Benin
Republic of Benin
République du Bénin (French)
Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìnira ilẹ̀ Benin (Yoruba)
Coat of arms of Benin
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Fraternité, Justice, Travail"  (French)
"Fraternity, Justice, Labour"
Anthem: L'Aube Nouvelle  (French)
The Dawn of a New Day

Location of Benin within the African Union.
Location of  Benin  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (blue)  —  [Legend]

Capital Porto-Novo1
6°28′N 2°36′E / 6.467°N 2.6°E / 6.467; 2.6
Largest city Cotonou
Official language(s) French
Vernacular Fon, Yoruba
Demonym Beninese; Beninois
Government Multiparty democracy
 -  President Yayi Boni
 -  Prime Minister Pascal Koupaki
Independence
 -  from France August 1, 1960 
Area
 -  Total 112,622 km2 (101st)
43,484 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.02%
Population
 -  2009 estimate 8,791,832[1] (89th)
 -  2002 census 8,500,500 
 -  Density 78.1/km2 (120th)
202.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $13.993 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $1,451[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
 -  Total $6.649 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $689[2] 
Gini (2003) 36.5[3] (medium
HDI (2007) increase 0.492 (low) (161st)
Currency West African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code BJ
Internet TLD .bj
Calling code 229
1 Cotonou is the seat of government.
2 Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.

Benin Listeni/bɨˈnn/ (formerly, Dahomey), officially the Republic of Benin, is a country in West Africa. It borders Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. Its small southern coastline on the Bight of Benin is where a majority of the population is located. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is located in the country's largest city of Cotonou. Benin covers an area of approximately 110,000 square kilometers (42,000 sq mi), with a population of approximately 9.05 million. Benin is a tropical, sub-Saharan nation, highly dependent on agriculture, with substantial employment and income arising from subsistence farming.[4]

The official language of Benin is French, however, indigenous languages such as Fon and Yoruba are commonly spoken. The largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed closely by Muslims, Vodun, and Protestants. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.[5]

From the 17th century to the 19th century, the land of current-day Benin was ruled by the Kingdom of Dahomey. The region became known as the Slave Coast during the early 17th century due to the prevalence of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In 1892, with the slave trade banned and regional power diminishing, France took over the area and renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France, bringing in a democratic government for the next 12 years.

Between 1972 and 1990, a self-proclaimed Marxist-Leninist dictatorship called the People's Republic of Benin existed, ushering in a period of repression which ultimately led to an economic collapse. Formation of the Republic of Benin occurred in 1991, bringing in multiparty elections.

Contents

Etymology

During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. It was renamed on November 30, 1975, to Benin after the body of water on which the country lies - the Bight of Benin - which, in turn, had been named after the Benin Empire. The country of Benin has no direct connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes.

The new name, Benin, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former Kingdom of Dahomey, which covered only the southern third of the present country and therefore did not represent the northwestern sector Atakora nor the kingdom of Borgu, which covered the northeastern third.

History

History of Benin
Flag of Benin.svg
This article is part of a series
Kingdom of Abomey
Kingdom of Dahomey
Kingdom of Whydah
First Franco-Dahomean War
Second Franco-Dahomean War
French Dahomey
Republic of Dahomey
People's Republic of Benin
Republic of Benin

Benin Portal
v · d · e

The Kingdom of Dahomey formed from a mixture of ethnic groups on the Abomey plain. Historians theorize that the insecurity caused by slave trading may have contributed to mass migrations of groups to modern day Abomey, including some Aja, a Gbe people who are believed to have founded the city. Those Aja living in Abomey mingled with the local Fon people, also a Gbe people, creating a new ethnic group known as "Dahomey".

The Gbe peoples are said to be descendents of a number of migrants from Wyo. Gangnihessou (a member of an Aja dynasty that in the 16th century along with the Aja populace had come from Tado before settling and ruling separately in what is now Abomey, Allada, and Porto Novo) became the first ruler of the Dahomey Kingdom. Dahomey had a military culture aimed at securing and eventually expanding the borders of the small kingdom with its capital at modern day Abomey.

The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were often apprenticed to older soldiers, and taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the army.[citation needed] Dahomey was also famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi or "our mothers" in the Fongbe language, and known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th century explorers like Sir Richard Burton.

