South Carolina

US state
Name = South Carolina
Fullname = State of South Carolina



Flaglink = Flag of South Carolina





Nickname = The Palmetto State
Motto = Dum spiro spero (Latin; "While I breathe, I hope")
Animis opibusque parati (Latin; "Ready in soul and resource")
Capital = Columbia
BorderingStates = Georgia, North Carolina
OfficialLang = English
Demonym = South Carolinian
LargestCity = Columbia
LargestMetro = Columbia
Governor = Mark Sanford (R)
Lieutenant Governor = André Bauer (R)
Senators = Lindsey Graham (R)
Jim DeMint (R)
PostalAbbreviation = SC
AreaRank = 40th
TotalAreaUS = 32,020
TotalArea = 82,931
LandAreaUS = 30,109
LandAreaUS = 30,109
LandArea = 77,982
WaterAreaUS = 1,911
WaterArea = 4,949
PCWater = 6
PopRank = 24th
2000Pop (old) = 4,321,249
2007Pop = 4,321,249
2000Pop = 4,407,709 (2007 est.) [http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html 2007 Population Estimates]
DensityRank = 24
2000DensityUS = 143.4
2000Density = 55.37
MedianHouseholdIncome = $39,326
IncomeRank = 39th
AdmittanceOrder = 8th
AdmittanceDate = May 23, 1788
TimeZone = Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Latitude = 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N
Longitude = 78° 32′ W to 83° 21′ W
WidthUS = 200
Width = 320
LengthUS = 260
Length = 420
HighestPoint = Sassafras Mountaincite web |date=April 29, 2005 |url=http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest |title=Elevations and Distances in the United States |publisher=U.S Geological Survey |accessdate=2006-11-07]
HighestElevUS = 3,560
HighestElev = 1,085
MeanElevUS = 350
MeanElev = 110
LowestPoint = Atlantic Ocean
LowestElevUS = 0
LowestElev = 0
ISOCode = US-SC
Website = www.sc.gov

South Carolina (Audio-IPA|en-us-South Carolina.ogg|/ˌsɑʊθˌkɛrəˈlaɪnə/) is a state in the southern region (Deep South) of the United States of America. It borders Georgia to the south and North Carolina to the north. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence from the British Crown during the American Revolution. It was the first state to secede from the Union and was part of the Confederate States of America. The state is named after King Charles I, as "Carolus" is Latin for Charles. According to the 2006 estimate by the U.S. Census Bureau, the state's population is 4,321,249 ranked 24th.

Geography

South Carolina is bordered to the north by North Carolina; to the south and west by Georgia, located across the Savannah River; and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean.

South Carolina is composed of four geographic areas, whose boundaries roughly parallel the northeast/southwest Atlantic coastline. The lowest part of the state is the Coastal Zone, which is divided into three separate areas(The Grand Strand, Santee River Delta, and the Barrier Islands), The second part going inland is the Coastal Plains, often divided into the Outer and Inner Coastal Plains, is also known as the Lowcountry. The land above the plains is known as the sandhills, which used to be South Carolina's fall line. above that is the piedmont, which contains many major cities and is hilly. The last region is the Blue ridge, which is the smallest region. It is mountainous. The Lowcountry is nearly flat and composed entirely of recent sediments such as sand, silt, and clay. Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland, though some land is swampy. The coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain, though one prominent theory suggests that they were created by a meteor shower. The bays tend to be oval, lining up in a northwest to southeast orientation.

Major cities



Largest Cities (estimates)

* Columbia - 124,000
* Charleston - 115,000
* North Charleston - 91,000
* Rock Hill - 64,000
* Mount Pleasant - 64,000
* Greenville - 58,000
* Summerville - 45,000
* Sumter - 39,000
* Goose Creek - 38,000
* Spartanburg - 37,000
* Hilton Head Island - 33,000
* Florence - 31,000
* Myrtle Beach - 29,000
* Aiken - 29,000
* Anderson - 26,000
* James Island - 26,000
* Greer - 23,000
* Greenwood - 21,000
* Easley - 20,000
* North Augusta - 17,000

Largest City Areas

South Carolina's cities are actually much bigger than their city population counts suggest. South Carolina law makes it difficult to annex unincorported areas into the city limits, so city proper populations look smaller than they actually are. For example, Spartanburg and Myrtle Beach have populations over 180,000, and their metropolitan areas are much larger. Anderson city population is smaller than Sumter, but the Anderson area is much larger. The Sumter area population is under 100,000, but Andersons is over 120,000, while Anderson counties population is nearing 200,000.

Columbia, Charleston, and Greenville all area have "urbanized area" populations of around 400-420,000, while their metro area populations are all over 700,000. If Greenville-Spartanburg is considered one metro, as it was in the past before being split, its population is over 1 million. Similarly, Columbia's MSA population would top 1 million if the Sumter Metropolitan and Orangeburg Micropolitan areas were added.

Religion

South Carolina, like most other Southern states, has a Protestant Christian majority, and a lower percentage of non-religious people than the national average. The religious affiliations of the people of South Carolina are as follows:
* Christian: 92%
** Protestant: 84%
*** Southern Baptist: 45%
*** Methodist: 15%
*** Presbyterian: 5%
*** Other Protestant: 19%
** Roman Catholic: 7%
** Other Christian: 1%
* Other Religions: 1%
* Non-Religious: 7%

Sephardic Jews have lived in the state for more than 300 years, [http://www.harvardmagazine.com/on-line/0103137.html] [http://www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2002/mar/southernjews/index.html] [http://www.lib.unc.edu/apop/] especially in and around Charleston [http://www.sc.edu/uscpress/2002/3445.html] . Until about 1830, South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in North America. Many of South Carolina's Jews have assimilated into Christian society, shrinking Judaism down to less than 1% of the total religious makeup. In addition, Roman Catholicism is growing in South Carolina due to immigration from the North.

