "Sarcoptes scabiei canis". Signs include intense itching and scaling, and is contagious to humans.
*trichinellosis caused by "Trichinella spiralis", "T. britovi"cite journal | last = Pozio | first = E | coauthors = Darwin Murrell K | title = Systematics and epidemiology of trichinella. | journal = Adv Parasitol | volume = 63 | pages = 367–439 | year = 2006 | pmid = 17134656 | doi = 10.1016/S0065-308X(06)63005-4]
*Demodex also known as demodicosis live in small numbers in the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. These mites can cause inflammation and hair loss, they can also lead to secondary bacterial infections such as fever, lethargy, and in larged lymph nodes.
*Sarcoptes scabiei is a mite that burries into humans and dogs alike and causes scabies. There is only one symptom, itchy and red skin.

keletal and muscular disorders

*Osteoarthritis*, also known as degenerative arthritis, is a common condition in dogs characterized by progressive deterioration of articular cartilage in the joints of the limbs. It can cause a great deal of pain and lameness. Treatment options include medications such as NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and joint fluid modifiers such as glycosaminoglycans. Other treatments include surgery, massage, warm compresses, chiropractic, and acupuncture. [cite web | title = Degenerative Arthritis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/91307.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-09 ]
*Hip dysplasia is an inherited disease in dogs that is characterized by abnormal development of the acetabulum and head of the femur. It is more common in large breeds.
*Elbow dysplasia is a condition found more commonly in large breeds. It incorporates several different hereditary conditions of the elbow, including osteochondritis of the medial condyle of the humerus, fragmentation of the medial coronoid process of the ulna, and ununited anconeal process of the ulna.
*Luxating patella is a medial or lateral displacement of the patella, or kneecap. It is strongly suspected to be inherited, but can also result from trauma. [cite web | title = General Patellar Luxation Information | publisher = Orthopedic Foundation for Animals | year = 2006 | url = http://www.offa.org/patluxgeninfo.html | accessdate = 2006-12-09 ] It is more common in smaller breeds of dogs [http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?cls=2&cat=1569&articleid=457]
*Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is separation of immature articular cartilage from underlying bone. It is caused by osteochondrosis, which is characterized by abnormal endochondral ossification of epiphyseal cartilage. It is most commonly seen in the stifle, elbow, shoulder, and hock. [cite web | title = Osteochondrosis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/91304.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-09 ]
*Panosteitis is a common disease of unknown cause that causes pain and a shifting leg lameness in medium and large breed dogs. It affects the long bones of the hind and forelimbs. [cite web | title = Panosteitis | work = Canine Inherited Disorders Database | publisher = University of Prince Edward Island | year = 1998 | url = http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/musculoskeletal/panosteitis.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-09 ]
*Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome, also known as Perthes disease or aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, is characterized by a deformity of the head of the femur and hip pain. It occurs in small breed puppies.
*Back pain* in dogs, particularly in long-backed breeds, such as Basset Hounds and Dachshunds, is usually caused by intervertebral disk disease. It is caused by degeneration and protrusion of the disk and compression of the spinal cord. It occurs most commonly in the cervical and thoracolumbar regions. Signs include back pain, hind limb weakness, and paralysis.cite web | title = Degenerative Diseases | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/100702.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-09 ]
*Congenital vertebral anomalies, including butterfly, block, and transitional vertebrae, and hemivertebrae, are a collection of malformations of the spine in animals. Most are not clinically significant, but they can cause compression of the spinal cord by deforming the vertebral canal or causing instability.
*Craniomandibular osteopathy is a hereditary disease in West Highland White Terriers and also occurs in other terrier breeds. It is a developmental disease in puppies causing extensive bony changes in the mandible and skull. Signs include pain upon opening the mouth.cite web | last = Hazewinkel | first = Herman A.W. | title = Hereditary Skeletal Diseases in Companion Animal Practice | work = Proceedings of the 29th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2004 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2004&PID=8729&O=Generic | accessdate = 2006-12-09 ]
*Hypertrophic osteopathy is a bone disease secondary to disease in the lungs. It is characterized by new bone formation on the outside of the long bones.
*Hypertrophic osteodystrophy is a bone disease in rapidly growing large breed dogs. Signs include swelling of the metaphysis (the part of the bone adjacent to the joint), pain, depression, loss of appetite, and fever. The disease is usually bilateral in the limb bones.cite book|author=Thrall, Donald E.|title=Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology|edition=2nd ed.|publisher=W.B. Saunders Company|year=1994|id=ISBN 0-7216-3143-6]
*Spondylosis*, known as spondylosis deformans in dogs, is growth of osteophytes on the ventral and lateral surfaces of the vertebral bodies. It is usually an incidental finding on radiographs and rarely causes symptoms.
*Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM) is an inflammatory disease in dogs affecting the muscles of the jaw. Signs include swelling of the jaw muscles and pain on opening the mouth. In chronic MMM there is atrophy of the jaw muscles, and scarring of the masticatory muscles due to fibrosis may result in inability to open the mouth (trismus).

Cardiovascular and circulatory

*Platelet disorders
**von Willebrand disease* is an inherited, common disease found in both dogs and humans. It is characterized by a deficiency of a protein called von Willebrand factor, which is involved in blood clotting. The disease varies from mild to severe, depending on the amount of von Willebrand factor present in the dog. Signs include spontaneous bleeding and excessive bleeding following surgery, injury, or during an estrous cycle. [cite web | title = What is von Willebrand's disease? | work = Canine Inherited Disorders Database | publisher = University of Prince Edward Island | year = 1998 | url = http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/clinical%20pathology/von%20Willebrand's%20di | accessdate = 2006-12-16 ]
**Thrombocytopenia* is a common condition in dogs characterized by low platelet counts. Platelets are used in clotting the blood, so dogs with this condition may have spontaneous bleeding or prolonged bleeding following surgery, injury, or during an estrous cycle. Causes include some rickettsial infections such as ehrlichiosis, cancers such as hemangiosarcoma, or immune-mediated disease. [cite web | title = Acquired Thrombocytopenia | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/10607.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-16 ]
**Thrombocytosis* is a condition characterized by an excess of platelets. Most cases are physiologic (caused by exercise) or reactive (secondary to some cancers, blood loss, or certain drugs). Rarely the condition is caused by a primary bone marrow disorder. In this last case, the platelets may not function normally, causing the blood to not clot properly. [cite web | last = Rebar | first = A.H. | coauthors = MacWilliams, P.S., Feldman, B.F., et al. | title = Platelets: Overview, Morphology, Quantity, Platelet Function Disorders (Thrombocytopathia or Thrombopathia) | work = A Guide to Hematology in Dogs and Cats | year = 2005 | url = http://www.ivis.org/advances/Rebar/Chap10/chapter.asp?LA=1| accessdate = 2006-12-16 ]
*Hemolytic anemia* is a type of regenerative anemia found in dogs characterized by destruction of the red blood cell. The most important type is immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, which can be a primary disease or secondary to cancer, infection, drugs, or vaccinations. Antibodies are present on the cell surface, leading to lysis and severe anemia. Other causes of hemolytic lesion include hypophosphatemia, exposure to toxins such as lead, infections such as ehrlichiosis or babesiosis, and rarely, neonatal isoerythrolysis. [cite web | title = Hemolytic anemia | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/10203.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-16 ] The behavioral condition pica, especially when involving the eating of concrete dust, tile grout, or sand, may be a sign of hemolytic anemia, indicating the need for a complete blood count to investigate a possible diagnosis.