The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery;[6] otherwise the captives would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By c.1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling Africans to the European slave-traders.[7] Though the leaders of Dahomey appeared initially to resist the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for almost three hundred years (beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants), leading to the area being named "the Slave Coast". Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area. The number went from 20,000 per year at the beginning of the seventeenth century to 12,000 at the beginning of the 19th century.[citation needed] The decline was partly due to the banning[citation needed] of the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and other countries. This decline continued until 1885, when the last Portuguese slave ship departed from the coast of the present-day Benin Republic.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, Dahomey started to lose its status as the regional power. This enabled the French to take over the area in 1892. In 1899, the French included the land called French Dahomey within the French West Africa colony. In 1958, France granted autonomy to the Republic of Dahomey, and full independence as of August 1, 1960. The president who led them to independence was Hubert Maga.

For the next twelve years, ethnic strife contributed to a period of turbulence. There were several coups and regime changes, with four figures dominating — Hubert Maga, Sourou Apithy, Justin Ahomadegbé and Emile Derlin Zinsou — the first three representing a different area and ethnicity of the country. These three agreed to form a presidential council after violence marred the 1970 elections.

On May 7, 1972, Maga turned over power to Ahomadegbe. On October 26, 1972, Lt. Col. Mathieu Kérékou overthrew the ruling triumvirate, becoming president and stating that the country will not "burden itself by copying foreign ideology, and wants neither Capitalism, Communism, nor Socialism". On November 30, however, he announced that the country was officially Marxist, under the control of the Military Council of the Revolution (CNR[citation needed]), which nationalized the petroleum industry and banks. On November 30, 1975, he renamed the country to People's Republic of Benin.

In 1979, the CNR was dissolved, and Kérékou arranged show elections where he was the only allowed candidate. Establishing relations with the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Libya, he put nearly all businesses and economic activities under state control, causing foreign investment in Benin to dry up.[8] Kérékou attempted to reorganize education, pushing his own aphorisms such as "Poverty is not a fatality", resulting in a mass exodus of teachers, along with a large number of other professionals.[8] The regime financed itself by contracting to take nuclear waste from France.[8]

In 1980, Kérékou converted to Islam and changed his first name to Ahmed, then changed his name back after claiming to be a born-again Christian.

In 1989, riots broke out after the regime did not have money to pay its army. The banking system collapsed. Eventually Kérékou renounced Marxism and a convention forced Kérékou to release political prisoners and arrange elections.[8]

The name of the country was changed to the Republic of Benin on March 1, 1990, once the newly formed country's constitution was complete, after the abolition of Marxism–Leninism in the nation in 1989.[9][10]

In 1991, Kérékou was defeated by Nicéphore Soglo, and became the first black African president to step down after an election. Kérékou returned to power after winning the 1996 vote. In 2001, a closely fought election resulted in Kérékou winning another term, after which his opponents claimed election irregularities.

Kérékou and former president Soglo did not run in the 2006 elections, as both were barred by the constitution's restrictions on age and total terms of candidates. Kérékou is widely praised[citation needed] for making no effort to change the constitution so that he could remain in office or run again, unlike many African leaders.

On March 5, 2006, an election was held that was considered free and fair. It resulted in a runoff between Yayi Boni and Adrien Houngbédji. The runoff election was held on March 19, and was won by Boni, who assumed office on April 6. The success of the fair multi-party elections in Benin won praise internationally.

Politics

Benin's politics take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, where the President of Benin is both head of state and head of government, within a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the legislature. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system is derived from the 1990 Constitution of Benin and the subsequent transition to democracy in 1991.

In its 2007 Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Benin 53rd out of 169 countries.