Economy

As of 2004, according to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, South Carolina's gross state product was $136 billion. As of 2000, the per capita income was $24,000, which was 81% of the national average. Fact|date=December 2007

Major agricultural outputs of the state are: tobacco, poultry, cattle, dairy products, soybeans, and hogs. Industrial outputs include: textile goods, chemical products, paper products, machinery, automobiles and automotive products and tourism.

The state sales tax is 6% for non-grocery goods and no tax for grocery goods. Counties have the option to impose an additional 2% sales tax. [http://www.sctax.org/NR/rdonlyres/20A9E1EF-B982-4F3D-B94D-972964B400FC/0/st431May.pdf] Citizens 85 or older get a one-percent exclusion from the state's sales tax. Property tax is administered and collected by local governments with assistance from the South Carolina Department of Revenue. Both real and personal property are subject to tax. Approximately two-thirds of county-levied property taxes are used for the support of public education. Sales tax on groceries has been eliminated. Municipalities levy a tax on property situated within the limits of the municipality for services provided by the municipality. The tax is paid by individuals, corporations and partnerships owning property within the state. South Carolina imposes a casual excise tax of 5% on the fair market value of all motor vehicles, motorcycles, boats, motors and airplanes transferred between individuals. The maximum casual excise tax is $300. In South Carolina, intangible personal property is exempt from taxation. There is no inheritance tax.

Even though the State of South Carolina does not allow legalized casino gambling, it did allow the operation of video poker machines throughout the state with approximately $2 billion dollars per year deposited into the state's coffers. However, at midnight on July 1, 2000 a new law took effect which outlawed the operation, ownership and possession of video poker machines in the state with machines required to be shut off at that time and removed from within the state's borders by July 8 or owners of such machines would face criminal prosecution. [cite web|url=http://casinogambling.about.com/library/weekly/aa101899.htm|title=Video Poker Outlawed In South Carolina] [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20060921011533/http://www.sctax.org/NR/rdonlyres/9C72A376-EBE3-462B-8E75-5137B580FE2E/0/sled6100.pdf Statement by the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division regarding the change of Video Poker Machine Laws] (In PDF Format)]

Transportation

Major highways

Major interstate highways passing through the state include: I-20 which runs from Florence in the east through Columbia to the southwestern border near Aiken; I-26 which runs from Charleston in the southeast through Columbia to Spartanburg and the northern border in Spartanburg County; I-77 which runs from York County in the north to Columbia; I-85 which runs from Cherokee County in the north through Spartanburg and Greenville to the southwestern border in Oconee County; I-385 which runs from Greenville and intersects with I-26 near Clinton; and I-95 which runs from the northeastern border in Dillon County to Florence and on to the southern border in Jasper County.

Driving in South Carolina involves being alert to the widespread speed traps. Due to numerous municipalities with low incomes and poor tax rates, speed traps have become an established means of generating revenue for many of the small towns throughout the state. A prime example of this is Denmark, South Carolina, where, due to the very low household income (close to three times less than that of the overall U.S. household average income)the Denmark government has resorted to using at least one speed trap to produce revenue. A documented one is located on State Highway 70 near Wisteria Street. Leaving town, the 30 mph through-town speed limit changes to 45 on an uphill curve (conversely, entering town from the 45 mph highway speed, it abruptly changes to 30 mph on a downhill curve) with no notice or warning. As little as a few miles above speed limit earns a ticket.Fact|Please give a reliable source for this assertion that there is a speed trap in Denmark.|date=September 2008

Rail

Amtrak operates four passenger routes in South Carolina: the Crescent, the Palmetto, the Silver Meteor, and the Silver Star. The Crescent route serves the Upstate cities, the Silver Star serves the Midlands cities, and the Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes serve the Lowcountry cities.

tation stops

Major and regional airports

There are six significant airports in South Carolina, all of which act at regional airport hubs. The busiest by passenger volume is Charleston International Airport. [cite web|url=http://www.aci-na.aero/static/entransit/2007_PRELIMl_passenger_ranking.xls|title=www.aci-na.aero/static/entransit/2007_PRELIMl_passenger_ranking.xls ] Just across the border in North Carolina is Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, the 30th busiest airport in the world, in terms of passengers. [cite web|url=http://www.aci.aero/cda/aci/display/main/aci_content.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-5-54-57_9_2__|title=www.aci.aero/cda/aci/display/main/aci_content.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-5-54-57_9_2__ ]
* Columbia Metropolitan Airport - Columbia
* Charleston International Airport - Charleston
* Greenville-Spartanburg International Airport - Greenville/Spartanburg
* Florence Regional Airport - Florence
* Myrtle Beach International Airport - Myrtle Beach
* Hilton Head Airport - Hilton Head Island/Beaufort

Government and politics

. The Judicial Branch consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Circuit Court, Family Court, and other divisions.

Executive branch

The leader of the executive branch is the governor. The governor is elected for a four-year term and may serve two consecutive terms. The current governor is Republican Mark Sanford. Governor Sanford was elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006.

South Carolina has historically had a weak executive branch. Before 1865, governors in South Carolina were appointed by the General Assembly, and held the title "President of State." The 1865 Constitution changed this process, requiring a popular election. In 1926 the governor's term was changed to four years, and in 1982 governors were allowed to run for a second term. In 1993 a limited cabinet was created, all of which must be popularly elected.

The Constitution requires that the governor, lieutenant governor, and most cabinet-level executive officers be elected separately. Other elected positions include the Adjutant General, Attorney General, Commissioner of Agriculture, Comptroller General, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, and Superintendent of Education. Each officer is elected at the same time as the Governor. The separately elected positions allow for the possibility of multiple parties to be represented in the executive branch. The Governor's Cabinet also contains several appointed positions. In most cases, persons who fill cabinet-level positions are recommended by the governor and appointed by the Senate. [http://www.sciway.net/gov/state_off.html]

Legislative branch

South Carolina has historically operated a weak executive which is countered by a strong, bi-cameral legislative branch known as the General Assembly. The General Assembly is composed of two branches, the House of Representatives and the Senate. There are 124 House members who serve two-year terms, and there are 46 Senators serve who four-year terms. [http://www.scstatehouse.net/]

Judicial branch

The Family Court deals with all matters of domestic and family relationships, as well as generally maintaining exclusive jurisdiction over cases involving minors under the age of seventeen, excepting traffic and game law violations. Some criminal charges may come under Circuit Court jurisdiction.

