- Board game
A board game is a
gamein which counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a "board" (a premarked surface usually specific to that game). As do other form of entertainment, board games can represent nearly any subject.
There are many different types and styles of board games, including those, at the most-basic level, that that have no inherent
theme—such as " Checkers—"as well as more-complicated games with definite subjects, or even narratives, like "Clue".
Board games have been played in most cultures and societies throughout history; some even pre-date literacy skill development in the earliest civilizations. Fact|date=September 2008 A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents exist which shed light on early board games. Some of these include:
Jiroft civilizationgame boards
Senet" has been found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively.cite journal|url=http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Piccione/index.html |title=In Search of the Meaning of Senet |first=Peter A. |last=Piccione |journal=Archaeology |year=1980 |month=July/August |pages=55–58 |accessdate=2008-06-23] "Senet" is the oldest board game known to have existed, and was pictured in a frescofound in Merknera's tomb (3300-2700 BC). [http://www.hrejsi.cz/clanky/dama1.html "Okno do svita deskovych her"] ]
*"Mehen" is another ancient board game from
*"Go" is an ancient strategic board game originating in
Patolli" is a board game originating in Mesoamerica, and was played by the ancient Mayans.
*The Royal Tombs of Ur contained, among others, the
Royal Game of Ur. They were excavated by Leonard Woolley, but his books document little on the games found. Most of the games he excavated are now housed in the British Museumin London.
Buddha games listis the earliest known list of games.
*c. 3500 BC -
Jiroft civilizationThe layout of the holes on the "eagle" boards is also identical to the layout of some twenty-square boards used in ancient Egypt, where the game, known as "Aseb", was sometimes put on the other side of case-style "Senet" boards. Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*c. 3500 BC - "
Senet" found under Predynastic Egyptian burials; also depicted in the tomb of Merknera.
*c. 3000 BC - The "Mehen" board game from
Predynastic Egypt, was played with lion-shaped gamepieces and marbles.
*c. 3000 BC - Ancient
backgammonset, found in the Burnt Cityin Irancite journal|url=http://www.iranian.ws/cgi-bin/iran_news/exec/view.cgi/2/4743 |title=Iran's Burnt City Throws up World’s Oldest Backgammon |journal=Persian Journal |date= December 4, 2004|accessdate=2008-06-23]
*c. 2560 BC - Board of the
Royal Game of Ur(found at Ur Tombs)
*c. 2500 BC - Paintings of "
Senet" and "Han" being played depicted in the tomb of Rashepes Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*c. 2000 BC - Drawing in a tomb at Benihassan depicting two unknown board games being played (depicted in Falkner). It has been suggested that the second of these is "Tau". Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*c. 1500 BC - "
Liubo" carved on slab of blue stone. Also painting of board game of Knossos. [cite journal|url=http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Brumbaugh/index.html |title=The Knossos Game Board |first= Robert S. |last=Brumbaugh |accessdate=2008-06-23 |journal=American Journal of Archaeology |year=1975 |pages=135–137 |doi=10.2307/503893 |volume=79]
*c. 1400 BC - Game boards including "
alquerque", Nine Men's Morris, and a possible " Mancala" board etched on the roof of the Kurna temple. (Source: Fiske, and Bell) Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*548 BC The earliest written references to "Go/Weiqi" come from the "
Zuo Zhuan", which describes a man who likes the game. Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*c. 500 BC - The
Buddha games listmentions board games played on 8 or 10 rows.
*c. 500 BC - The earliest reference to "
Chaturaji" or Pachisiwritten in the " Mahabharata".
*c. 200 BC - A Chinese "Go/Weiqi" board pre-dating 200 BC was found in 1954 in
Wangdu County. This board is now in Beijing Historical Museum. [John Fairbairn's [http://gobase.org/history/china.html Go in Ancient China] ] .
*116-27 BC -
Marcus Terentius Varro's "Lingua Latina X" (II, par. 20) contains earliest known reference to " Latrunculi" [ [http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/varro.ll10.html Varro: Lingua Latina X ] ] (often confused with " Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum", Ovid's game mentioned below).
*1 BC-8 AD -
Ovid's " Ars Amatoria" contains earliest known reference to Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum.
Backgammonenters Chinaunder the name "t'shu-p'u" (Source: "Hun Tsun Sii"). Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*c. 400 onwards - "Tafl" games played in Northern Europe.Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*c. 600 The earliest references to "
Chaturanga" written in Subandhu's "Vasavadatta" and Banabhatta's " Harsha Charitha". Fact|date: September 15 2008|date=September 2008
*c. 600 - The earliest reference to "Chatrang" written in "Karnamak-i-Artakhshatr-i-Papakan". Fact|date=September 2008
Many board games are now available as
computer games, which can include the computer itself as one of several players, or as sole opponent. The rise of computer use is one of the reasons said to have led to a relative decline in board games. Fact|date=September 2008 Many board games can now be played online against a computer and/or other players. Some websites allow play in real time and immediately show the opponents' moves, while others use
Some board games make use of components in addition to—or instead of—a board and playing pieces. Some games use
CDs, video cassettes, and, more recently, DVDs in accompaniment to the game. Fact|date=September 2008
While there has been a fair amount of scientific research on the psychology of older board games (e.g.,
chess, "Go", " mancala"), less has been done on contemporary board games such as "Monopoly", " Scrabble", and "Risk". [ cite book | author= Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean | title= Moves in mind: The psychology of board games | publisher= Psychology Press | year=2004 | id=ISBN 1841693367] . Much research has been carried out on chess, in part because many tournament players are publicly ranked in national and international lists, which makes it possible precisely to compare their levels of expertise. The works of Adriaan de Groot, William Chase, and Herbert Simonhave established that knowledge, more than the ability to anticipate moves, plays an essential role in chess-playing. This seems to be the case in other traditional games such as "Go" and "Oware" (a type of "mancala" game), but data are lacking with regard to contemporary board games. Fact|date=September 2008
Luck, strategy and diplomacy
One way to categorize board games is to distinguish those based primarily upon
luckfrom those that involve significant strategy. Some games, such as chess, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as "Sorry!", " Candy Land" and " Chutes and ladders" having virtually no decisions to be made. Most board games involve both luck and strategy. A player may be hampered by a few poor rolls of the dicein "Risk" or "Monopoly", but over many games a player with a superior strategy will win more often. While some purists consider luck to not be a desirable component of a game, others counter that elements of luck can make for far more diverse and multi-faceted strategies as concepts such as expected valueand risk managementmust be considered.