Benin scored highly in the 2009 Ibrahim Index of African Governance, which comprehensively measures the state of governance across the continent. Benin was ranked 15th out of 53 African countries, and scored particularly well in the categories of Safety & Security and Participation & Human Rights.[11]

Benin has been rated equal-88th out of 159 countries in a 2005 analysis of police, business and political corruption.[12]

Departments and communes

Alibori Atakora Atlantique Borgou Collines Donga Couffo Littoral Mono Ouémé Plateau Zou
Departments of Benin

Benin is divided into 12 departments (French: départements), and subdivided into 77 communes. In 1999, the previous six departments were each split into two halves, forming the current 12. The six new departments have not been assigned an official capital yet.[verification needed]

  1. Alibori
  2. Atakora
  3. Atlantique
  4. Borgou
  5. Collines
  6. Donga
  7. Kouffo
  8. Littoral
  9. Mono
  10. Ouémé
  11. Plateau
  12. Zou

Geography

Map of Benin
Atakora.

Benin, a narrow, north-south strip of land in west Africa, lies between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. Benin lies between latitudes 6° and 13°N, and longitudes and 4°E. Benin is bounded by Togo to the west, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, Nigeria to the east, and the Bight of Benin to the south.

With an area of 112,622 km2 (43,484 sq mi), Benin extends from the Niger River in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the south, a distance of 650 km (404 mi). Although the coastline measures 121 km (75 mi) the country measures about 325 km (202 mi) at its widest point.

It is one of the smaller countries in West Africa, one-eighth the size of Nigeria, its neighbor to the east. It is, however, twice as large as Togo, its neighbor to the west.

Benin shows little variation in elevation and can be divided into four areas from the south to the north, starting with the low-lying, sandy, coastal plain (highest elevation 10 m (32.8 ft)) which is, at most, 10 km (6.2 mi) wide. It is marshy and dotted with lakes and lagoons communicating with the ocean. Behind the coast lies the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic-covered plateaus of southern Benin (altitude between 20 and 200 m (66 and 656 ft)), which are split by valleys running north to south along the Couffo, Zou, and Oueme Rivers.

Then an area of flat lands dotted with rocky hills whose altitude seldom reaches 400 m (1,312 ft) extends around Nikki and Save. Finally, a range of mountains extends along the northwest border and into Togo; this is the Atacora, with the highest point, Mont Sokbaro, at 658 m (2,159 ft).

Benin has fields of lying fallow, mangroves, and remnants of large sacred forests. In the rest of the country, the savanna is covered with thorny scrubs and dotted with huge baobab trees. Some forests line the banks of rivers. In the north and the northwest of Benin the Reserve du W du Niger and Pendjari National Park attract tourists eager to see elephants, lions, antelopes, hippos, and monkeys.[13] Historically Benin has served as habitat for the endangered Painted Hunting Dog, Lycaon pictus;[14] however, this canid is thought to have been locally extirpated.

Benin's climate is hot and humid. Annual rainfall in the coastal area averages 1300 mm or about 51 inches. Benin has two rainy and two dry seasons per year. The principal rainy season is from April to late July, with a shorter less intense rainy period from late September to November. The main dry season is from December to April, with a short cooler dry season from late July to early September. Temperatures and humidity are high along the tropical coast. In Cotonou, the average maximum temperature is 31 °C (87.8 °F); the minimum is 24 °C (75.2 °F).[13]

Variations in temperature increase when moving north through a savanna and plateau toward the Sahel. A dry wind from the Sahara called the Harmattan blows from December to March, during which grass dries up, the vegetation turns reddish brown, and a veil of fine dust hangs over the country, causing the skies to be overcast. It also is the season when farmers burn brush in the fields.[13]

Economy

Cotton field in northern Benin

The economy of Benin is dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional trade. Cotton accounts for 40% of GDP and roughly 80% of official export receipts.[15] Growth in real output has averaged around 5% in the past seven years, but rapid population growth has offset much of this increase. Inflation has subsided over the past several years. Benin uses the CFA franc, which is pegged to the euro.