The Circuit Court is the general jurisdiction court for South Carolina. It comprises the Civil Court, the Court of Common Pleas, and the Court of General Sessions, which is the criminal court. The court maintains limited appellate jurisdiction over the Probate Court, Magistrate's Court, Municipal Court, and the Administrative Law Judge Division. The state has sixteen judicial circuits, each with at least one resident circuit judge.

The Court of Appeals handles Circuit Court and Family Court appeals, excepting appeals that are within the seven classes of exclusive Supreme Court jurisdiction. The Court of Appeals is selected by the General Assembly for staggered, six-year terms. The court comprises a chief judge, and eight associate judges, and may hear cases as the whole court, or as three panels with three judges each. The court may preside in any county.

The Supreme Court is South Carolina's highest court. The Chief Justice and four Associate Justices are elected to ten year terms by the General Assembly. Terms are staggered, and there are no limits on the number of terms a justice may serve, but there is a mandatory retirement age of 72. The overwhelming majority of vacancies on the Court occur when Justices reach this age, not through the refusal of the General Assembly to elect a sitting Justice to another term.

outh Carolina Constitution

South Carolina has had seven constitutions:
* 1776 - SC's first constitution
* 1778 - Disestablished the Anglican Church, created a popularly elected upper house
* 1790 - Expanded upcountry representation, further established General Assembly control over all aspects of government
* 1861 - Confederate constitution
* 1865 - Required to be readmitted to the Union, abolished property owning qualifications to vote, created popularly elected governor and granted veto power
* 1868 - Only constitution to be ratified by popular vote, provided for public education, abolished property ownership as a qualification for office holding, created counties, race abolished as limit on male suffrage
* 1895 - established attempts to disenfranchise black voters such as the option for poll taxes, literacy tests, etc

Since 1895, there have been many calls for a new Constitution, one that is not based on the politics of a post-Civil War population. The most recent call for reformation was by Governor Mark Sanford in his 2008 State of the State speech. Several hundred amendments have been made to the 1895 Constitution (in 1966 there were 330 amendments). Amendments have been created to comply with Federal acts, and for many other issues. The most recent was in 1988. The volume of amendments makes South Carolina's Constitution one of the longest in the nation. ["The South Carolina Encyclopedia", Walter Edgar, University of South Carolina Press]

Other laws
* The South Carolina Constitution contains provisions which, when compared to the Constitutions of other States, are unusual. For example, a constitutional amendment must be approved by two-thirds of each house of the legislature, approved by the people in an election, and then ratified by a majority of each house of the legislature. If the legislature fails to ratify it, the amendment does not take effect, even though it has been approved by the people. See S.C. Const. art. XVI, s. 1.
* Prior to April 15, 1949, Article XVII, Section 3, of the South Carolina Constitution prohibited divorce for any reason. Since that date, South Carolina permits divorce for certain reasons. It is believed that South Carolina is the only State in the Union that lists the grounds for divorce in its Constitution. The effect of doing so is that the Legislature is prohibited from creating additional grounds for divorce beyond those specified in the South Carolina Constitution. See S.C. Const. art. XVII, Section 3.
* Due to extremely strict annexation laws passed by the General Assembly in 1976, incorporated municipalities in South Carolina are usually much smaller in area and population than those elsewhere in the fast-growing Southeast. However, when a South Carolina city's proximal suburbs that would otherwise be annexed into their city limits are blended in with its core population, they exhibit similar sizes and rates of growth as many municipalities in neighboring states, such as Georgia and North Carolina. This takes many first-time visitors to South Carolina's main cities by surprise, as many are expecting much less urbanization in what has historically been thought of as an almost completely rural state.

Law enforcement agencies

* South Carolina Department of Public Safety
** South Carolina Highway Patrol Division
** South Carolina State Transport Police Division
** South Carolina Bureau of Protective Services
* South Carolina Criminal Justice Academy
* South Carolina Department of Corrections
* ((SC Department of Corrections Training Academy
* ((SC Department of Corrections Tactical Teams(Rapid Response Team-S.O.R.T.-Sitcon)
* SC department of Juvenile Justice
* South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole and Pardon Services
* South Carolina State Law Enforcement Division (SLED)
** Homeland Security
* South Carolina Department of Natural Resources
* South Carolina Swamp Hunters Team(Alligators,Snakes)

Federal representation

Like most Southern states, South Carolina consistently voted Democratic in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century as a part of the Democrats' Solid South. The Republican Party became competitive in the 1960 presidential election when Richard Nixon lost the state to John F. Kennedy by just two percentage points. In 1964, Barry Goldwater became the first Republican to win the state since Reconstruction. Since then, South Carolina has voted for a Republican in every presidential election from 1964 to 2004, with the exception of 1976 when Jimmy Carter, from neighboring Georgia, won the state over Gerald Ford. George W. Bush won the state in 2004 with 58% of the statewide vote over Senator John Kerry. Republicans now hold the governor's office and eight of nine statewide offices, control both houses of legislature, and include both U.S. Senators, and four of six members of the U.S. House of Representatives. Every presidential election year, the South Carolina primary is the first such primary in the South and holds importance to both the Republicans and the Democrats. The primary is important to the Republicans because it is a conservative testing ground, and it holds importance to the Democrats because of the large proportion of African-Americans that vote in that primary. From 1980 to 2008 the winner in the Republican primary has gone on to become the party nominee.