*Heart diseases
**Degenerative mitral valve disease* is a common cause of congestive heart failure in dogs, especially small, older dogs. The leaflets of the valve become thickened and nodular, leading to mitral valve regurgitation and volume overload of the left side of the heart. Cavalier King Charles Spaniels have an inherited form of this disease.cite book|author=Abbott, Jonathan A.|title=Small Animal Cardiology Secrets|edition=1st ed.|publisher=Hanley & Belfus, Inc.|year=2000|id=ISBN 1-56053-352-8]
**Dilated cardiomyopathy is a disease of heart muscle resulting in atrial and ventricular dilation. It is seen in large dog breeds such as Boxers, Great Danes, and Dobermanns. It is usually idiopathic, but can also be caused by taurine deficiency in Cocker Spaniels or doxorubicin use. Dilated cardiomyopathy usually results in congestive heart failure.
**Congestive heart failure* is any heart disease that results in the inability to put out enough blood to meet the dog's needs. It can be caused by the above two diseases, heat stroke, electric shock, injury, infection, developmental heart defects, or high blood pressure. Signs depend on which side of the heart is affected. Left-sided heart failure may result in coughing and difficulty breathing from a build-up of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) and fainting. Right-sided heart failure may result in a build-up of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion), or peripheral edema. [cite web | title = Heart Disease and Heart Failure: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/11200.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-16 ]
**Sick sinus syndrome* is most commonly seen in female Miniature Schnauzers. It is characterized by sinoatrial node dysfunction and often includes atrioventricular node disease and bundle branch block. Electrocardiogram findings include sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest, sinoatrial heart block, and asystole. The major sign is fainting.
** Various heart defects
***Aortic stenosis* is a congenital disease in dogs characterized by left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. It is inherited in Newfoundlands, and also found in Golden Retrievers, Rottweilers, Boxers, Bulldogs, German Shepherd Dogs, and Samoyeds. Signs include fainting and exercise intolerance.
***Pulmonic stenosis* is a congenital disease in dogs characterized by right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Most commonly the narrowing occurs at the pulmonary valve. The most commonly affected breeds include terriers, Bulldogs, Miniature Schnauzers, Chihuahuas, Samoyeds, Beagles, Keeshonds, Mastiffs, and Bullmastiffs. Signs include exercise intolerance, but often there is only a heart murmur.
***Ventricular septal defect* is a hole in the division between the heart ventricles. It is a congenital disease in dogs. There usually are no signs in dogs except for a heart murmur.
***Atrial septal defect* is a hole in the division between the heart atria. It is an uncommon condition in dogs. Most are not clinically significant, but large defects may cause heart failure, cyanosis, and exercise intolerance.
***Tetralogy of Fallot* is a congenital heart defect in dogs that includes four separate defects: pulmonic stenosis, a ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, and an overriding aorta. Keeshonds and Bulldogs are predisposed. Signs include cyanosis and exercise intolerance.
***Patent ductus arteriosus* is the most common congenital heart defect in dogs in the United States. It is inherited in toy and miniature Poodles, and seen commonly in Pomeranians, Bichon Frises, and Malteses. Signs include cough and exercise intolerance.
***Heart valve dysplasia (including mitral and tricuspid valve dysplasia) is a congenital heart defect in dogs. Dysplasia of the mitral and tricuspid valves - also known as the atrioventricular (AV) valves - can appear as thickened, shortened, or notched valves.
***Cor triatriatum*, specifically cor triatriatum dexter, occurs in dogs and is characterized by a fibrous division of the right atrium. It can be treated by balloon valvuloplasty. [cite web | title = Miscellaneous Congenital Cardiac Abnormalities | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/11118.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-17 ]
*Pericardial effusion* is a collection of fluid in the pericardium. It is usually serous (clear or yellow fluid) or serosanguinous (bloody fluid). Serous accumulation is caused by heart failure, peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernias, uremia, pericardial cysts, or hypoalbuminemia. Serosanguinous accumulation can be caused by cancer, usually hemangiosarcoma, idiopathic disease, trauma, clotting disorders, or left atrial rupture. Rarely pericardial effusion can be caused by infection and consist of pus. Drainage of the fluid is the ideal treatment.
*Pulmonary hypertension* is high pressure in the pulmonary artery. In dogs it can be caused by heartworm disease or pulmonary thromboembolism. It can result in right-sided heart disease (cor pulmonale). Signs include difficulty breathing, cyanosis, and exercise intolerance.
*Trapped Neutrophil Syndrome* is an autosomal recessive disease which results in mature neutrophils being unable to migrate from the bone marrow into the blood. Affected pups suffer from chronic infections and failure to thrive. Other symptoms can include stunted growth and a ferret like facial appearance. [ Shearman JR and Wilton AN. Elimination of "neutrophil elastase" and adaptor protein complex 3 subunit genes as the cause of trapped neutrophil syndrome in Border collies. "Animal Genetics". 38: 188-189 ] The disease is common in Border collies. [cite web | title = TNS DNA Border Collie Test Results | url = http://www.bordercolliehealth.com/TNSdatabase.html | accessdate = 2008-04-07 ]

Nervous system

*Syringomyelia* is a condition where a fluid filled sac develops in the spinal cord. The most important cause in dogs is by a Chiari I malformation, which is when an underdeveloped occipital bone interferes with spinal fluid circulation and results in fluid accumulation in the cervical spinal cord. This is a congenital disease most commonly found in small breeds, especially the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. Signs include ataxia, weakness, and neck pain. [cite web | title = Spinal Cord Disorders: Small Animals| work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/100416.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-19 ]
*Epilepsy in dogs can be a primary, idiopathic, inherited disorder or secondary to previous head trauma or CNS infections. Idiopathic epilepsy is commonly found in breeds such as German Shepherd Dogs, Beagles, and Dachshunds. The most common sign recurring generalized seizures beginning at a young adult age.cite book|author=Chrisman, Cheryl; Clemmons, Roger; Mariani, Christopher; Platt, Simon|title=Neurology for the Small Animal Practitioner|edition=1st ed.|publisher=Teton New Media|year=2003|id=ISBN 1-893441-82-2]
*Cerebellar hypoplasia is an incomplete development of the cerebellum. The most common cause in dogs is an in utero infection with canine herpesvirus. It is also seen associated with lissencephaly in Wire-haired Fox Terriers and Irish Setters, and as a separate condition in Chow Chows. [cite web | title = Cerebellar Disorders: Small Animals| work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/100413.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-19 ]
*Polyneuropathy is a collection of peripheral nerve disorders that often are breed-related in dogs. Polyneuropathy indicates that multiple nerves are involved, unlike mononeuropathy. Polyneuropathy usually involves motor nerve dysfunction, also known as lower motor neuron disease.
*Scotty Cramp is a disease in Scottish Terriers causing spasms and hyperflexion and hyperextension of the legs. It is caused by a disorder in serotonin metabolism that causes a deficiency of available serotonin.
*Cauda equina syndrome*, also known as degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, in dogs is a compression of the cauda equina by a narrowing of the lumbosacral vertebral canal. It is most commonly seen in German Shepherd Dogs. Signs include pain, weakness, and rear limb muscle atrophy. [cite web | title = Diseases of the Spinal Column and Cord: Degenerative Diseases| work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/100702.htm| accessdate = 2006-12-19 ]
*Coonhound paralysis is a type of polyradiculoneuritis seen in Coonhounds. The cause has been related to a raccoon bite. Signs include rear leg weakness progressing rapidly to paralysis, and decreased reflexes.
*Tick paralysis* is a disease in dogs caused by a neurotoxin found in the saliva of female ticks. "Dermacentor" species predominate as a cause in North America, while "Ixodes" mainly causes the disease in Australia. There is a gradual onset of signs, which include incoordination progressing to paralysis, changed voice, and difficulty eating.
*Dancing Dobermann disease is a type of myopathy that primarily affects the gastrocnemius muscle in Dobermanns. It usually starts between the ages of 6 to 7 months. One rear leg will flex while standing. Over the next few months it will begin to affect the other rear leg.
*Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) (including Pug Dog encephalitis and other noninfectious causes of meningoencephalitis) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system of dogs. It is a form of meningoencephalitis. The disease is more common in female toy dogs of young and middle age.
*Facial nerve paralysis* is most commonly caused in dogs by trauma, otitis media, or as an idiopathic condition. Signs include an inability to blink, drooping of the ear, and drooping of the lips on the affected side, although in chronic conditions fibrosis occurs and the ear and lips may appear to be in an abnormal position. [cite web | title = Facial Paralysis: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/101100.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-19 ]
*Laryngeal paralysis is unilateral or bilateral paralysis of the larynx. In dogs it can be congenital, seen in the Bouvier des Flandres, Bull Terrier, Dalmatian, Rottweiler and Huskies, or an acquired, idiopathic disease, seen in older Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, St. Bernards, and Irish Setters. Signs include change in voice and difficulty breathing. [cite web | last = Monnet | first = Eric | title = Laryngeal Paralysis | work = Proceedings of the 29th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2004 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2004&PID=8767&O=Generic | accessdate = 2006-12-19 ]
*White dog shaker syndrome causes full body tremors in small, white dog breeds. It is most common in West Highland White Terriers, Maltese, Bichons, and Poodles.
*Wobbler disease (cervical instability) is a condition of the cervical vertebrae that causes an unsteady gait and weakness in dogs.
*Cerebellar abiotrophy is caused by the death of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. It results in progressive ataxia beginning at a young age. It is most commonly seen in Kerry Blue Terriers and Gordon Setters.

