Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
دلی سلطنت
दिल्ली सलतनत

 

 

1206–1527
 

Delhi sultanate
Capital Delhi
Religion Sunni Islam Hanafi Fiqh
Government Monarchy
Sultan
 - 1206–1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak
 - 1517–1526 Ibrahim Lodi
Historical era Late Medieval
 - Established 1206
 - Disestablished 1527

The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived Islamic kingdoms or sultanates of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty. The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320); the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414); the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51); and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave (Mamluk) of Muhammad of Ghor, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty managed to conquer large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate are also noted for being one of the few states to repeatedly defeat the Mongol Empire[1] and thereby saving India from plundering raids and attacks.

The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture, music, literature, religion and clothing. It is surmised that the Urdu language (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during this period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian, Turkic and Arabic under the Muslim rulers. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to have enthroned one of the few female rulers in India, Razia Sultana (1236–1240). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire.

Delhi Sultanate under various dynasties

Contents

Dynasties

Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty

Muhammad of Ghor (d. 1206), based in Afghanistan, had extended his state southwards at the expense of the Ghaznavids as far as Lahore and much of the rajasthan and punjab and appointed Qutub-ud-din Aibak as governor of this part of his realm. A slave of Cuman-Kipchak origin, he proclaimed independence after the death of his patron and ruled from Delhi.[2] His line is therefore known as the Slave (Mamluk) Dynasty on account of his origin. Aibak began the construction of Qutub Minar, which was completed by Iltutmish, his successor and son-in-law. Aibak's legitimate successor was his son Aramshah, but the nobles preferred Iltutmish, the Subedar of Badaun. Iltutmish was followed by Razia Sultana, his daughter, who was a good administrator and the first female ruler in the Muslim world. She was endowed with all qualities befitting a King, but she was not born of the right sex, and in the estimation of men all her virtues were worthless. Her rumored relationship with a Sidi adviser, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, as he continued to rise in rank, forced her nobles to revolt against her. After Yaqut was killed and Razia imprisoned, she later wedded Altunia (the governor of Bhatinda), but she was killed by her nobles after 3 and half years. Balban succeeded her and ruled until 1286 CE. A great Emperor, he was a Sufi devotee and highly regarded their Saints; many a Sufi mystic settled in his sultanate, though only one of them rose to full ascendancy over him.[citation needed] Faced with revolts by conquered territories and rival families in the turmoil for succession after his death, the Mamluk dynasty came to an end in 1290.

Khalji rulers of Delhi (1290-1320)

Tughlaq

Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted for close to a hundred years.In this period many parts of India got separated such as southern ind It produced two powerful Sultans, Muhammad-Bin Tughlaq and Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq (1320–1325), an efficient military commander, was the first ruler of the dynasty. He was succeeded by Jauna Khan, who took the title of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. A very powerful ruler, he shifted his capital in 1326 from Delhi to Devgiri (now known as Daulatabad). During the Qarachil expedition, he lost control over the empire and died in 1351. He was succeeded by Firoz shah Tughlaq (1351–1388) who was very successful as a reformer.

Sayyid

The Sayyid dynasty ruled Delhi Sultanate in India from 1414 to 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the Sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty.

the lodi dynasty was brought to an end by Babur

Monetary system

A coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq

In the first half of the 14th century, the Sultanate introduced a monetary economy in the provinces (sarkars) and districts (parganas) that had been established and founded a network of market centers, through which the traditional village economies were both exploited and stimulated to be drawn into the wider culture. State revenues remained based on a successful agriculture, which induced Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–51) to have village wells dug, to offer seed to the peasants, and to encourage cash crops like sugarcane.[3]

Mongol invasion and the fall of the Sultanate

Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Sultanate was its temporary success in insulating the subcontinent from the potential devastation of the Mongol invasion from Central Asia in the thirteenth century. However, the invasion of Timur in 1398 significantly weakened the Delhi Sultanate. It revived briefly under the Lodis before it was conquered by the Mughal emperor Babur in 1526.

The mausoleum of Qutub ud Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.

The last Lodi ruler, Ibrahim Lodi, was greatly disliked by his court and subjects. Upon the death of his father Sikander Lodi, he quashed a brief rebellion led by some of his nobles who wanted his younger brother Jalal Khan to be the Sultan. After seizing the throne, by having Jalal Khan murdered, he never really did succeed in pacifying his nobles. Subsequently Daulat Khan, the governor of Punjab and Alam Khan, his uncle, sent an invitation to Babur, the ruler of Kabul to invade Delhi.

By way of superior generalship, vast experience in warfare, effective strategy and appropriate use of artillery, Babur won the first Battle of Panipat (April 1526), in which Ibrahim Lodi was killed on the battlefield. Babur subsequently occupied Agra and Delhi and the new Mughal dynasty was to rule Delhi until 1857.

Sultans

Mamluk dynasty

Map of Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate under Tughluq dynasty

Khilji dynasty

Khusro Khan

  • Khusro Khan (1320-21)

Tughlaq dynasty

Lodi dynasty

  • Bahlul Lodi (1451–1489)
  • Sikandar Lodi (1489–1517)
  • Ibrahim Lodi (1517–26), killed by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.

See also

References

  1. ^ The state at war in South Asia By Pradeep Barua, pg. 29
  2. ^ http://my.raex.com/~obsidian/siberia.html#Cumans
  3. ^ Braudel 1984, pp 96f, 512ff
  4. ^ Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..

External links


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