Transport in Turkey

= Railways =

The TCDD - Türkiye Devlet Demir Yolları (Turkish Republic Railways) possess 10,984 km of 1435 mm gauge, of which 2,336 km are electrified (2005) [ [http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/genel/tcddistatistik2005.pdf TCDD Statistics] - PDF file] . ( [http://www.worldbank.org/transport/rail/sys_maps/rail38.gifMap] )

In 2004, Marmaray project started on a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus straits.

Between Istanbul and Ankara, a high speed railroad line is being constructed now next to the normal speed railroad which is being renovated. When finished, travel time between the two major cities will reduce from 6,5 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes, using trains ordered from Spain that can reach up to 250km/h. Construction of a high speed railroad line between Ankara and Konya is also soon to begin in order to connect the two cities with a direct line and reduce travel time from several hours to approximately one hour. Several other high speed and normal railroad projects are currently in the planning stage.

Cities with underground railway systems are Ankara, Istanbul, İzmir, Bursa, and Adana (under construction).

Railway links with adjacent countries

* Armenia - closed (see Kars Gyumri Akhalkalaki railway line) [ Railway Gazette International - January 2008 p51 ]
* Bulgaria - open - 1435mm
* Greece - open - 1435mm
* Georgia - under reconstruction - break-of-gauge 1435mm/1524mm.
* Iran - via Lake Van train ferry - same gauge
* Iraq - via Syria - same gauge
* Syria - open - 1435mm

Standards

* Electrification - 25kV AC [ Jane's World Railways] 1995-1996 p728 ]
* Coupling (railway) - English
* Brake (railway) - air
* Gradient - 2.8%
* Curve minimum - 190m
* Fastenings - K

2007

* February 7 - agreement signed for Kars-Tiblisi-Baku railway

Light Rail

After almost 30 years without any trams, Turkey is experiencing a revival in trams. Established in 1992, the tram system of Istanbul earned the best large-scale tram management award in 2005. Another award winning tram network belongs to Eskişehir, a city with a new tram system opened in 2004. Several other cities are planning or constructing tram lines, usually with modern low-floow trams.

One example of something in between Metro and trams is the "Ankaray" system in the city of Ankara, Turkey. Ankaray is called "light metro", but the vehicles are clearly heavier and longer than usual trams, and also mostly underground and grade-separated. It could be called a metro but isn't since there is a separate system called Ankara Metro.

* Cities with Light Rail Transit systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Bursa, Eskişehir, Konya, Antalya, Kayseri (under construction)

Road Transport

Public road transport

There are numerous private bus companies providing connections between cities in Turkey.

For local trips to villages there are dolmuşes, small vans that seat about twenty passengers.

Highways

"total:"426,906 km
"paved:"177,550 km (includes 1,892 km of expressways)
"unpaved:"249,356 km (2004)Road map of Turkey: [http://www.kgm.gov.tr/images/turkiye.jpg] (12MB file).

Car ownership

In 2004, there were a total of 5,359,579 passenger cars in Turkey. ( [http://www.die.gov.tr/ENGLISH/SONIST/TASIT/190105/table2.html link] ). The provinces with the highest rates of car ownership were:-

*1 - Ankara (158 cars per 1,000 pop.)
*2 - İstanbul (129)
*3 - Muğla (106)
*4 - İzmir (103)
*5 - Eskişehir (98)
*6 - Denizli (98)
*7 - Antalya (95)
*8 - Burdur (90)
*9 - Kayseri (85)
*10- Karabük (84)
*11- Bursa (83)
*12- Zonguldak (79)

Total number of passenger cars increased to 6,373,305 as of September 2007. Total number of motor vehicles (excluding tractors and construction vehicles) was 11,497,195 as of September 2007. (Links: [http://tuikrapor.tuik.gov.tr/reports/rwservlet?ulastirmadb2=&report=tablo2.RDF&p_yil1=2007&p_ar1=1&p_ar2=2&p_ar3=3&p_ar4=4&p_ar5=5&p_ar6=6&p_ar7=7&p_ay1=9&p_tur=1&desformat=html&ENVID=ulastirmadb2Env] [http://www.tuik.gov.tr/ulastirmadagitimapp/ulastirma.zul] )

Waterways

about 1,200 km


= Pipelines =

gas 4,621 km; oil 3,543 km; Total: 8,164 km (2006)

Ports and harbors

Black Sea

* Hopa
* Samsun
* Trabzon
* Zonguldak

Aegean Sea

* İzmir

Mediterranean Sea

* İskenderun
* Mersin
* Antalya

Sea of Marmara

* Gemlik
* Istanbul
* İzmit

Merchant marine

"total:"565 ships (GRT|1,000|metric|first=yes or over) totaling GRT|4,663,353|metric/DWT|7,039,492|metric|first=yes
"ships by type:"by type: bulk carrier 96, cargo ship 262, chemical tanker 58, combination ore/oil 1, container ship 30, liquefied gas 7, passenger 4, passenger/cargo ship 48, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated cargo ship 1, roll-on/roll-off 25, specialized tanker 1
"foreign-owned:"8 (China 1, Cyprus 2, Germany 1, Italy 3, UAE 1)
"registered in other countries:" 470 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Bahamas 5, Belize 11, Cambodia 20, Comoros 8, Cyprus 1, Dominica 9, Georgia 23, Isle of Man 2, Italy 1, Kiribati 1, North Korea 1, Liberia 7, Malta 143, Marshall Islands 41, Netherlands Antilles 12, Panama 53, Russia 70, Sierra Leone 7, Slovakia 11, St Kitts and Nevis 13, St Vincent and The Grenadines 20, Tuvalu 1, UK 2, unknown 3) (2007)(Link: [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html#Trans] )

Airports and airlines

Total number of Airports in Turkey: 117 (2007)See also: Airports in Turkey.See also: Turkish Airlines.

Airports - with paved runways

"total:"90
"over 3,047 m:"15
"2,438 to 3,047 m:"33
"1,524 to 2,437 m:"19
"914 to 1,523 m:"19
"under 914 m:"4 (2007)(Link: [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html#Trans] )

Airports - with unpaved runways

"total:"27
"Over 3,047 m:"1
"1,524 to 2,437 m:"2
"914 to 1,523 m:"7
"under 914 m:"17 (2007)(Link: [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html#Trans] )

Heliports

18 (2007)

See also

* Turkey
* List of highways in Turkey
* [http://www.lkw-walter.co.uk/english/transport_turkey.htm Truck transport in Turkey]
* [http://www.netatrans.com.tr Freight Forwarder in Turkey]

References


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