Eyes

*Eyelid diseases
**Ectropion (eyelid folding outward) is a common condition in dogs, usually affecting the lower lid. Breeds associated with ectropion include the Cocker Spaniel, the St. Bernard, the Bloodhound, and the Basset Hound.cite book|author=Gelatt, Kirk N. (ed.)|title=Veterinary Ophthalmology|edition=3rd ed.|publisher=Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins|year=1999|id=ISBN 0-683-30076-8]
**Entropion (eyelid folding inward) is a common condition in dogs, especially the Chow Chow, Shar Pei, St. Bernard, and Cocker Spaniel. Upper lid entropion involves the eyelashes rubbing on the eye, but the lower lid usually has no eyelashes, so hair rubs on the eye. Surgical correction is used in more severe cases.
**Distichia (including ectopic cilia) is an eyelash that arises from an abnormal spot on the eyelid. Distichiae usually cause no symptoms because the lashes are soft, but they can irritate the eye and cause tearing, squinting, inflammation, and corneal ulcers.
**Chalazion* is a granuloma that forms in the eyelid due to blocked secretions from the Meibomian gland. Inflammation of the eyelid may result. [cite web | last = Bjerk | first = Ellen | title = Ocular Disease of the Aging Dog | work = Proceedings of the 29th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2004 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2004&PID=8721&O=Generic | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
**Trichiasis in dogs is hair from the eyelid growing in the wrong direction and rubbing on the eye, causing irritation. It usually occurs at the lateral upper eyelid, especially in the English Cocker Spaniel.
*Lens diseases
**Cataracts* are an opacity in the lens of the eye. Most cataracts in dogs are caused by a genetic predisposition, but diabetes mellitus is also a common cause. The only effective treatment is surgical removal. [cite web | title = Cataract Surgery in Dogs | work = Ophthalmology: Special Services , Technology & Information | publisher = NC State College of Veterinary Medicine | url = http://www.cvm.ncsu.edu/docs/ophthalservices.html | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
**Lens luxation is a displacement of the lens from its normal position. Terrier breeds are predisposed.
**Nuclear sclerosis is a consistent finding in dogs greater than seven years old. Nuclear sclerosis appears as a bilateral bluish-grey haziness at the nucleus, or center of the lens. Many people get this confused with Cataracts, and that is not the case. Many people also think the dog loses its vision, but the dogs can actually see quite well. [http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?cls=2&cat=1650&articleid=614]
*Retinal diseases
**Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic disease of the retina that occurs bilaterally and is seen in certain breeds of dogs. It causes progressive vision loss culminating in blindness.
**Retinal dysplasia is an eye disease affecting the retina of dogs. It is usually a nonprogressive disease and can be caused by viral infections, drugs, vitamin A deficiency, or genetics. Retinal dysplasia is characterized by folds or rosettes (round clumps) of the retinal tissue.
**Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) is a disease in dogs causing sudden blindness. It can occur in any breed. The cause is unknown, but possibly involves either autoimmune disease, a toxin, or Cushing's disease. Symptoms include sudden permanent blindness, dilated pupils, and loss of the pupillary light reflex.
**Retinal detachment* is caused in dogs by genetic disorders such as retinal dysplasia or Collie eye anomaly, trauma, inflammation or cancer. Reattachment may occur spontaneously or with medical or surgical therapy. [cite web | title = Retinal Detachments | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/30116.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
*Corneal diseases
**Corneal dystrophy is a condition characterized by bilateral, noninflammatory opacity of the cornea. It appears as grayish white lines, circles, or clouding of the cornea. Corneal dystrophy can also have a crystalline appearance.
**Corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer. They are caused by trauma, detergent burns, and infections. Other eye conditions can cause corneal ulcers, such as entropion, distichia, corneal dystrophy, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
**Florida keratopathy an eye condition characterized by the presence of multiple spots within both corneas. In the United States, it is found most commonly in the southeastern part of the country.
**Pannus is a form of superficial keratitis, or inflammation of the cornea, found most commonly in German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Siberian Huskies.
*Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is a congenital, inherited, bilateral eye disease of dogs involving the retina, choroid, and sclera. It can be a mild disease or cause blindness. It is known to occur in Smooth and Rough Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs, Australian Shepherds, Border Collies, and Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers.
*Cherry eye is the term used to refer to canine nictitans gland prolapse, a common eye condition in various dog breeds where the gland of the third eyelid prolapses and becomes visible.
*Glaucoma* is an increase of pressure within the eye. It is a common condition in dogs. It can be caused by abnormal development of the drainage angle of the eye, lens luxation, uveitis, or cancer. Cocker Spaniels, Poodles, and Basset Hounds are predisposed. [cite web | title = Glaucoma | work = Ophthalmology: Special Services , Technology & Information | publisher = NC State College of Veterinary Medicine | url = http://www.cvm.ncsu.edu/docs/ophthalservices_glaucoma.html | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
*Ocular Melanosis (OM) is a disease of the eye which in dogs is almost found exclusively in the Cairn Terrier. The disease is caused by an increase of melanocytes in the iris, sclera, and surrounding structures.
*Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye) is common in dogs. Symptoms include eye redness, a yellow or greenish discharge, ulceration of the cornea, pigmented cornea, and blood vessels on the cornea.
*Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome is a condition seen in dogs characterized by uveitis (inflammation of the inside of the eye), poliosis (whitening of hair), and vitiligo (loss of pigment in the skin).
*Conjunctivitis* is inflammation of the conjunctiva. In dogs it is most commonly caused by mechanical irritation (such as by entropion, ectropion, or trichiasis), allergies, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Any bacterial infection is usually secondary. [cite web | last = Ofri | first = Ron | title = Clinical Approach to the Dog with Red Eye(s) | work = Proceedings of the 31st World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2006 | format = PDF | url = http://www.ivis.org/proceedings/wsava/2006/lecture21/Ofri1.pdf?LA=1 | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
*Eye proptosis is a condition resulting in forward displacement and entrapment of the eye from behind by the eyelids. It is a common result of head trauma in dogs. Most commonly it occurs in brachycephalic (short nosed) breeds.
*Horner's syndrome* results from damage to the sympathetic innervation of the eye. Signs include enophthalmos (sunken eye), miosis (small pupil), elevated third eyelid, and ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid] . Usually the syndrome in dogs is idiopathic, but it can also be caused by trauma, tumors, or ear infections. [cite web | last = Gustavson | first = Carrie | title = Horner's Syndrome Causes Pet's Droopy Eye | publisher = University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine | year = 2000 | url = http://www.cvm.uiuc.edu/petcolumns/showarticle.cfm?id=23 | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
*Optic neuritis* is inflammation of the optic nerves. In dogs this is most commonly caused by granulomatous meningoencephalitis or infection. [cite web | title = Optic Neuritis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/160610.htm&word=optic%2cneuritis | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
*Persistent pupillary membrane is a condition of the eye involving remnants of a fetal membrane that persist as strands of tissue crossing the pupil.
*Uveitis* is inflammation within the eye. Anterior uveitis (inflammation of the iris and ciliary body) is most common in dogs. The disease is usually immune-mediated in dogs, but may also be caused by trauma, cataracts, infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, ehrlichiosis, or systemic fungal infections. [cite web | title = Anterior Uvea | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/30110.htm | accessdate = 2006-12-31 ]
*Asteroid hyalosis is a degenerative condition of the eye involving small white opacities in the vitreous humor. The cause is unknown.
*Synchysis scintillans is a degenerative condition of the eye resulting in liquified vitreous humor and the accumulation of cholesterol crystals within the vitreous.
*Iris cysts are small hollow structures either attached to the iris of the eye or floating free in the anterior chamber.
*Imperforate lacrimal punctum is a congenital disorder of dogs involving the lack of an opening to the nasolacrimal duct (tear duct) in the conjunctiva.
*Exophthalmos is a normal condition in brachycephalic (short nosed) dog breeds because of the shallow orbit. However, it can lead to keratitis secondary to exposure of the cornea.

