Civil liberties in the United States

Civil liberties of the United States are certain inalienable rights retained by (as opposed to privileges granted to) citizens of the United States under the Constitution of the United States, as interpreted and clarified by the Supreme Court of the United States and lower federal courts.[1] Civil liberties are simply defined as individual legal and constitutional protections from entities more powerful than an individual, for example, parts of the government, other individuals, or corporations. The liberties explicitly defined, make up the Bill of Rights, including freedom of speech, the right to bear arms, and the right to privacy.[2] There are also many liberties of people not defined in the Constitution, as stated in the Ninth Amendment: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Contents

Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a civil liberty protected under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted on December 15, 1791.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.[3]

This civil liberty grants all United States citizens the right to express themselves and enjoy the expression of others without interference of the government. This freedom of expression is often tested and can be the center of controversy because of how it is interpreted. The courts have recognized the Bill of Rights as having the intention of rights of privacy and the separation of church and state, even though it is not clearly stated. It is also thought that the amendment refers only to government interference, which leads to individual corporations and businesses violating these freedoms.

The following types of speech are not protected constitutionally: defamation or false statements, child pornography, obscenity, damaging the national security interests, verbal acts, and fighting words. Because these categories fall outside of the First Amendment privileges, the courts can legally restrict or criminalize any expressive act within them. Other expressions, including threat of bodily harm or publicizing illegal activity, may also be ruled illegal.[4]

Right to bear arms

The right of the people to keep and bear arms is assured by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution:

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

This amendment was originally interpreted as regarding to military activity until a Supreme Court case in 2008. In the District of Columbia v. Heller case, the Second Amendment and its relation to gun control laws in the District of Columbia were challenged for the first time in 70 years. The phrase, "to keep and bear arms" in its historical context, was re-evaluated. Although the phrase was formerly connected to military activities, the court decided not to limit the amendment to this context. [5] The Court held that "[t]he Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia, and to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home" -District of Columbia v. Heller, 128 S.Ct. 2783 (2008).[6][7]

The constitutional right to keep and bear arms varies by state. Different states have made provisions to this right throughout history, generally regarding the issue of self-defense. A majority of state constitutions allow arms for any citizen in self-defense of himself or the state. [8] States without any specific provisions regarding this clause are California, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey and New York. Of these, only Iowa and New Jersey provide a clause for "defending life and liberty." [9]

This civil liberty can be approached philosophically as well as lawfully. What does the word "arms" exactly mean? What does the word "bear" mean in this specific statement? The word "bear" means, to carry, or to hold. The word "arms" means, weapons, not necessarily firearms, specifically. When these words are used together, "bear arms" could most likely be interpreted by some as a right to carry firearms outside of one's home. The topic of whether firearms were or were not able to be carried outside the home was not addressed in the District of Columbia v. Heller court case.

"The lawyer who won the Columbia v Heller court case to allow residents to keep handguns in their homes is now fighting to allow residents and visitors to carry their weapons in public." [10] While it is legal to carry a concealed firearm in other select states, it is still prohibited in the District of Columbia.

Equal protection

Main article: Equal Protection Clause

Equal protection prevents the government from creating laws that are discriminatory in application or effect.

See also

References

Further reading


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Civil liberties in the United Kingdom — have a long and formative history. This is usually considered to have begun with the English legal charter the Magna Carta of 1215, following its predecessor the English Charter of Liberties, a landmark document in English legal history. Judicial …   Wikipedia

  • The United States of America —     The United States of America     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The United States of America     BOUNDARIES AND AREA     On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary line to the St. John, and on the north by the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • The United States — United States of America Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Military history of the United States — History of the United States This article is part of a series Timeline …   Wikipedia

  • Reconstruction Era of the United States — In the history of the United States, the term Reconstruction Era has two senses: the first covers the entire nation in the period 1865–1877 following the Civil War; the second one, used in this article, covers the transformation of the Southern… …   Wikipedia

  • Voting rights in the United States — The issue of voting rights in the United States has been contentious over the country s history. Eligibility to vote in the U.S. is determined by both Federal and state law. Currently, only citizens can vote in U.S. elections (although this has… …   Wikipedia

  • Foreign policy of the United States — United States This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the United States …   Wikipedia

  • Federal government of the United States — The federal government of the United States is the central United States governmental body, established by the United States Constitution. The federal government has three branches: the legislative, executive, and judiciary. Through a system of… …   Wikipedia

  • Human rights in the United States — In 1776, Thomas Jefferson proposed a philosophy of human rights inherent to all people in the Declaration of Independence, asserting that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that… …   Wikipedia

  • Modern liberalism in the United States — This article discusses liberalism as that term is used in the United States in the 20th and 21st centuries. For the history and development of American liberalism, see Liberalism in the United States. For the origin and worldwide use of the term… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”