The third important factor in a game is
diplomacy, or players making deals with each other. A game of solitaire, for obvious reasons, has no player interaction. Two player games usually do not have diplomacy, with "Lord of the Rings" being a notable exception where players compete against an automatic opponent (see cooperative games). Thus, this generally applies only to games played with three or more people. An important facet of " Settlers of Catan", for example, is convincing people to trade with you rather than with other players. In "Risk", one example of diplomacy's effectiveness is when two or more players team up against others. Easy diplomacy consists of convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. Difficult diplomacy (such as in the aptly named game "Diplomacy") consists of making elaborate plans together, with possibility of betrayal.
Luck is introduced to a game by a number of methods. The most popular is using
dice, generally six-sided. These can determine everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in " Monopoly", to how their forces fare in battle, such as in " Risk", or which resources a player gains, such as in " Settlers of Catan". Other games such as " Sorry!" use a deck of special cards that, when shuffled, create randomness. " Scrabble" does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. Trivia games have a great deal of randomness based on the questions a person gets. German-style board games are notable for often having rather less of a luck factor than many North American board games.
Although many board games have a
jargonall their own, there is a generalized terminologyto describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.
*Game board (or board)—the (usually
quadrilateral) surface on which one plays a board game; the namesakeof the board game, gameboards are a necessary and sufficient conditionof the genre.
*Game piece (or counter or token or bit)—a player's representative on the game board. Each player may control one or more game pieces. In some games that involve commanding multiple game pieces, such as chess, certain pieces have unique designations and capabilities within the
parameters of the game; in others, such as Go, all pieces controlled by a player have the same essential capabilities. In some games, pieces may not represent or belong to a particular player.
*Jump—to bypass one or more game pieces and/or spaces. Depending on the context, jumping may also involve capturing or conquering an opponent's game piece. ("See also:" )
*Space (or square)—a physical unit of progress on a gameboard delimited by a distinct border. ("See also:" )
*Hex In hexagon-based board games, this is the common term for a standard space on the board. This is most often used in
There are a number of different categories that board games can be broken up into. The following is a list of some of the most common:
Abstract strategy games like chess, checkers, Arimaa, irenseior go
German-style board games, or "Eurogames", like " The Settlers of Catan" or "Puerto Rico"
Race games like parchisior backgammon
* games, like "Monopoly" or "Life"
Triviagames, like " Trivial Pursuit"
Word games, like " Scrabble"
*Wargames, ranging from "Risk" to "
Advanced Squad Leader"
*cite book | author= Gobet, Fernand, de Voogt, Alex, & Retschitzki, Jean | title= Moves in mind: The psychology of board games | publisher= Psychology Press | year=2004 | id=ISBN 1841693367
* Rollefson, Gary O., "A Neolithic Game Board from Ain Ghazal, Jordan,"Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 286. (May, 1992), pp. 1-5.
*Fiske, Willard. "Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games)". Florentine Typographical Society, 1905.
*Falkener, Edward. "Games Ancient and Oriental, and How To Play Them". Longmans, Green and Co., 1892.
*Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." "Antiquity" 14. September 1940: 257–271
*Murray, Harold James Ruthven. "A History of Board-Games Other Than Chess". Gardners Books, 1969.
*Bell, Robert Charles. "The Boardgame Book".
London: Bookthrift Company, 1979.
*Bell, Robert Charles. "Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations".
Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-486-23855-5
**Reprint: New York: Exeter Books, 1983.
*Sackson, Sid. "
A Gamut of Games". Arrow Books, 1983. ISBN 0-09-153340-6
**Reprint: Dover Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-486-27347-4
*Schmittberger, R. Wayne. "New Rules for Classic Games".
John Wiley & Sons, 1992. ISBN 0-471-53621-0
**Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994. ISBN 0-517-12955-8
*Parlett, David. "Oxford History of Board Games".
Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-212998-8
List of board games
List of game manufacturers
* [http://dmoz.org/Games/Board_Games/ Boardgames in the Open Directory]
* [http://www.boardgamegeek.com BoardGameGeek - A board game database with discussion forums.]
* [news:rec.games.board rec.games.board] - A
Usenet newsgroupdedicated to board games
* [http://boardgames.lovetoknow.com/Main_Page Board Games at LoveToKnow] - Game overviews, strategies, and tips, including information on educational board games
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