Ears

*Ear infections are common in dogs, particularly breeds with hanging ears, such as Beagles, and dogs with narrow ear canals, such as Cocker Spaniels. Other predisposing factors include allergies, ear parasites, and hypothyroidism. [cite web | title = Otitis Externa: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/30900.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ]
*Deafness* in dogs can be either acquired or congenital. Predisposing factors for acquired deafness include chronic infection, use of certain drugs, and most commonly, age-related changes in the cochlea. Congenital deafness can be genetic, seen sometimes in dogs with merle or white coats, or caused by in utero damage from infections or toxins. [cite web | title = Deafness: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/30700.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ]
*Fly strike dermatitis occurs at the tip and folds of the ear in dogs. It is caused by bites of the stable fly, "Stomoxys calcitrans". [cite web | title = Diseases of the Pinna: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/30800.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ]

kin

:"See also dog skin disorders"
*Allergies*
**Atopy* is an allergy to a substance with which the dog is not necessarily in direct contact. It is a type I hypersensitivity to a substance that is inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Up to 10 percent of dogs are affected. [cite web | title = Allergic Inhalant Dermatitis: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/70300.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ] It is common in dogs, especially seen in breeds such as Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and Shih Tzus. The most common symptom is itching. Affected areas include the underside, the face, the feet, and the ears. [cite web | title = Canine Atopy | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/70301.htm&word=atopy | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ]
**Flea allergy dermatitis is the most common skin disease of dogs in the United States. It is caused by sensitivity to flea saliva. [cite web | title = Fleas and Flea Allergy Dermatitis: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/71600.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ]
**Food allergy* in dogs is commonly manifested as itching, especially of the face, paws, and the underside. Skin testing has proved unreliable, and a trial of a hypoallergenic diet is usually used for diagnosis. [cite web | last = Halliwell | first = Richard | title = Diagnosing, Treating and Preventing Food Allergy | work = Proceedings of the 27th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2002 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002&PID=2545 | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ]
*Follicular dysplasia is a genetic disease of dogs causing alopecia, or hair loss. It is caused by hair follicles that are misfunctioning due to structural abnormality.cite book|last=Griffin|first=Craig E.|coauthors=Miller, William H.; Scott, Danny W.|year=2001|title=Small Animal Dermatology|edition=6th ed.|publisher=W.B. Saunders Company|id=ISBN 0-7216-7618-9]
*Dermoid sinus a genetic, autosomal skin condition in dogs. It can appear as single or multiple lumps on the dorsal midline.
*Lick granuloma also known as acral lick dermatitis, is a skin disorder in dogs resulting from an urge to lick the lower portion of the leg. The lesion from the incessant licking is a thickened, firm, oval plaque.
*Pemphigus is an uncommon autoimmune skin disease. The most common form in dogs is pemphigus foliaceus, which manifests as erosions and crusting of the skin and mucocutaneous junctions. Pemphigus vulgaris is more rare and manifests as blister-like lesions in the mouth and at mucocutaneous junctions. Bullous pemphigoid is most commonly seen in Dobermanns and Collies and appears as a scald-like lesion of the groin. [cite web | title = Autoimmune Skin Disorders | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/60206.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-01 ]
*Dermal fragility syndrome, also known as Ehlers-Danlos-like syndrome, is a rare condition in dogs characterized by increased skin elasticity and poor wound healing. There appears to be a genetic basis for the disease. [cite journal | last = Paciello | first = O. | coauthors = Lamagna, F., Lamagna, B., Papparella, S. | title = Ehlers-Danlos–Like Syndrome in 2 Dogs: Clinical, Histologic, and Ultrastructural Findings | journal = Veterinary Clinical Pathology | volume = 32 | issue = 1 | pages = 13–18 | year = 2003 | url = http://www.vetclinpathjournal.org/VOL32/VCP3201_13-18.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2007-01-01 | doi = 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2003.tb00306.x ]
*Discoid lupus erythematosus is an uncommon autoimmune disease of the skin in dogs. It does not progress to systemic lupus erythematosus in dogs. The most common initial symptom is scaling and loss of pigment on the nose.