US Senate

In the 110th United States Congress, the South Carolina delegation to the U.S. Senate are:
* Lindsey Graham (R)
* Jim DeMint (R)

US House of Representatives

South Carolina currently has six representatives in Congress:
* District 1 - Henry E. Brown, Jr. (R)
* District 2 - Joe Wilson (R)
* District 3 - J. Gresham Barrett (R)
* District 4 - Bob Inglis (R)
* District 5 - John M. Spratt, Jr. (D)
* District 6 - James Clyburn (D)

A district map is found here.

Education

Institutions of higher education

("In order of foundation date")

South Carolina hosts a diverse cohort of institutions of higher education, from large state-funded research universities to small colleges that cultivate a liberal arts, religious or military tradition.

Founded in 1770 and chartered in 1785, the College of Charleston (C of C) is the oldest institution of higher learning in South Carolina, the 13th oldest in the United States, and the first municipal college in the country. The College is in company with the Colonial Colleges as one the original and foundational institutions of higher education in the United States. Its founders include three signers of the United States Declaration of Independence and three signers of the United States Constitution. The College's historic campus, which is listed on the U.S. Department of the Interior's National Register of Historic Places, forms an integral part of Charleston's colonial-era urban center. As one of the leading institutions of higher education in its class in the Southeastern United States, [http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/usnews/edu/college/rankings/brief/univmas_s_pub_brief.php] the College of Charleston is celebrated nationally for its focus on undergraduate education with strengths in Marine Biology, Classics, Art History and Historic Preservation. The Graduate School of the College of Charleston, offers a number of degree programs and coordinates support for its nationally recognized faculty research efforts. According to the "Princeton Review", C of C is one of the nation's best institutions for undergraduate education and U.S. News and World Report regularly ranks C of C among the best masters level universities in the South. C of C presently enrolls approximately 10,000 undergraduates and 2,000 graduate students.

The University of South Carolina (USC) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia. The University's campus covers over convert|359|acre|km2|1 in the urban core less than one city block from the South Carolina State House. The University of South Carolina maintains an enrollment of over 26,000 students on the Columbia campus. The institution was founded in 1801 as South Carolina College in an effort to promote harmony between the Lowcountry and the Upstate. The College became a symbol of the South in the antebellum period as its graduates were on the forefront of secession from the Union. From the Civil War to World War II, the institution lacked a clear direction and was constantly reorganized to meet the needs of the political power in office. In 1957, the University expanded its reach through the University of South Carolina System.

Furman University is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian, liberal arts university in Greenville, South Carolina. Founded in 1826, Furman enrolls approximately 2,600 undergraduate and 500 graduate students. Furman is the oldest and largest private institution in South Carolina. The university is primarily focused on undergraduate education (only two departments, education and chemistry, offer graduate degrees).

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina. Founded in 1842, the college is best known for its undergraduate Corps of Cadets military program for men and women, which combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. In addition to the cadet program, civilian programs are offered through the Citadel's College of Graduate and Professional Studies with its evening undergraduate and graduate programs. The Citadel enrolls almost 2,000 undergraduate cadets in its residential military program and 1,200 civilian students in the evening programs.

Wofford College is a small liberal arts college located in Spartanburg, South Carolina. Wofford was founded in 1854 with a bequest of $100,000 from the Rev. Benjamin Wofford (1780–1850), a Methodist minister and Spartanburg native who sought to create a college for "literary, classical, and scientific education in my native district of Spartanburg." Wofford is one of the few four-year institutions in the southeastern United States founded before the American Civil War and still operating on its original campus.

Presbyterian College is a private liberal arts college founded in 1880 in Clinton, South Carolina, USA. Presbyterian College, or PC, is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA, and enrolls around 1300 undergraduate students. In 2007, Washington Monthly ranked PC as the #1 Liberal Arts College in the nation. [http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2007/0709.rankings.html]

Clemson University, founded in 1889 is a public, coeducational, land-grant research university located in Clemson, South Carolina. Clemson The University currently enrolls more than 17,000 students from all 50 states and from more than 70 countries. Clemson is currently in the process of expanding, by adding the CU-ICAR, or the Center for Automotive Research, in partnership with BMW and Michelin. The facility will offer an M.S. and Ph.D in Automotive Engineering. Clemson is also the home to the South Carolina Botanical Gardens.

South Carolina State University, founded in 1896, is an historically Black university located in Orangeburg, SC. It is the only state-supported land grant institution in the state of South Carolina. SCSU has a current enrollment of nearly 5,000, and offers undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate degrees. SCSU boasts the only Doctor of Education program in the state of South Carolina

Anderson University, founded in 1911 is a selective comprehensive university located in Anderson, offering bachelors and masters degrees in approximately 50 areas of study. Anderson University currently enrolls around 1800 undergraduate students.

ports in South Carolina

South Carolina has no major professional franchise of the NFL, NHL, NBA, or MLB located in the state; however the NFL's Carolina Panthers (based in Charlotte, North Carolina), and the NHL's Carolina Hurricanes (based in Raleigh, North Carolina) represent both North and South Carolina. In addition, the Panthers played their first season in Clemson, and maintain training facilities near Wofford College in Spartanburg.There are numerous minor league teams that are either based in the state, or play much of their schedule within its borders. The highest level of minor league sports played in South Carolina is the USL Division 1 Soccer team, the Charleston Battery. The team plays in the soccer-specific Blackbaud Stadium, located on Daniel Island in Charleston. Currently, only Greenville, Myrtle Beach, and Charleston still boast any other level (in each case single-A) of professional baseball. Curiously enough, for a state where natural ice is a rarity, professional ice hockey has been popular in a number of areas of the state since the 1990s. Though 4 teams competed at one time in South Carolina, the East Coast Hockey League (ECHL) currently oversees operations of only two franchises, one, the Columbia Inferno, the other, the South Carolina Stingrays (who play in Charleston). According to the league, however, Myrtle Beach is slated to receive a franchise when their new arena is completed in 2008/9.