Benin’s economy has continued to strengthen over the past years, with real GDP growth estimated at 5.1 percent and 5.7 percent in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The main driver of growth is the agricultural sector, with cotton being the country’s main export, while services continue to contribute the largest part of GDP largely because of Benin’s geographical location, enabling trade, transportation, transit and tourism activities with its neighbouring states.[16]

In order to raise growth still further, Benin plans to attract more foreign investment, place more emphasis on tourism, facilitate the development of new food processing systems and agricultural products, and encourage new information and communication technology. Projects to improve the business climate by reforms to the land tenure system, the commercial justice system, and the financial sector were included in Benin's US$307 million Millennium Challenge Account grant signed in February 2006.[17]

The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt situation, with Benin benefiting from a G8 debt reduction announced in July 2005, while pressing for more rapid structural reforms. An insufficient electrical supply continues to adversely affect Benin's economic growth though the government recently has taken steps to increase domestic power production.[1]

Although trade unions in Benin represent up to 75% of the formal workforce, the large informal economy has been noted by the International Trade Union Confederation (ITCU) to contain ongoing problems, including a lack of women's wage equality, the use of child labour, and the continuing issue of forced labour.[18]

Benin is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[19]

Cotonou harbors the country's only seaport and international airport. A new port is currently under construction between Cotonou and Porto Novo. Benin is connected by 2 lane asphalted roads to its neighboring countries (Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria). Mobile telephone service is available across the country through various operators. ADSL connections are available in some areas. Benin is connected to the Internet by way of satellite connections (since 1998) and a single submarine cable SAT-3/WASC (since 2001), keeping the price of data extremely high. Relief is expected with initiation of the Africa Coast to Europe cable in 2011.

Currently, about a third of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day.[20]

Demographics

Woman from Kobli, Atakora, Benin.

The majority of Benin's population lives in the south. The population is young, with a life expectancy of 59 years. About 42 African ethnic groups live in this country; these various groups settled in Benin at different times and also migrated within the country. Ethnic groups include the Yoruba in the southeast (migrated from Nigeria in the 12th century); the Dendi in the north-central area (they came from Mali in the 16th century); the Bariba and the Fula (French: Peul; Fula: Fulɓe) in the northeast; the Betammaribe and the Somba in the Atacora Range; the Fon in the area around Abomey in the South Central and the Mina, Xueda, and Aja (who came from Togo) on the coast.[13]

Recent migrations have brought other African nationals to Benin that include Nigerians, Togolese, and Malians. The foreign community also includes many Lebanese and Indians involved in trade and commerce. The personnel of the many European embassies and foreign aid missions and of nongovernmental organizations and various missionary groups account for a large part of the 5500 European population.[13] A small part of the European population consists of Beninese citizens of French ancestry, whose ancestors ruled Benin and left after independence.

Health

During the 1980s, less than 30 percent of the population had access primary health care services. Benin had one of the highest death rates for children under the age of five in the world. Its infant mortality rate stood at 203 deaths for every 1000 live births. Only one in three mothers had access to child health care services. The Bamako Initiative changed that dramatically by introducing community-based health care reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services.[21] A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.[22] Demographic and Health Surveys has completed three surveys in Benin since 1996.[23]

Culture

Arts

Beninese literature had a strong oral tradition long before French became the dominant language.[24] Felix Couchoro wrote the first Beninese novel, L'Esclave in 1929.

Post-independence, the country was home to a vibrant and innovative music scene, where native folk music combined with Ghanaian highlife, French cabaret, American rock, funk and soul, and Congolese rumba.

Singer Angélique Kidjo and actor Djimon Hounsou were both born in Cotonou, Benin. Composer Wally Badarou and singer Gnonnas Pedro are also of Beninese descent.

Customary names

Many Beninois in the south of the country have Akan-based names indicating the day of the week on which they were born. This is due to influence of the Akan people likely the Akwamu and others.[25]

Language

Local languages are used as the languages of instruction in elementary schools, with French only introduced after several years. In wealthier cities, however, French is usually taught at an earlier age. Beninese languages are generally transcribed with a separate letter for each speech sound (phoneme), rather than using diacritics as in French or digraphs as in English. This includes Beninese Yoruba, which in Nigeria is written with both diacritics and digraphs. For instance, the mid vowels written é è, ô, o in French are written e, ɛ, o, ɔ in Beninese languages, whereas the consonants written ng and sh or ch in English are written ŋ and c. However, digraphs are used for nasal vowels and the labial-velar consonants kp and gb, as in the name of the Fon language Fon gbe /fõ ɡ͡be/, and diacritics are used as tone marks. In French-language publications, a mixture of French and Beninese orthographies may be seen.

Religion

Celestial Church of Christ baptism in Cotonou. Five percent of Benin's population belongs to the Celestial Church of Christ, an African Initiated Church.