Cancers

*Canine transmissible venereal tumor is a tumor of the genitals. It is spread by sexual contact.
*Hemangiosarcoma is an aggressive tumor in dogs, usually affecting the heart or spleen and less commonly the skin.cite book|author=Morrison, Wallace B.|title=Cancer in Dogs and Cats|edition=1st ed.|publisher=Williams and Wilkins|year=1998|id=ISBN 0-683-06105-4]
*Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor in dogs that commonly spreads to the lungs. It is more common in large and giant breed dogs.
*Histiocytoma is a benign skin tumor in dogs that sometimes regresses without treatment.
*Malignant histiocytosis is a disease found primarily in the Bernese Mountain Dog characterized by infiltration of the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs by histiocytes.
*A mast cell tumor (mastocytoma) is a type of tumor normally found in the skin of dogs. It can also invade the subcutis and spread to the liver, spleen, or bone marrow.cite web | last = Moore | first = Anthony S. | title = Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors in Dogs | work = Proceedings of the 30th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2005 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2005&PID=10953&O=Generic | accessdate = 2006-12-03 ]
*Lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is a malignant cancer that is classified by location, cell type, and histological grade. The most common form in dogs is multicentric, involving the lymph nodes.
*Fibrosarcoma is a malignant tumor that most commonly occurs in the mouth in dogs, and less commonly in the skin, subcutis, and bones.
*Squamous cell carcinoma* is a malignant tumor in dogs that most commonly occurs in the oral cavity, including the tongue, tonsils, and gingiva. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 5 percent of skin tumors in dogs, and are the most common tumor of the toe. Dogs with unpigmented skin on the nose may develop this cancer from long-term sun exposure.
*Perianal gland tumor (also called hepatoid tumor) is a type of tumor found near the anus in dogs that arises from specialized glandular tissue found in the perineum. They are most common in intact (not neutered) male dogs.
*Anal sac adenocarcinoma is an uncommon and aggressive malignant tumor found in dogs that arises from the tissue of anal sac.
*Melanomas* account for four to six percent of skin tumors in dogs and are usually benign. They are the second most common tumor of the toe and are malignant in this location. Malignant melanoma is also a common oral tumor in dogs. Malignant tumors most commonly spread to the lymph nodes and lungs.
*Leukemias* are progressive proliferation of cancerous white blood cells within the bone marrow, resulting in destruction of the bone marrow and pancytopenia in many cases. Types of leukemia in dogs include acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia, acute monocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute megakaryocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic basophilic leukemia, and chronic eosinophilic leukemia (or hypereosinophilic syndrome).
*Plasmacytomas* are common skin tumors in dogs that derive from B lymphocytes. Most are benign. Tumors of B lymphocyte origin that affect the bone marrow and are diffuse throughout the body are malignant and are called multiple myeloma*.
*Prostate cancer* is rare in dogs and occurs in both intact and neutered animals. It is malignant. The most common type is adenocarcinoma. Signs include blood in the urine and straining to urinate or defecate. It most commonly spreads to bone and the lungs.
*Mammary tumors in dogs are potentially benign or malignant. They occur most commonly in non-spayed females or female that were spayed later in life.
*Insulinomas* in dogs are insulin secreting tumors of the pancreas. The most common sign is hypoglycemia. They commonly metastasize to the liver.
*Oral cancer* includes tumors of the tongue, tonsils, gingiva, and palate. The most common types are squamous cell carcinomas, malignant melanomas, and fibrosarcomas.
*Ocular tumors* in dogs are found in the eyelid, conjunctiva, third eyelid, cornea, sclera, iris, ciliary body, retina, choroid, optic nerve, and orbit. The most common types are Meibomian gland adenoma (eyelid), papilloma (eyelid), melanoma (eyelid, conjunctiva, sclera, iris, ciliary body, choroid), squamous cell carcinoma (conjunctiva), adenoma (ciliary body), adenocarcinoma (ciliary body), lymphoma (retina, choroid, ciliary body), medulloepithelioma (retina, choroid), ganglioglioma (retina, choroid), osteosarcoma (orbit), mast cell tumor (orbit), and optic nerve sheath meningioma.
*Nasal cancer makes up one to two percent of all types of tumors in dogs. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type, followed by sarcomas such as fiborsarcoma and chondrosarcoma. Signs include sneezing and bloody nasal discharge.
*Thyroid cancer* is rare and usually nonproductive in dogs (unlike in cats, in which it causes hyperthyroidism). One-third of thyroid tumors are small benign adenomas; the rest are malignant carcinomas, usually large and invasive.
*Gastrointestinal cancer* is uncommon in dogs. The most common type is lymphoma. Nonlymphomatous esophageal cancer is especially rare, the most common types being squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, and osteogenic sarcoma associated with the parasite "Spirocerca lupi". Nonlymphomatous stomach cancer is usually an adenocarcinoma, and nonlymphomatous intestinal cancer is usually polyps, adenomas, adenocarcinomas, leiomyosarcomas, and leiomyomas.
*Kidney cancer* is uncommon in dogs. The most common type is renal cell carcinoma.
*Lung cancer* is usually the result of metastasis in dogs. Primary tumors are rare. The most common type is adenocarcinoma.
*Heart tumors* are rare in dogs. Types include hemangiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and fibroma.
*Testicular tumors* are the most common tumor of the canine male reproductive tract. Tumor types include Sertoli cell tumor, seminoma, and interstitial cell tumor. None commonly metastasize.
*Ovarian cancer* is uncommon in dogs, with the most common type being the granulosa cell tumor. This type of tumor can metastasize and can cause cystic endometrial hyperplasia.
*Uterine cancer* is very rare in dogs. The most common type is benign leiomyoma.
*Bladder cancer* is usually malignant in dogs. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma.
*Liver cancer* is usually metastatic in dogs. Primary tumors are and include benign hepatocellular adenoma (hepatoma) and malignant hepatic carcinoids.
*Brain tumors* can be either metastatic or primary in dogs. The incidence of primary tumors is 14.5 per 100,000 dogs at risk. Types include meningioma, astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and undifferentiated sarcoma.

Behavioral

*Pica is an appetite for, or the behavior of eating, non-nutritive substances (e.g., sand, coal, soil, chalk, paper etc.). Pica can be dangerous to dogs, with a risk from eating dirt near roads that existed prior to the phaseout of tetra-ethyl lead in gasoline or prior to the cessation of the use of contaminated oil (either used, or containing toxic PCBs) to settle dust. In addition to poisoning, there is a risk of gastro-intestinal obstruction or tearing in the stomach or blockage of the esophagus.
*Pica in dogs may be a sign of Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, especially when it involves eating substances such as tile grout, concrete dust, and sand. Dogs exhibiting this form of pica should be tested for anemia with a Complete blood count including Hematocrit levels, or Packed cell volume.cite book | last = Plunkett | first = Signe J. | year = 2000 | title = Emergency Procedures for the Small Animal Veterinarian | publisher = Elsevier Health Sciences | pages = 11 | isbn = 0702024872] cite book | last = Feldman | first = Bernard F. | coauthors = Joseph G. Zinkl, Nemi Chand Jain, Oscar William Schalm | year = 2000 | title = Schalm's Veterinary Hematology | publisher = Blackwell Publishing | pages = 506| isbn = 0683306928]

*Coprophagia is the ingestion by a dog of feces, either its own or those of another dog or animal. It can be caused by medical conditions such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, overfeeding, or malabsorption. It can also be a behavioral problem characterized by attention-seeking, reinforcement, or as a learned behavior. Numerous health problems can arise from this activity, including internal parasites or infection with "canine parvovirus" or toxoplasmosis. Treatment includes behavioral modification therapy or altering the feces to affect its taste. [cite web | last = Hofmeister | first = Erik | coauthors = Cumming, Melinda; Dhein, Cheryl | title = Owner Documentation of Coprophagia in the Canine | work = Information for Pet Owners | publisher = Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine | year = 1998 | url = http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/pets/_archive/study.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-07]

Environmental

*Sensitivity to anaesthesia can occur in any breed, but sighthounds have been the breeds most documented to have anesthetic concerns. Sighthounds are known to have prolonged recovery times from ultra short-acting thiobarbiturates such as thiopental. [cite web | last = Keegan | first = Robert D. | title = Your Pet is Going to be Anesthetized... | work = Pet Health Topics | publisher = Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine | year = 2006 | url = http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/ClientED/anesthesia.asp | accessdate = 2007-01-07]
*Heat stroke can occur in dogs, especially in flat-faced breeds such as the Bulldog or in giant breeds. Breed, lack of water, exercise, and high ambient temperature predispose dogs to heat stroke. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, collapse, difficulty breathing, and body temperature approaching 42° to 43°C. Treatment includes cooling the dogs with wet towels and fans, intravenous fluid therapy, and other supportive care. [cite journal | last = Bosak | first = Jackie K. | title = Heat stroke in a Great Pyrenees dog | journal = Canadian Veterinary Journal | volume = 45 | issue = 6 | pages = 513–515| month = June | year = 2004 |pmc=548637 | pmid = 15283523 ]
*Foxtails and sandburs can penetrate the lining of the mouth or skin and migrate, causing abscesses and draining tracts. [cite web | last = Knight | first = A.P. | coauthors = Walter, R.G. | title = Plants Affecting the Digestive System | work = A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America | publisher = International Veterinary Information Service | year = 2003 | url = http://www.ivis.org/special_books/Knight/chap3/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1 | accessdate = 2007-01-07 ]