College sports in particular are very big in South Carolina. Clemson University's Tigers and the University of South Carolina's Gamecocks regularly draw more than 80,000 spectators at the schools' home football games. Smaller universities located in South Carolina also have very competitive sports programs, including The Citadel, Coastal Carolina, College of Charleston, Francis Marion, Furman, Anderson University, North Greenville University, Presbyterian College, Lander University, SC State, Southern Wesleyan University, Spartanburg Methodist College, USC Upstate, Winthrop, Wofford.

NASCAR racing was born in the South, and South Carolina has in the past hosted some very important NASCAR races, mainly at the Darlington Raceway. Darlington Raceway still has the one NASCAR race weekend, usually Mother's Day weekend. All four of NASCAR's series come to Darlington including Feather light, Craftsman Trucks, Busch Cars, and NEXTEL Cup cars.

South Carolina is known as a golfing paradise. POV-statement|date=December 2007 Myrtle Beach/Grand Strand has more than a hundred golf courses. Myrtle Beach has more public golf courses per capita than any other place in the country. [cite web|url=http://www.igovacation.com/search_rentals/stateinfo.asp?State=sc |title=Myrtle Beach Golf|] Some have hosted PGA and LGPA events in the past, but most have been designed for the casual golfer. Hilton Head Island & Kiawah Island have several very nice golf courses and host professional events every year. The upstate of South Carolina also has many nice golf courses, most of the nicer courses are private including the Cliff's courses and Cross Creek Plantation (the Cliff's courses host the annual BMW PRO/AM that brings many celebrities and professionals to South Carolina. Cross Creek Plantation located in Seneca, also private hosted a PGA Qualifier in the 90's). Oconee Country Club also in Seneca, is an extremely nice course, very well-kept, and is open to the public. In 2007, "The Ocean Course" On Kiawah Island was ranked #1 in Golf Digest Magazine's "America's 50 Toughest Golf Courses"cite web|url=http://www.golfdigest.com/courses/index.ssf?/courses/gd200703toughestcourses.html|title=GolfDigest.com - America's 50 Toughest Golf Courses] and #38 on their "America's 100 Greatest Golf Courses".cite web|url=http://www.golfdigest.com/courses/americasgreatest/|title=GolfDigest.com - America's 100 Greatest Golf Courses]

Watersports are also an extremely popular activity in South Carolina. With a large coast line, South Carolina has many different beach activities such as surfing, boogie boarding, deep sea fishing, and shrimping. The Pee Dee region of the state offers exceptional fishing. Some of the largest catfish ever caught were caught in the Santee Lakes. The Upstate of South Carolina also offers outstanding water activities. The Midlands region also offers water-based recreation revolving around Lakes Marion and Murray and such rivers as the Congaree, Saluda, Broad, and Edisto.

While there are no race tracks with betting in South Carolina there is significant horse training activity, particularly in Aiken and Camden, which hold steeplechase races.

Professional bass fishing tournaments are also found in South Carolina. Lake Hartwell and Lake Murray both host Bassmaster Classic tournaments.

National Parks

* Charles Pinckney National Historic Site at Mt. Pleasant
* Congaree National Park in Hopkins
* Cowpens National Battlefield near Chesnee,
* Fort Moultrie National Monument at Sullivan's Island
* Fort Sumter National Monument in Charleston Harbor
* Kings Mountain National Military Park at Blacksburg
* Ninety Six National Historic Site in Ninety Six
* Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail

National Monuments

* Fort Moultrie National Monument
* Fort Sumter National Monument

Miscellaneous topics

Famous people from South Carolina

Some of the most influential individuals in American life from South Carolina include:
* Mary McLeod Bethune (born July 10, 1875 in Maysville, South Carolina, died May 18, 1955. African American educator and civil rights leader.
* James Brown (born May 4, 1933 in Barnwell, died December 25, 2006). The "Godfather of Soul", legendary singer and member of the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
* John C. Calhoun (1782-1850), born near Abbeville, a statesman and political philosopher. From 1811 until his death, Calhoun served in the federal government successively as congressman, secretary of war, vice president, senator, secretary of state and again as senator.
* Chubby Checker, singer, born Ernest Evans in Spring Gulley, on October 3, 1941.
* Stephen Colbert, host of The Colbert Report on Comedy Central since 2005; previously a correspondent for Comedy Central's The Daily Show. A native of Charleston, he attended Porter Gaud School. Colbert also ran as a favorite son candidate for the 2008 presidential election in his native South Carolina.
* John Edwards, former N.C. Senator & 2004 Democratic Vice Presidential candidate, born in Seneca in 1953.
* Joe Frazier, 1964 Olympic heavyweight champion and the world heavyweight champ 1970-73; fought Muhammad Ali for the heavyweight title three times. He is most remembered for the fight at Madison Square Garden in March 1971, where he defeated Ali to become the undisputed heavyweight champ. Frazier was born in Beaufort on January 12, 1944.
* Althea Gibson (1927-2003), the first black female player to win the Wimbledon singles tennis title, was born in Silver.
* Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993), John Birks 'Dizzy' Gillespie, considered by some to be the greatest jazz trumpeter of all time, was born in Cheraw.
* Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), President of the United States; born near Lancaster but emigrated to Tennessee as an adult. He was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans and 7th President, from 1829 to 1837.
* Jesse Jackson, famous political and social figure, originally from Greenville, born on October 8, 1941.
* 'Shoeless' Joe Jackson (1887–1951). Considered to be one of the most outstanding hitters in the history of baseball, his career .356 batting average is the third highest in history, after Ty Cobb and Rogers Hornsby. He was born in Brandon Mills.
* Thomas Lynch, Jr. (born August 4, 1749 in South Carolina, died 1779. Signer of the Declaration of Independence.
* Kerry Mullis, born in Lenoir, North Carolina on December 28, 1944, and grew up in Columbia, South Carolina; received Nobel Prize for DNA amplification research. There is public controversy regarding credit for this research.
* Bill Pinkney, born in Dalzell, on August 15, 1925, died July 4, 2007. Pinkney was a pitcher in the Negro League and served in World War II. But he is remember most because of his singing role in The Drifters and his sound influenced many artists in blues and soul music.
*Edward Rutledge November 23 1749-January 23 1800 Signer of the Declaration of Independence. later govenor of South Carolina
* Strom Thurmond (1902-2003), born in Edgefield in 1902. South Carolina governor from 1947-1951, and in 1954 became the first and only United States Senator elected by a write-in vote. In 1997, Senator Thurmond became the oldest and longest serving member of the U.S. Senate. In January 2003, at age 100, Thurmond retired from public service after his eighth term. He returned to his hometown where he died June 26, 2003.
* Angelica Singleton Van Buren (1818–1877), born in Wedgefield, married Abraham Van Buren while his father, Martin Van Buren was the eighth President of the United States. She served as First Lady of the United States for the rest of his term in the White House.

