Economy of Brazil

Infobox Economy
country = Brazil



width = 200
caption = Buildings in the region of Luís Carlos Berrini Avenue.
currency = Brazilian real (BRL, R$)
year = Calendar year
organs = Unasul, WTO, and Mercosur
rank = 8th
gdp = US$ 1.964 trillion (2008*)
growth = 6.1% (2nd Quarter 2008) [ [http://www.foxbusiness.com/story/markets/industries/energy/brails-economy-grows--second-quarter/ FOX Business - Brazil's Economy Grows By 6.1% In Second Quarter ] ]
per capita = US$ 10.531 (2008)
sectors = agriculture: 5.5% industry: 28.7% services: 65,8% (2007) [ [http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_visualiza.php?id_noticia=1106&id_pagina=1 IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística] ]
inflation = 4.46% (2007) [http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_visualiza.php?id_noticia=1071&id_pagina=1 IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística ] ]
poverty = 15% (2008)
gini = 50.5 (2007) [ [http://economia.uol.com.br/ultnot/bbc/2008/06/23/ult2283u1279.jhtm UOL Inequality of income between rich and poor falls 7% since 2002, says Ipea] ]
labor = 100.77 million (2008 est.)
occupations =
unemployment = 7,5% (2008) [ [http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/indicadores/trabalhoerendimento/pme_nova/pme_200805tm_01.shtm IBGE Employment Survey/ May 2008] ]
industries = iron ore, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; electronics; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites, real state, brewing, tourism
exports = US$ 160.6 billions (2007) [http://www.presidencia.gov.br/estrutura_presidencia/Subsecretaria/.arquivos/destaques_junho08novo.pdf Retrato Econômico] "Presidência da República", accessed on June 09 2008.]
export-goods = transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos
export-partners = US 15.8%, Argentina 9.0%, China 6.7%, Netherlands 5.5%, Germany 4.5% (2006)
imports = US$ 140.7 billion (2007)
import-goods = machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
import-partners = US 15.7%, China 10.5%, Argentina 8,6%, Germany 7,2%, Nigeria 4.4%, Japan 3.8% (2007)
debt = US$ 106.2 billion; 7,4% of GDP (2008 est.)
revenue =
expenses =
aid =
credit = BBB- [ [http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=a86v4f6_W2Jg Bloomberg: Brazilian Debt Raised to Investment Grade by S&P] ]
reserves = US$ 208,4 billion (2008) [ [http://www4.bcb.gov.br/?RP20080916 Central Bank of Brazil - Portuguese] ]
cianame = br
spelling = Portuguese

Brazil has a moderate free market and export-oriented economy. Measured nominally, its gross domestic product surpasses a trillion dollars, the tenth in the world and the third in the Americas; measured by purchasing power parity, $1.9 trillion, making it the eighth largest economy in the world and the second largest in the Americas, after the United States.https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html#Econ The World Factbook CIA] In Reais (brazilian currency), its GDP is estimated at R$2.6 trillion reais in 2007.

Overview

Its nominal per capita GDP has surpassed US$10,500 in 2008, due to the strong and continued appreciation of the real for the first time this decade. Its industrial sector accounts for three fifths of the Latin American economy's industrial production. The country’s scientific and technological development is argued to be attractive to foreign direct investment, which has averaged US$30 billion per year the last years, compared to only US$2 billion/year last decade, [http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/ About Brazil] Brazilian Government] thus showing a remarkable growth. The agricultural sector, locally called the "agronegócio" sector, has also been remarkably dynamic: for two decades this sector has kept Brazil amongst the most highly productive countries in areas related to the rural sector. The agricultural sector and the mining sector also supported trade surpluses which allowed for massive currency gains (rebound) and external debt paydown.

Brazil is a member of diverse economic organizations, such as Mercosur, SACN, G8+5, G-20 and the Cairns Group. Its trade partners number in the hundreds, with 74% of exports mostly of manufactured or semimanufactured goods. Brazil's main trade partners are: the EEC (26% of trade), Mercosur and Latin America (25%), the United States (15.8%), and Asia (15%), Others (19.2%).

The owner of a sophisticated technological sector, Brazil develops projects that range from submarines to aircraft and is involved in space research: the country possesses a satellite launching center and was the only country in the Southern Hemisphere to integrate the team responsible for the construction of the International Space Station (ISS). [http://www.earthkam.ucsd.edu/public/iss/Countries.shtml Countries Participating in the ISS] ISS EarthKam] It is also a pioneer in many fields, including ethanol production.

Brazil is also a pioneer in the fields of deep water oil research from where 73% of its reserves are extracted. According to government statistics, Brazil was the first capitalist country to bring together the ten largest car assembly companies inside its national territory.

History

When the Portuguese explorers arrived in the 15th century, the native tribes of current-day Brazil, totaling about 2.5 million people, had lived virtually unchanged since the Stone Age. From Portugal's colonisation of Brazil (1500-1822) until the late 1930s, the market elements of the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. Within the Portuguese Empire, Brazil was a colony subjected to an imperial mercantile policy, which had two main large-scale economic production cycles - sugar and gold. The economy of Brazil was heavily dependent on African slave labour until the late 19th century (about 3 million imported African slaves in total). Since then, Brazil experienced a period of strong economic and demographic growth accompanied by mass immigration from Europe (mainly from Portugal, Italy, Spain and Germany) until the 1930s. In the Americas, the United States, Argentina and Brazil (in descending order) were the countries that received most immigrants. In Brazil's case, statistics show that 4.5 million people emigrated to the country between 1882 and 1934.