Endocrine diseases

*Diabetes in dogs is usually type 1 diabetes, or lack of insulin production due to destruction of pancreatic beta cells. In dogs this is caused by autoimmune disease or severe pancreatitis. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance, is less common in dogs, and can be caused by Cushing's syndrome or chronic glucocorticoid or progestin use. Common signs include weight loss, increased drinking and urination, and cataracts. Treatment involves twice daily insulin doses and use of a diet high in fiber and complex carbohydrates. [cite web | title = Diabetes Mellitus | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/40302.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-09 ]
*Thyroid diseases, including:
**Hyperthyroidism* is rare in dogs. The most common cause is thyroid carcinoma, a malignant tumor. Signs include weight loss, increased appetite, and enlargement of the thyroid gland. [cite web | title = Hyperthyroidism | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/40604.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-09 ]
**Hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease in dogs. It can be caused by autoimmune destruction or idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland. Signs include decreased appetite, weight gain, hair loss, recurring skin infections, and lethargy. Treatment is with oral thyroid hormone supplementation. [cite web | last = Daminet | first = S. | title = Canine Hypothyroidism: What's New? | work = Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2003 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2003&PID=6703&O=Generic | accessdate = 2007-01-09 ]
*Addison's disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, is a reduction of production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids by the adrenal glands. It is most commonly caused by destruction of adrenal tissue, probably by autoimmune disease. Signs include increased drinking and urination, vomiting, diarrhea, collapse, and weight loss. Hyperkalemia can develop and cause severe bradycardia. Treatment is with supplementation of mineralocorticoids in daily pills or a monthly injection. Glucocorticoids are usually supplemented with oral prednisone. [cite web | title = Hypoadrenocorticism | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/40204.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-09 ]
*Cushing's syndrome, also known as hyperadrenocorticism, is a condition characterized by an increase in glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal glands. About 85 percent of cases are caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, while 15 percent are caused by an adrenal tumor. Signs include increased appetite, increased drinking and urination, a pot-bellied appearance, muscle weakness, and lethargy. Diagnosis can be difficult as there are no tests with both high sensitivity and specificity. Treatments inclulde mitotane, trilostane, ketoconazole, or selegiline. Surgery is used in some cases of adrenal tumors. [cite web | title = Hyperadrenocorticism | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/40502.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-09 ]
*Diabetes insipidus* in dogs and cats can be central, caused by a lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or nephrogenic, caused by a lack of response of the kidneys to ADH. Neither form is common. Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is usually idiopathic, but can also be caused by head trauma or tumors of the brain. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) can be primary (hereditary) or secondary (caused by a variety of metabolic and renal diseases, including Cushing's syndrome and pyometra). Because the disease is characterized by an inability to concentate urine, the most common sign is increased drinking and urinating. Treatment of CDI is to use desmopressin, a synthetic analog of ADH. Treatment of NDI is to treat the underlying cause, if any. [cite web | last = Nelson | first = Richard W. | title = Polyuria, Polydipsia and Diabetes Insipidus | work = Proceedings of the 27th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2002 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002&PID=2556 | accessdate = 2006-01-09 ]

Gastrointestinal diseases

*Bloat (also known as gastric torsion or gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV)) is an emergency condition in dogs, seen most commonly in deep-chested large and giant breed dogs. The disease is characterized by the presence of a large amount of gas in the stomach and twisting of the stomach along its axis. Treatment for shock and then surgery is usually necessary. [cite web | title = Gastric Dilatation-volvulus | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/23305.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-14 ]
*Megaesophagus is a disease of the esophagus characterized by low motility and dilation. Most cases in adult dogs are idiopathic. It is the most common cause of regurgitation in dogs. Other causes of megaesophagus include myasthenia gravis, lead poisoning, and Addison's disease. [cite web | last = Washabau | first = Robert J. | title = Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders of Dogs and Cats | work = Proceedings of the 30th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2005 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2005&PID=10944&O=Generic | accessdate = 2007-01-14 ]
*Volvulus (twisted intestines) *, also known as mesenteric volvulus, is a rare condition in dogs. German Shepherd Dogs are predisposed. Factors that predispose dogs to this condition are intestinal foreign bodies, intestinal cancer, intussusception, and other intestinal diseases. It has a poor prognosis. [cite journal|title=What's Your Diagnosis?|journal=Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association|year=2004|volume=225|issue=3|pages=361–362|format=PDF|url=http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/pdf/10.2460/javma.2004.225.361|accessdate=2007-01-14|doi=10.2460/javma.2004.225.361]
*Foreign body is an object foreign to the body that becomes lodged in the gastrointestinal tract (or other part of the dog). Dogs are susceptible to gastrointestinal obstruction due to their ability to swallow relatively large objects and pass them through the esophagus. Foreign bodies most commonly become lodged in the stomach because of the inability to pass through the pyloric sphincter, and in the jejunum.
*Anal fistulae*, known as perianal fistulae in dogs, are most common in German Shepherd Dogs. They are characterized by draining tracts in the skin around the anus. The cause is unknown. Surgical treatment is common, but recently use of cyclosporine in combination with ketoconazole has been shown to be effective. [cite web | title = Perianal Fistula | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/20603.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-14 ]
*Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas. This disease is found frequently in dogs.
*Pancreatitis*, or inflammation of the pancreas, is common in dogs. It is most commonly seen in middle-aged and older overweight dogs. Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed. Contributing factors include diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and dietary indiscretion. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, lethargy, and anorexia. [cite web | last = Simpson | first = Kenneth W. | title = Update on Pancreatitis in Dogs | work = Proceedings of the 31st World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2006 | format=PDF | url = http://www.ivis.org/proceedings/wsava/2006/lecture12/Simpson1.pdf?LA=1 | accessdate = 2007-01-14 ]
*Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)* is a group of diseases in dogs that are idiopathic and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates in the stomach and/or intestinal walls. It is a common condition. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. Treatment is with dietary modification and use of medications such as corticosteroids, metronidazole, sulfasalazine, and azathioprine. [cite web | title = Inflammatory Bowel Disease | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/23312.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-14 ]
*Bilious vomiting syndrome is vomiting in response to bile-induced inflammation of the stomach. Bile salts interfere with the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing acid to irritate the stomach lining and cause gastritis. [cite journal|author=Westermarck, Elias; Wiberg, Maria|title=Canine gastritis|journal=The Veterinary Clinics of North America|year=2003|volume=33|pages=978–979]
*Intussusception* is characterized by telescoping of one part of the gastrointestinal tract into another part, forming an obstruction. It is most common in dogs six to eight months old. Surgery is necessary for treatment. [cite web | title = Gastrointestinal Obstruction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/23308.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-14 ]
*Lymphangiectasia is an intestinal disease of dogs characterized by chronic diarrhea and loss of proteins such as serum albumin and globulin. It is considered to be a chronic form of protein-losing enteropathy. Breeds commonly affected include the Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier, Norwegian Lundehund, Basenji, and Yorkshire Terrier.
*Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis is a disease of dogs characterized by sudden vomiting and bloody diarrhea. The symptoms are usually severe and can be fatal if not treated. It is most common in young adult dogs of any breed, but especially small dogs such as the Toy Poodle and Miniature Schnauzer.