Alcohol laws

Prohibition was a major issue in the state's history. Voters endorsed prohibition in 1892 but instead were given the "Dispensary System" of state-owned liquor stores, They soon became symbols of political corruption controlled by Ben Tillman's machine and were shut down in 1907. Today, the retail sale of liquor statewide is permitted from 9 a.m. until 7 p.m. Monday - Saturday, and Sunday sales are banned by state law. However counties and/or cities may hold referendums to allow Sunday sales of beer and wine only. Six counties currently allow Sunday beer and wine sales; Richland, Lexington, Georgetown, Charleston, Beaufort and Horry. Cities and towns that have passed laws allowing Sunday beer and wine sales include Columbia, Spartanburg, Greenville, Aiken, Rock Hill, Summerville, Santee, Daniel Island and Tega Cay.

While there are no dry counties in South Carolina, and retail liquor sales are uniform statewide, certain counties may enforce time restrictions for beer and wine sales in stores (e.g., no sales after 2 a.m. in Pickens County) while others do not (in-store beer and wine sales are allowed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week in Charleston). Columbia, the state's capital, largest city, and the home of the University of South Carolina, takes one of the more relaxed stances on alcohol sales in bars compared to other cities in the state. Many bars, especially those catering to younger crowds in the busy Five Points district, serve alcohol until sunrise, and it is not unheard of for bars and clubs to serve alcohol until 7 or 8 a.m., although the legality of this practice is questionable. In Greenville city limits, it is illegal to serve alcohol after 2 a.m. at bars and restaurants unless the establishment continues to serve food. There are a few bars that take advantage of this loophole.

Before 2006, South Carolina was infamous amongst tourists and residents alike for being the last state in the nation to require cocktails and liquor drinks to be mixed using minibottles, like those found on airplanes, instead of from free-pour bottles. The original logic behind this law was twofold: it made alcohol taxation simpler and allowed bar patrons to receive a standardized amount of alcohol in each drink. However, minibottles contain 1.75 oz (52 ml) of alcohol, approximately 30% more than the typical 1.2 oz (35 ml) found in free-pour drinks, with the obvious result of overly strong cocktails and inebriated bar customers. The law was changed in 2006 to allow both free-pour and minibottles in bars, and the vast majority of bars quickly eschewed minibottles in favor of free-pour. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_16_39/ai_n13662102 "S.C. operators stand ready to toast new free-pour law"] , ]

Indoor Smoking Laws

* No statewide smoking ban. On March 31, 2008, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled that cities, counties, and towns may enact smoking bans which are more stringent than state law. ["Foothills Brewing Concern, Inc. v. City of Greenville", Case No. 26467 (S.C. slip op. filed Mar. 31, 2008)]
* Beaufort County, banned in all workplaces, including restaurants and bars, within unincorporated areas of Beaufort County. January 10, 2007. [http://www.beaufortgazette.com/local_news/story/6278039p-5477050c.html]
* Bluffton, banned in all workplaces, including restaurants and bars. January 10, 2007. [http://www.wtoc.com/Global/story.asp?S=5927688]
* Charleston, July 23, 2007, prohibited in all restaurants, bars, and workplaces. Cigar bars, theatrical performances involving smoking, and 25% of designated hotel and motel smoking rooms are exempt.
* Clemson, July 1, 2008, banned in all enclosed workplaces, including bars and restaurants [cite web|url=http://www.independentmail.com/news/2008/jan/14/clemson-smoking-ban-becomes-law|title=Clemson smoking ban becomes law : Local News : Anderson Independent-Mail ]
* Columbia, July 1, 2008, banned in all workplaces, except for bars where 85% of revenue comes from the sale of alcohol. [cite web|url=http://www.thestate.com/mld/thestate/news/local/15964371.htm|title=The State Homepage ]
* Greenville, January 1, 2007, banned in all workplaces, restaurants, and bars.
* Hilton Head Island, Indoor smoking ban in restaurants, bars, and public places will take effect May 1, 2007. [http://www.islandpacket.com/news/local/story/6378297p-5689297c.html]
* Mount Pleasant, September 1, 2007, banned in all restaurants, bars, workplaces, and private clubs.
* North Charleston, May 14, 2008, rejected a ban on smoking in enclosed workplaces. [cite web|url=http://www.charleston.net/news/2008/may/15/no_public_smoking_ban_north_charleston40963|title="No public smoking ban for North Charleston", "The Charleston Post & Courier", May 15, 2008]
* Sullivan's Island, effective July 20, 2006, a ban on smoking in workplaces, including restaurants and bars. Upheld by the Charleston County Court of Common Pleas on December 20, 2006. [http://www.masc.sc/Resources/Sullivan%27s%20Island%20Summary%20Judgment.pdf]