In the 2002 census, 42.8% of the population of Benin were Christian (27.1% Roman Catholic, 5% Celestial Church of Christ, 3.2% Methodist, 7.5% other Christian denominations), 24.4% were Muslim, 17.3% practices Vodun, 6% other traditional local religious groups, 1.9% other religious groups, and 6.5% claim no religious affiliation.[26]

Indigenous religions include local animistic religions in the Atakora (Atakora and Donga provinces) and Vodun and Orisha or Orisa veneration among the Yoruba and Tado peoples in the center and south of the country. The town of Ouidah on the central coast is the spiritual center of Beninese Vodun.

The major introduced religions are Islam, introduced by the Songhai Empire and Hausa merchants, and now followed throughout Alibori, Borgou, and Donga provinces, as well as among the Yoruba (who also follow Christianity), and Christianity, followed throughout the south and center of Benin and in Otammari country in the Atakora. Many, however, continue to hold Vodun and Orisha beliefs and have incorporated into Christianity the pantheon of Vodun and Orisha. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a sect originating in the 19th century is also present, in significant minority.

Education

The literacy rate in Benin is among the lowest in the world: in 2002 it was estimated to be 34.7% (47.9% for males and 23.3% for females).[27] Although at one time the education system was not free,[28] Benin has abolished school fees and is carrying out the recommendations of its 2007 Educational Forum.[29]

Cuisine

Acarajé is peeled black-eyed peas formed into a ball and then deep-fried

Beninese cuisine is known in Africa for its and exotic ingredients and flavorful dishes.[30] Beninese cuisine involves lots of fresh meals served with a variety of sauces.[30][31] In southern Benin cuisine, the most common ingredient is corn, often used to prepare dough which is mainly served with peanut- or tomato-based sauces.[30][31] Fish and chicken are the most common meats used in southern Beninese cuisine is, but beef, goat, and bush rat are also consumed.[30][31] The main staple in northern Benin is Yams, also often served with stated sauces.[30] The population in the northern provinces uses beef and pork meat which is also fried in palm or peanut oil or cooked in sauces.[30] Cheese is also frequently used in some dishes. Couscous, rice, and beans are also commonly eaten, along with fruits such as mangos, oranges, avocados, bananas, kiwi fruit, and pineapples.[30]

Meat is usually quite expensive, and meals are generally light on meat and generous on vegetable fat.[30] Frying in palm or peanut oil is the most common meat preparation, and smoked fish is also commonly prepared in Benin.[30] Grinders are used to prepare corn flour, which is made into a dough and served with sauces.[30] "Chicken on the spit" is a traditional recipe in which chicken is roasted over fire on wooden sticks.[30] Palm roots are sometimes soaked in a jar with saltwater and sliced garlic to tenderize it, which is then used in various dishes.[30] Many people have mud stoves for cooking, which are located outside of their homes.[30]

See also

Further Reading

  • Butler, S., Benin (Bradt Travel Guides), (Bradt Travel Guides, 2006)
  • Caulfield, Annie, Show Me the Magic: Travels Round Benin by Taxi, (Penguin Books Ltd., 2003)
  • Kraus, Erika and Reid, Felice, Benin (Other Places Travel Guide), (Other Places Publishing, 2010)
  • Seely, Jennifer, The Legacies of Transition Governments in Africa: The Cases of Benin and Togo, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