Urinary and reproductive systems

*Kidney diseases
**Fanconi syndrome is a type of renal tubule disease found in Basenjis. Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine.
**Renal failure (kidney failure) * is common in dogs and may be found in acute or chronic forms. It is defined by a loss of function of about 75 percent of the filtration system of the kidney and characterized by azotemia and low specific gravity of the urine. [cite web | title = Renal Dysfunction: Overview | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/130602.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ] Acute renal failure can be caused by loss of blood supply, hypercalcemia, or toxins such as ethylene glycol (antifreeze) or aminoglycoside antibiotics. [cite web | title = Acute Kidney Disease | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/130604.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ] Chronic renal failure can be congenital and/or inherited or caused by cancer, infection, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, progressive interstitial fibrosis, or any of the causes of acute renal failure. [cite web | title = Chronic Kidney Disease | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/130603.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
**Glomerulonephritis* is the presence of immune complexes in the glomerulus, resulting in leakage of protein into the urine. It can be caused by cancer, heartworm disease, pyometra, rickettsial infection, or systemic lupus erythematosus. [cite web | title = Glomerular Disease | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/130605.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ] It can result in chronic kidney failure, hypoalbuminemia, which can cause ascites and peripheral edema, and nephrotic syndrome, which can cause hypertension or hypercoagulability. [cite web | last = Grauer | first = Gregory F. | title = Diagnosis and Management of Canine Glomerular Disease | work = Proceedings of the 27th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2002 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002&PID=2706 | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
**Familial renal disease is an uncommon cause of renal failure (kidney failure) in young dogs. Most causes are breed-related (familial) and some are inherited.
*Urinary bladder diseases
**Bladder stones or uroliths are common in dogs. The stones form in the urinary bladder in varying size and numbers secondary to infection, dietary influences, and genetics. Types of stones include struvite, calcium oxalate, urate, cystine, calcium phosphate, and silicate. Struvite and calcium oxalate stones are by far the most common.
**Urinary tract infection*, specifically cystitis or bladder infection, is common in dogs and usually caused by bacteria. Signs include blood in the urine (hematuria), difficulty urinating (dysuria), and frequent urination (polyuria). [cite web | title = Bacterial Cystitis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/130502.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ] The most common types of bacteria cultured from the urine of dogs with cystitis are "E. coli", "Staphylococcus" spp., "Proteus mirabilis", "Streptococcus" spp. , "Klebsiella pneumoniae", "Pseudomonas aeruginosa", and "Enterobacter" spp. [cite web | last = Senior | first = David | title = Urinary Tract Infection | work = Proceedings of the 31st World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2006 | format = PDF | url = http://www.ivis.org/proceedings/wsava/2006/lecture27/Senior1.pdf?LA=1 | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
**Urinary incontinence* is leakage of urine, usually due to incompetence of the urethral sphincter in adult dogs and ectopic ureter (a congenital condition in which the ureter enters the urinary tract posterior to the urethral sphincter) in puppies. In adult dogs it is most commonly seen in large spayed females. The lack of estrogens in spayed dogs has been linked to development of incontinence. Replacement of estrogens, phenylpropanolamine, and surgery have all been used for treatment.cite web | last = Holt | first = Peter E. | title = Urinary Incontinence in the Male and Female Dog or Does Sex Matter? | work = Proceedings of the 29th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2004 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2004&PID=8703&O=Generic | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
*Reproductive diseases
**Prostate disease* in dogs includes benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (infection of the prostate), cancer, and cysts and abscesses. BPH is the most common and is found in older intact (not neutered) dogs. Signs include blood in the urine and straining to urinate and defecate. Castration is the treatment of choice. [cite web | title = Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/112402.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ] Prostatis can be associated with BPH. Bacteria causing prostatitis include "E. coli", "Staphylococcus" spp., "Streptococcus" spp., and "Mycoplasma" spp. [cite web | title = Prostatitis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/112403.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
**Cryptorchidism is when one the testicles is retained in the abdomen or inguinal canal past a normal stage of development. It is a common occurrence in dogs and is thought to be a sex-limited autosomal recessive trait.
**False pregnancy*, or pseudocyesis, is a common condition in female intact dogs. Signs include swelling of the mammary glands, lactation, not eating, and "mothering" small objects. [cite web | title = False Pregnancy | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/112003.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
**Pyometra is an infection of the uterus. It is a common and potentially fatal condition in dogs. The main risk period for a female is for eight weeks after her peak standing heat (or estrus cycle) has ended.
*Umbilical hernia* is a failure of the umbilical ring of the abdominal wall to close. They are very common and can be caused by genetics or by traction on the umbilical cord or by the cord being cut too close to the body. They are corrected by surgery. [cite web | title = Hernias | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/20207.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
*Inguinal hernia* is a protrusion of abdominal contents through the inguinal canal. They are corrected through surgery.

Poisons and overdoses

*Acetaminophen (Tylenol) can cause liver damage in dogs. The toxic dose is 150 mg/kg.cite book|author=Wingfield, Wayne E.|title=Veterinary Emergency Medicine Secrets|year=1997|editor=Hanley & Belfus, Inc.|id=ISBN 1-56053-215-7]
*Ibuprofen (Advil)* can cause gastrointestinal irritation, stomach ulcers, and kidney damage in dogs.cite web | title = Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/214009.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
*Naproxen (Aleve)* has a long half-life in dogs and can cause gastrointestinal irritation, anemia, melena (digested blood in feces), and vomiting.
*Antifreeze* is very dangerous to dogs and causes central nervous system depression and acute renal failure. Treatment needs to be within eight hours of ingestion to be successful.
*Mouse and rat poison* ingestion is common in dogs. Most rodenticides in the United States are anticoagulant by depleting Vitamin K. This type is the most frequent cause of poisoning in pets. Third generation products contain brodifacoum or bromadiolone and are toxic after a single ingestion. Signs include spontaneous and excessive bleeding internally and externally. Treatment is with Vitamin K supplementation. Other rodenticides may contain cholecalciferol which causes hypercalcemia and leads to heart and kidney problems. Newer rodenticides may contain bromethalin which causes central nervous system signs such as seizures, muscle tremors, and depression. [cite web | title = Rodenticide Poisoning: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/213000.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
*Insecticides* used in dogs for fleas and ticks commonly contain either organophosphates or carbamates. they can be absorbed through the skin, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Organophosphates inhibit acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and carbamates inhibit cholinesterase reversibly. Toxicity occurs through overdosage with an appropriate product or use of an agricultural product. Signs for both include hypersalivation, vomiting, lethargy, tremors, difficulty walking, weakness, and death.
*Chocolate is a common cause of poisoning in dogs. The toxic principles in chocolate are theobromine and caffeine. Baker's chocolate is the most dangerous form since it contains higher concentrations of these drugs, followed by semi-sweet, dark, and then milk chocolate. Signs include vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, difficulty walking, seizures, and heart problems. [cite web | title = Chocolate | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/211104.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]
*Lead poisoning* is uncommon in dogs. Exposure to lead is from eating paint chips from lead-based paint (found in houses painted prior to 1950), and eating lead objects such as shot, fishing sinkers, or counterweights. Signs of poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, blindness, seizures, and tremors.
*Raisins and grapes are potential causes of kidney failure in dogs. [cite web | title = Raisins/Grapes | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/211106.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-16 ]