outh Carolina singularities

* Adjutant general: The head of the state's national guard, the adjutant general, is a statewide elected official. [cite web|url=http://statehousereport.com/columns/2003/03.0420.structure.htm|title="Restructuring proposal threatens checks and balances"]
* Driving Under the Influence: South Carolina is the only state in the nation with mandatory videotaping by the arresting officer of the DUI arrest and breath test. [cite web|url=http://www.1800duilaws.com/states/sc.asp|title=South Carolina DUI LAW]
* Fire Safety Regulations: South Carolina is the only state that allows fire officials to sidestep a federal regulation requiring that for every employee doing hazardous work inside a building, one must be outside. [cite web|url=http://www.wral.com/news/national_world/national/story/1518087/|title="Officials Investigate South Carolina Fire Tragedy". AP]
* School Buses: South Carolina is the only state in the nation that owns and operates its own school bus fleet. [ [http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=17110 "Parents Pummeled by South Carolina Legislators"] . School Reform News. The Heartland Institute.] [ [http://216.239.51.104/search?q=cache:136uYbBpa-MJ:www.lac.sc.gov/Audit_Reports/2001/School%2BBus%2BOperations.htm+%22South+Carolina+is+the+only+state%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=20&gl=us&client=firefox-a A review of SC School Bus Operations] . South Carolina Legislative Audit Council. October 2001.]
* Strokes: South Carolina has the highest rate of stroke deaths in the nation. [cite web|url=http://www.scdhec.net/health/minority/cardiovascular.htm|title=SC Department of Health and Environmental Control]
* Black Water River: With the Edisto River, South Carolina has the longest completely undammed / unleveed blackwater river in North America. [Edisto River]
* Outdoor Sculpture: South Carolina is home to the world's largest collection of outdoor sculpture located at Brookgreen Gardens. [cite web|url=http://www.brookgreen.org/|title=Brookgreen Gardens]
* Landscaped Gardens: South Carolina is home to the oldest landscaped gardens in the United States, at Middleton Place near Charleston. [cite web|url=http://www.middletonplace.org/|title=Middleton Place]

outh Carolina firsts

* First European settlement in South Carolina in 1526 near Georgetown settled by Spanish explorer Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon named San Miguel de Gualdape
* First permanent English settlement in South Carolina established at Albemarle Point in Charleston in 1670
* First indigo planted, 1671
* First free library established - Charleston, 1698
* First mutual fire insurance company - Friendly Society for the Mutual Insurance of Houses against Fire, 1735
* First opera performed in America - Charleston, February 18, 1735
* First building to be used solely as a theatre - Dock Street Theatre in Charleston, constructed in 1736
* First slave insurrection - Stono area near Charleston, 1739
* First Jewish synagogue in South Carolina (Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim) - Charleston, 1750
* First cotton exported to England, 1764
* First Black Baptist Church established, Silver Bluff, 1773
* The Charleston Chamber of Commerce was the first city Chamber of Commerce in this country - 1773
* First public museum - Charleston Museum, organized January 12, 1773
* First business publication - South Carolina Price Current in Charleston, 1774
* The first time a British flag was taken down and replaced by an American flag was in Charleston in 1775
* First independent government formed among American colonies, March 1776
* Golf was first played in the city limits of Charleston. The South Carolina Golf Club was formed in 1786 - this was the first golf club.
* First cotton mill built - James Island, 1789
* First tea planted - Middleton Barony, 1802
* First fireproof building built - Charleston, 1822
* First steam locomotive built in the United States to be used for regular railroad service - "Best Friend of Charleston," 1830.
* First municipal college - College of Charleston, opened April 1, 1838
* First state to secede from the Union, December 20, 1860.
* First shot fired in Civil War on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, April 12, 1861.
* First Medal of Honor awarded to a Black recipient - W. H.Carney (Army), July 18, 1863.
* The first submarine ever to sink an enemy ship was the H.L. Hunley used by the Confederates on February 17, 1864 in Charleston Harbor against the U.S.S. Housatonic.
* First Black Associate Justice of a state supreme court - J. J. Wright, February 2, 1870
* The first state intercollegiate football game took place on December 14, 1889 with Wofford defeating Furman
* First commercial tea farm - Summerville, 1890
* First black woman to practice medicine in the state was Dr. Matilda Arabelle Evans in 1897
* First textile school established in a college - Clemson, 1899
* The first car was manufactured in Rock Hill by John Gary Anderson in January 1916
* First woman lawyer in South Carolina - Miss James M. Perry of Greenville was admitted to practice on May 4, 1918
* First national historic preservation ordinance passed by Charleston city council on October 13, 1931
* First television station WCSC broadcast from Charleston June 13, 1953
* First U.S. Senator elected by a write-in vote - Strom Thurmond, November 2, 1954
* First nuclear power plant dedicated at Parr Shoals on October 24, 1963
* First Spoleto Festival held in Charleston May 1977
* First black federal judge in South Carolina's history - Matthew J. Perry - appointed September 22, 1979
* First governor Richard Riley elected November 6, 1984 to serve two consecutive four-year terms
* Jean Toal - the first woman elected to state supreme court in 1988 and later elected chief justice in 2000

ister States

* Queensland, Australia
* Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
* Bergamo, Italy

ee also

* List of South Carolina-related topics

References

Further reading

Textbooks and surveys

* Bass, Jack. "Porgy Comes Home: South Carolina After 300 Years,". Sandlapper, 1970. OCLC|724061Listed Invalid ISBN|9999555071
* Edgar, Walter. "South Carolina: A History," University of South Carolina Press, 1998. ISBN 1-57003-255-6
* Edgar, Walter, ed. "The South Carolina Encyclopedia," University of South Carolina Press, 2006. ISBN 1-57003-598-2
* George C. Rogers Jr. and C. James Taylor. "A South Carolina Chronology, 1497-1992, 2nd Ed.,". University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC, 1994. ISBN 0-87249-971-5
* Wallace, David Duncan. "South Carolina: A Short History, 1520-1948" (1951) ISBN 0-87249-079-3
* WPA. "South Carolina: A Guide to the Palmetto State" (1941) ASIN B000HM05WE
* Wright, Louis B. "South Carolina: A Bicentennial History"' (1977) ISBN 0-393-05560-4