References

  1. ^ a b Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Benin". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bn.html. Retrieved February 1, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Benin". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=78&pr.y=14&sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=638&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2011-04-20. 
  3. ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. Retrieved 2009-09-01. 
  4. ^ "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations". United Nations, June 29th, 2010
  5. ^ "Benin - International Cooperation". Nation Encyclopedia, June 29th, 2010
  6. ^ African Ambassador Apologizes for Slavery Role. FOXNews.com. July 10, 2003.
  7. ^ African Slave Owners. the story of South Africa | BBC World Service.
  8. ^ a b c d Martha Kneib. Benin. pp. 22–25. ISBN 0761423281. 
  9. ^ "Benin". Flagspot.net. http://flagspot.net/flags/bj.html. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  10. ^ "A short history of the People's Republic of Benin (1974–1990)". Socialist.net. 2008-08-27. http://www.socialist.net/history-people-s-republic-of-benin.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  11. ^ Benin ranks 15th out of 53 African countries in latest assessment of African Governance Media release at Mo Ibrahim Foundation
  12. ^ Corruption by country at NationMaster
  13. ^ a b c d e "Background Note: Benin". U.S. Department of State (June 2008).  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  15. ^ "Background Note: Benin". State.gov. 2010-02-03. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/6761.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  16. ^ MFW4A: Benin Financial Sector profile
  17. ^ Benin at Millennium Challenge Corporation
  18. ^ "Serious violations of core labour standards in Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali". ICFTU Online. http://www.icftu.org/displaydocument.asp?Index=991220267&Language=EN. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  19. ^ "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". http://www.ohada.com/index.php. Retrieved 2009-03-22 
  20. ^ Human Development Indices, Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 35. Retrieved on 1 June 2009
  21. ^ "Bamako Initiative revitalizes primary health care in Benin". http://www.who.int/inf-new/child6.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  22. ^ "Implementation of the Bamako Initiative: strategies in Benin and Guinea". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10173105&dopt=Abstract. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  23. ^ Benin Surveys,
  24. ^ "Benin". http://aflit.arts.uwa.edu.au/CountryBeninEN.html. Retrieved 2007-09-30 
  25. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/concise/Akwamu
  26. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Benin. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  27. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2103.html
  28. ^ "Benin". Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. United States Department of State. February 23, 2001. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/af/861.htm. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  29. ^ "Benin". United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/worldwide/africa/benin/. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Beninese Cuisine." Wikia Recipes Wiki. Accessed June 2011.
  31. ^ a b c "Parakou". Benintourism.com. http://benintourisme.com/index.php?s=cuisine. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • bénin — bénin …   Dictionnaire des rimes

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  • Benin — Bénin  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Benin City. Pour une définition du mot « bénin », voir l’article bénin du Wiktionnaire …   Wikipédia en Français

  • bénin — bénin, igne [ benɛ̃, iɲ ] adj. • benigne 1160; masc. refait au XVe; lat. benignus « bienveillant » 1 ♦ Vx ou littér. Bienveillant, indulgent. ⇒ doux. Humeur bénigne. Un critique bénin. Péj. « il est trop mou et trop bénin de caractère » (Sainte… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Benin — • Vicariate Apostolic on the coast of Benin Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Benin     Benin     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • bénin — bénin, igne (bé nin, ni gn ) adj. 1°   Qui a de la bénignité. Il n est pas d homme plus bénin. Une humeur bénigne. •   Qui ont abondance de ce sang bénin, PASC. Prov. 9. •   Ô Seigneur, vous qui donnez aux juges ces regards bénins, ces oreilles… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • bénin — BÉNIN, BÉNIGNE. adject. Doux, humain. Un naturel doux et bénin. Humeur bénigne. [b]f♛/b] Il se dit souvent en dérision, d Une bonté et d une tolérance mal placée. C est le plus bénin de tous les maris. [b]f♛/b] Il signifie figurément, Favorable,… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • benin — BENIN, Benigne. adj. Doux, humain. Un naturel doux & benin. humeur benigne. On dit aussi, Remede benin. air benin. le ciel benin. astres benins. influences benignes …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Benin — [be nēn′, benin′] 1. former native kingdom (fl. 14th 17th cent.) in W Africa, including what came to be known as the Slave Coast 2. country in WC Africa, on the Bight of Benin: formerly a French territory, it became independent in 1960: 43,484 sq …   English World dictionary

  • Benin — Benin, Negerreich in Westafrika, an der Bai von B. (s. Karte bei »Guinea«), die durch das Kap Formoso von der Bai von Biafra getrennt wird, zwischen Lagos im W., dem Niger im O., Joruba und Nupe im N. Hinter der niedrigen hafenlosen Küste, vor… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Benín — El nombre de este país de África debe escribirse con tilde en español por ser voz aguda terminada en n (→ tilde2, 1.1.1): «Arará es un término genérico para definir a los esclavos provenientes de Dahomey, hoy llamado Benín» (Évora Orígenes [Cuba… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

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