Currently, with a population of 190 million and abundant natural resources, Brazil is one of the ten largest markets in the world, producing tons of steel, 26 million tons of cement, 3.5 million television sets, and 3 million refrigerators. In addition, about 70 million cubic meters of petroleum were being processed annually into fuels, lubricants, propane gas, and a wide range of petrochemicals. Furthermore, Brazil has at least 161,500 kilometers of paved roads and more than 63 million megawatts of installed electric power capacity.

Despite these figures, the economy cannot be considered developed. Although the economic changes since 1947 greatly raised the country's per capita income, in 1995 was still only US$4,630. Growth and structural change have not altered significantly Brazil's extremely unequal distribution of wealth, income, and opportunity. Despite impressive increments in economic growth and output, the number of poor has risen sharply. Most of the poor are concentrated in the rural areas of Brazil's Northeast Region, or in the country's large cities or metropolitan areas. The economic and political troubles of the 1980s and early 1990s have only complicated the task of correcting the country's development pattern.

Components of the economy

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 66.8%, followed by the industrial sector at 29.7% (2007 est.). Agriculture represents 3.5% of GDP (2008 est.). Brazilian labor force is estimated at 100.77 million of which 10% is occupied in agriculture, 19% in the industry sector and 71% in the service sector.

Agriculture and food production

Energy

The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported oil. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country's oil needs but Brazil became energy independent in 2006. Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power, with a current capacity of about 78,000 megawatts. Existing hydroelectric power provides 85% of the nation's electricity. Two large hydroelectric projects, the 15,600 megawatt Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River (the world's largest dam) and the Tucurui Dam in Pará in northern Brazil, are in operation. Brazil's first commercial nuclear reactor, Angra I, located near Rio de Janeiro, has been in operation for more than 10 years. Angra II was completed in 2002. An Angra III is almost completed, planned inauguration is 2008. The three reactors would have combined capacity of 5,000 megawatts when completed.

Economic status

Sustainable growth

After having been discovered in 1500, it was only in 1808 that Brazil obtained a permit from the Portuguese colonial government to set up its first factories and manufacturers. It was a long road to reach the position of 8th largest economy in the world. If at the beginning the export list was basically raw and primitive goods, such as sugar, rubber and gold, today 84% of exports consists of manufactured and semi-manufactured products.

The period of great economic transformation and growth occurred between 1875 and 1975.

In the last decade, domestic production increased by 32.3% and agribusiness (agriculture and cattle-raising), which grew by 47% or 3.6% per year, was the most dynamic sector – even after having weathered international crises that demanded constant adjustments to the Brazilian economy. [ [http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/brasil_topics/economy/categoria_view Sustainable growth] Brazilian Government]

Control and reform

Among measures recently adopted in order to balance the economy, Brazil carried out reforms to its Social security (state and retirement pensions) and Tax systems. These changes brought with them a noteworthy addition: a Law of Fiscal Responsibility which controls public expenditure by the Executive Branches at federal, state and municipal levels. At the same time, investments were made towards administration efficiency and policies were created to encourage exports, industry and trade, thus creating “windows of opportunity” for local and international investors and producers.

With these alterations in place, Brazil has reduced its vulnerability: it not imports the oil it consumes; it has halved its domestic debt through exchange rate-linked certificates and has seen exports grow, on average, by 20% a year. The exchange rate does not put pressure on the industrial sector or inflation – at 4% a year -, and does away with the possibility of a liquidity crisis. As a result, the country, after 12 years, has achieved a positive balance in the accounts which measure exports/imports, plus interest payments, services and overseas payment. [ [http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/brasil_topics/economy/categoria_view Control and reform] Brazilian Government]

Consistent policies

Support for the productive sector has been simplified at all levels; active and independent, Congress and the Judiciary Branch carry out the evaluation of rules and regulations. Among the main measures taken to stimulate the economy are the reduction of up to 30% on Manufactured Products Tax (IPI), and the investment of R$ 4 billion on road cargo transportation fleets, thus improving distribution logistics. Further resources guarantee the propagation of business and information telecenters.

The Policy for Industry, Technology and Foreign Trade, at the forefront of this sector, for its part, invests R$ 18.5 billion in specific sectors, following the example of the software and semiconductor, pharmaceutical and medicine product, and capital goods sectors. [ [http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/brasil_topics/economy/categoria_view Consistent policies] Brazilian Government]

The above table indicates that in 2007, for example, the bottom 50% of the population earned only 19,07% of the total income while the richest 10% of the population earned 39.31% of the total national income. Inequality is a historic problem for Brazil, but has improved in recent years. [cite web|url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4000/is_200407/ai_n9453975|title=Find Articles|accessdate=2007-05-24]

References

See also

External links

* Central Intelligence Agency's [https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html Factbook on Brazil]
* [http://www.bovespa.com.br/indexi.asp Sao Paulo Stock Exchange] official website
* Brazil's [http://www.bcb.gov.br/?english Central Bank official website]
* [http://www.thinklondon.com/brazil/ Think London] in Brazil website
* UK House of Commons' Committee on Trade and Industry report, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200607/cmselect/cmtrdind/208/208we13.htm "Memorandum submitted by the Corporation of London"]
* UK House of Commons' Committee on Trade and Industry report, [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200607/cmselect/cmtrdind/208/208i.pdf "Trade with Brazil and Mercosur"]
* European Commission [http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/brazil/csp/2007_csp_en.pdf Brazil Country Strategy Paper] 2007-2013
* World Bank Public Policy Journal, [http://rru.worldbank.org/PublicPolicyJournal/Summary.aspx?id=301 "The Informality Tr
]
* [http://ecen.com/content/eee6/debt2.htm Brazilian Public Debt]
* [http://wikitravel.org/en/Brazil Travel Guide]

Further reading

* Baer, Werner. "The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development". 5th. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2001


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