Miscellaneous

*Vertigo*, better known as vestibular disease* in dogs, is an uncommon condition in older dogs. Most cases are idiopathic, but it can also be caused by otitis interna, or inner ear infection, tumors, and encephalitis. Signs include nystagmus, head tilt, circling, vomiting, and falling to one side. Idiopathic vestibular disease will usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks. [cite web | last = LeCouteur | first = Richard A. | title = Vestibular Diseases of Cats and Dogs | work = Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2003 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2003&PID=6650&O=Generic | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Molera (hole in skull), better known as an open fontanelle, may be a sign of hydrocephalus, but is also a normal finding in toy breeds such as Chihuahua. [cite web | title = What is hydrocephalus? | work = Canine Inherited Disorders Database | publisher = University of Prince Edward Island | year = 2001 | url = http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/nervous%20system%20disorders/hydrocephalus.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Anal gland problems are a very common issue with dogs. Disease of the anal glands or anal sacs may include impaction, infection, or abscessation. The dog will periodically discharge a fishy-smelling substance from its anus when they get too full. These glands are normally expressed when the dog defecates.
*Shar Pei fever is a condition seen in Shar Peis characterized by recurring fever and swelling of the hocks. Shar Pei fever can result in renal and liver failure through accumulation of amyloid in those organs (amyloidosis).
*Liver failure* is common in dogs. Signs include vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, and jaundice. Causes include bacterial or viral infection, toxic insult, cancer, copper storage diseases, or it may be idiopathic. [cite web | title = Hepatic Disease in Small Animals: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/23600.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Dental disease is very common in dogs. Calculus is the most obvious sign of dental disease, but gingivitis progressing to periodontitis is what results in tooth loss. Treatment involves scaling and polishing of the teeth under general anesthesia and treatment of any periodontal disease. Prevention is very important and can be accomplished through the use of special diets or treats, brushing, and plaque prevention gels. [cite web | title = Periodontal Disease | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/20408.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Portosystemic shunt, also known as a liver shunt, is a bypass of the liver by the body's circulatory system. It can be either a congenital or acquired condition.
*Perineal hernia is a condition seen in dogs characterized by herniation of abdominal contents through the pelvic diaphragm and causing swelling on one side of the anus.
*Primary ciliary dyskinesia* is a disorder causing dysfunction of cilia. In dogs this manifests as sperm immotility and respiratory disease. Signs include nasal discharge, recurring pneumonia, and infertility. Symptoms develop soon after birth. [cite journal |author=Edwards DF, Patton CS, Kennedy JR |title=Primary ciliary dyskinesia in the dog |journal=Probl Vet Med |volume=4 |issue=2 |pages=291–319 |year=1992 |month=Jun |pmid=1643316 |doi= |url=]
*Cleft lip and palate is occasionally seen in dogs. Difficulty with nursing is the most common problem associated with clefts, but aspiration pneumonia may be seen with a cleft palate.
*Congenital diaphragmatic hernia* is uncommon in dogs. Most diaphragmatic hernias are caused by trauma. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are usually communications between the peritoneum and pericardium. They are often incidental findings. [cite web | title = Diaphragmatic Hernia: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/120400.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Gingival hyperplasia is seen in brachycephalic breeds, especially Boxers. It is a benign condition, although food and hair impaction is common. [cite web | title = Gingival Fibroma and Epulides | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/20410.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Salmon poisoning disease is a fatal disease of dogs caused by infection with a type of rickettsia, either "Neorickettsia helminthoeca" or "Neorickettsia elokominica". It results from eating raw salmon and is found in the Pacific Northwest.
*Vaccine reactions can be considered any type of adverse event stemming from vaccination, including granuloma formation, but most commonly the term vaccine reaction is used to describe a type I hypersensitivity reaction. The most common signs are facial swelling and hives, but more rarely very serious signs such as hypotension and collapse may occur. [cite web | last = Greene | first = Craig E. | title = Avoiding Vaccine Reactions in Dogs and Cats | work = Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2003 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2003&PID=6547&O=Generic | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)* is a disease of the immune system characterized by the presence of antibodies to nucleic acid and/or antibodies to red blood cells, platelets, lymphocytes, clotting factors, and thyroglobulin. The disease can result in deposition of immune complexes or autoimmune disease. Immune complex deposition can cause vasculitis, meningitis, neuritis, and joint and skin disease. Autoimmune disease may result in hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia, which are the most common manifestations of SLE in dogs. [cite web | title = Diseases Involving Immune Complexes | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/60208.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Myasthenia gravis* results from the presence of antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor. Signs include megaesophagus and muscle weakness. [cite web | title = Myasthenia Gravis | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | year = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/60207.htm | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]
*Tetanus* is a disease caused by the bacteria "Clostridium tetani" following wound contamination. Dogs are not very susceptible to tetanus. Signs include difficulty opening the mouth and eating, contraction of the facial muscles, and rigid extension of the limbs. Dogs may also get localized tetanus, signs of which include stiffness of a limb spreading to the rest of the body. [cite web|author=Braund, K.G.|year=2003|title=Neurotoxic Disorders|work=Braund's Clinical Neurology in Small Animals: Localization, Diagnosis and Treatment| url=http://www.ivis.org/advances/Vite/braund22/chapter_frm.asp?LA=1|accessdate=2007-01-21]
*Polydactyly* is generally preaxial (on the dewclaw side) in dogs. Most cases are breed related, with the Great Pyrenees being the most well known example. [cite web|author=Jezyk, P.F.|year=1985|title=Constitutional Disorders of the Skeleton in Dogs and Cats|work=Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics| url=http://www.ivis.org/special_books/ortho/chapter_57/57mast.asp|accessdate=2007-01-21]
*Tracheal collapse is a condition characterized by incomplete formation or weakening of the cartilagenous rings of the trachea. It is most common in small and toy breeds. Signs include a cough (often called a "goose honk cough" due to its sound), especially when excited.
*Brachycephalic syndrome is a condition seen in brachycephalic (short-nosed) dogs, characterized by the presence of stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, narrow trachea, collapsed larynx, and everted laryngeal saccules. Signs include difficult and noisy breathing. Surgical options are available. [cite web | last = Monnet | first = Eric | title = Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome | work = Proceedings of the 29th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association | year = 2004 | url = http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2004&PID=8768&O=Generic | accessdate = 2007-01-21 ]

References

External links

* [http://www.petcancercenter.org "Comprehensive guide to cancer in cats and dogs" from Pet Cancer Center]
* [http://www.peteducation.com/category_summary.cfm?cls=2&cat=1638 "Cancer in Dogs: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment" from Pet Education]
* [http://www.pet-screen.com "Detecting and treating cancer in cats and dogs" from Pet-Screen]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • List of fictional diseases — This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. This article is a list of fictional diseases nonexistent, named medical conditions… …   Wikipedia

  • List of dog sports — Dog sports are activities that involve dogs. Training a retrieve in Schutzhund, a dog sport. There is much discussion about what exactly defines a sport for dogs. Some issues: Must a sport be entertaining to watch? Agility, Disc dog, and Dock… …   Wikipedia

  • List of dog breeds — This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show some of the tremendous variety of dog breeds. Dogs have been selectively bred for thousands of years, sometimes by inbreeding dogs from the same ancestral lines, sometimes by mixing dogs from very different… …   Wikipedia

  • List of dog hybrids — This article is about hybrids between different breeds of dog. For hybrids of domestic dogs with other canid species, see Canid hybrid. This is a list of dog hybrids. Breeds of hybrid origin Originating as hybrids, many of these breeds are now… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Statutory Instruments of the United Kingdom, 2006 — This is an incomplete list of Statutory Instruments of the United Kingdom in 2006. NOTOC 1 100* Public Contracts Regulations 2006 S.I. 2006/5 * Utilities Contracts Regulations 2006 S.I. 2006/6 * M6 Motorway (Junction 36, Town Head Bridge Parapet… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom Parliament, 1860-1879 — This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1860 1879. For acts passed prior to 1707 see List of Acts of Parliament of the English Parliament and List of Acts of Parliament of the Scottish… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Latin phrases (C) — This page lists direct English translations of Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before that of… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom Parliament, 1840-1859 — This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1840 1859. For acts passed prior to 1707 see List of Acts of Parliament of the English Parliament and List of Acts of Parliament of the Scottish… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Statutory Instruments of the United Kingdom, 2007 — This is an incomplete list of Statutory Instruments of the United Kingdom in 2007. NOTOC 1 100* Cider and Perry and Wine and Made wine (Amendment) Regulations 2007 S.I. 2007/4 * Customs and Excise (Personal Reliefs for Special Visitors)… …   Wikipedia

  • List of conspiracy theories — The list of conspiracy theories is a collection of the most popular unproven theories related but not limited to clandestine government plans, elaborate murder plots, suppression of secret technology and knowledge, and other supposed schemes… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”