cholarly secondary studies

* Bass, Jack and Marilyn W. Thompson. "Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond,". Longstreet Press, 1998.
* Busick, Sean R. "A Sober Desire for History: William Gilmore Simms as Historian.", 2005. ISBN 1-57003-565-2.
* Clarke, Erskine. "Our Southern Zion: A History of Calvinism in the South Carolina Low Country, 1690-1990" (1996)
* Channing, Steven. "Crisis of Fear: Secession in South Carolina" (1970)
* Cohodas, Nadine. "Strom Thurmond and the Politics of Southern Change,". Simon & Schuster, 1993.
* Coit, Margaret L. "John C. Calhoun: American Portrait" (1950)
* Crane, Verner W. "The Southern Frontier, 1670-1732" (1956)
* Ford Jr., Lacy K. "Origins of Southern Radicalism: The South Carolina Upcountry, 1800-1860" (1991)
* Hindus, Michael S. "Prison and Plantation: Crime, Justice, and Authority in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 1767-1878" (1980)
* Johnson Jr., George Lloyd. "The Frontier in the Colonial South: South Carolina Backcountry, 1736-1800" (1997)
* Jordan, Jr., Frank E. "The Primary State - A History of the Democratic Party in South Carolina, 1876-1962," Columbia, SC, 1967
* Keyserling, Harriet. "Against the Tide: One Woman's Political Struggle". University of South Carolina Press, 1998.
* Kantrowitz, Stephen. "Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy" (2002)
* Lau, Peter F. " Democracy Rising: South Carolina And the Fight for Black Equality Since 1865" (2006)
* Peirce, Neal R. "The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States"; (1974)
* Rogers, George C. "Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith of Charleston (1758-1812)" (1962)
* Schultz Harold S. "Nationalism and Sectionalism in South Carolina, 1852-1860" (1950)
* Simon, Bryant. "A Fabric of Defeat: The Politics of South Carolina Millhands, 1910-1948" (1998)
* Simkins, Francis Butler. "The Tillman Movement in South Carolina" (1926)
* Simkins, Francis Butler. "Pitchfork Ben Tillman: South Carolinian" (1944)
* Simkins, Francis Butler, and Robert Hilliard Woody. "South Carolina during Reconstruction" (1932).
* Sinha, Manisha. "The Counterrevolution of Slavery: Politics and Ideology in Antebellum South Carolina" (2000)
* Smith, Warren B. "White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina" (1961)
* Tullos, Allen "Habits of Industry: White Culture and the Transformation of the Carolina Piedmont" (1989)
* Williamson Joel R. " After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861-1877" (1965)
* Wood, Peter H. "Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion" (1996)

Local studies

* Bass, Jack and Jack Nelson."The Orangeburg Massacre,". Mercer University Press, 1992.
* Burton, Orville Vernon. "In My Father's House Are Many Mansions: Family and Community in Edgefield, South Carolina" (1985), social history
* Carlton, David L. "Mill and Town in South Carolina, 1880-1920" (1982)
* Clarke, Erskine. "Dwelling Place: A Plantation Epic" (2005)
* Danielson, Michael N. "Profits and Politics in Paradise: The Development of Hilton Head Island,". University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
* Doyle, Don H. "New Men, New Cities, New South: Atlanta, Nashville, Charleston, Mobile, 1860-1910" (1990)
* Huff, Jr., Archie Vernon. "Greenville: The History of the City and County in the South Carolina Piedmont", University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
* Moore, John Hammond. "Columbia and Richland County: A South Carolina Community, 1740-1990", University of South Carolina Press, 1993.
* Moredock, Will. "Banana Republic: A Year in the Heart of Myrtle Beach,". Frontline Press, 2003.
* Pease, William H. and Jane H. Pease. "The Web of Progress: Private Values and Public Styles in Boston and Charleston, 1828-1843" (1985),
* Robertson, Ben. "Red Hills and Cotton,". USC Press (reprint), 1991.
* Rose, Willie Lee. " Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment" (1964)

Political science

* Carter, Luther F. and David Mann, eds. "Government in the Palmetto State: Toward the 21st century,". University of South Carolina, 1993.ISBN 0-917069-01-3
* Graham, Cole Blease and William V. Moore. "South Carolina Politics and Government". Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8032-7043-7
* Tyer, Charlie. ed. "South Carolina Government: An Introduction,". USC Institute for Public Affairs, 2002. ISBN 0-917069-12-9

Primary documents

* Salley, Alexander S. ed. "Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708" (1911) ISBN 0-7812-6298-4
* Woodmason Charles. "The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution" Edited by Richard J. Hooker. (1953), a missionary reports ISBN 0-8078-4035-1

External links

* [http://www.sc.gov State of South Carolina government website]
* [http://www.discoversouthcarolina.com/ Discover South Carolina] - The official tourism website of South Carolina
* [http://www.scguide.org South Carolina Travel Guide]
*
* [http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=SC Energy & Environmental Data for South Carolina]
* [http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=SC USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of South Carolina]
* [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/45000.html US Census Bureau]
* [http://www.myetv.org/television/productions/legacy/ S.C. Business Hall of Fame] - Established in 1985 to honor champions of free enterprise and present role models for young people.
* [http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/SC.htm South Carolina State Facts]
* [http://www.visit.sc South Carolina Information Portal]

Template group
list =
succession
preceded = Maryland
office = List of U.S. states by date of statehood
years = Ratified Constitution on May 23, 1788 (8th)
succeeded = New Hampshire


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  • South Carolina — South Carolinian. a state in the SE United States, on the Atlantic coast. 3,119,208; 31,055 sq. mi. (80,430 sq. km). Cap.: Columbia. Abbr.: SC (for use with zip code), S.C. * * * State (pop., 2000: 4,012,012), southeastern U.S. It covers 31,113… …   Universalium

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