Being

In ontology (the study of being) being is anything that can be said to "be", either transcendentally or immanently.

The nature of being varies by philosophy, giving different interpretations in the frameworks of Aristotle, materialism, idealism, existentialism, Islam, and Marxism.

Being in continental philosophy and existentialism

Some philosophers deny that the concept of "being" has any meaning at all, since we only define an object's existence by its relation to other objects, and actions it undertakes. The term "I am" has no meaning by itself; it must have an action or relation appended to it. This in turn has led to the thought that "being" and nothingness are closely related, developed in existential philosophy.

Existentialist philosophers such as Sartre, as well as continental philosophers such as Hegel and Heidegger have also written extensively on the concept of being. Hegel distinguishes between the being of objects (being in itself) and the being of people ("Geist)". Hegel, however, did not think there was much hope for delineating a "meaning" of being, because being stripped of all predicates is simply nothing.

Heidegger, in his quest to re-pose the original pre-Socratic questions of Being (of why is there something rather than nothing), wondered at how to meaningfully ask the question of the meaning of being, since it is both the greatest, as it includes everything that is, and the least, since no particular thing can be said of it. He distinguishes between different modes of beings: a privative mode is present-at-hand, whereas beings in a fuller sense are described as ready-to-hand. The one who asks the question of Being is described as Da-sein ("there/here-being") or being-in-the-world. Sartre, popularly understood as misreading Heidegger (an understanding supported by Heidegger's essay "Letter on Humanism" which responds to Sartre's famous address, "Existentialism is a Humanism"), employs modes of being in an attempt to ground his concept of freedom ontologically by distinguishing between being-in-itself and being-for-itself.

Being in Islamic philosophy

The nature of "being" has also been debated and explored in Islamic philosophy, notably by Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi, and Mulla Sadra. [ [http://www.iranchamber.com/personalities/msadra/mulla_sadra.php Iranian Personalities] ]

Quotations

As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light of meaning in the darkness of mere "being". - Carl Jung

Under the heading ‘Individuality in Thought and Desire’, Karl Marx, (German Ideology 1845), says:

"It depends not on consciousness, but on "being"; not on thought, but on "life"; it depends on the individual's empirical development and manifestation of life, which in turn depends on the conditions existing in the world."

ee also

* Atman
* Category of being
* Cogito ergo sum
* Creature
* Entity
* Essence
* Existence
* Existentialism
* hypostasis
* Infosphere
* Noumenon
* Object (philosophy)
* Ontology
* Ousia
* Phenomenon
* Substance theory
* Supreme being
* Fromm To Have Or To Be? 1976
* Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit
* Heidegger, Being and Time
* Sartre, Essays in Existentialism and Being and Nothingness
* Pranopasana

External links

* [http://www.formalontology.it/being.htm Being in philosophy and linguistics]

References


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  • Being — Be ing, p. pr. from {Be}. Existing. [1913 Webster] Note: Being was formerly used where we now use having. Being to go to a ball in a few days. Miss Edgeworth. [1913 Webster] Note: In modern usage, is, are, was or were being, with a past… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Being — Be ing, n. 1. Existence, as opposed to nonexistence; state or sphere of existence. [1913 Webster] In Him we live, and move, and have our being. Acts xvii. 28. [1913 Webster] 2. That which exists in any form, whether it be material or spiritual,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • being — [bē′iŋ] n. [see BE] 1. the state or fact of existing or living; existence or life 2. fundamental or essential nature 3. one who lives or exists, or is assumed to do so [a human being, a divine being] 4. all the physical and mental qualities that… …   English World dictionary

  • being — [n1] existence actuality, animation, journey, life, living, presence, reality, subsistence, vitality, world; concept 407 Ant. deadness being [n2] essential nature character, entity, essence, essentia, essentiality, individuality, marrow,… …   New thesaurus

  • Being — Be ing, adv. Since; inasmuch as. [Obs. or Colloq.] [1913 Webster] And being you have Declined his means, you have increased his malice. Beau. & Fl. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • being — (n.) c.1300, condition, state, circumstances; presence, fact of existing, early 14c., existence, from BE (Cf. be) (q.v.) + ING (Cf. ing). Sense of that which physically exists, person or thing (e.g. human being) is from late 14c …   Etymology dictionary

  • being... — being... phrase used for giving an explanation of something Being younger than the others, I always had to wear their old clothes. Thesaurus: ways of explaining or clarifyinghyponym to make something easier to understandsynonym Main entry: be …   Useful english dictionary

  • being — I (core) noun actuality, center, character, complexion, constituent, entity, essence, identity, individuality, inherence in, intellect, lifeblood, mind, monad, nature, occurrence, presence, psyche, quiddity, reality, root, spirit, substance,… …   Law dictionary

  • being — 1 *existence, actuality Analogous words: personality, individuality, character (see DISPOSITION) Antonyms: becoming: nonbeing 2 *entity, creature, individual, person Analogous words: *thing, object, article: * …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • being — ► NOUN 1) existence. 2) the nature or essence of a person. 3) a living creature: alien beings …   English terms dictionary

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