September 16

Events

*1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers.
*1701 - James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the "Old Pretender", becomes the Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England and Scotland.
*1776 - American Revolutionary War: the Battle of Harlem Heights is fought.
*1795 - United Kingdom conquers Cape Town, South Africa.
*1810 - With the "Grito de Dolores," Father Miguel Hidalgo begins Mexico's fight for independence from Spain
*1812 - Russians set fire to Moscow shortly after midnight - the city burns down completely days later.
*1863 - Robert College of Istanbul-Turkey, the first American educational institution outside the United States, is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.
*1887 - The first game of softball was played in Chicago, Illinois
*1893 - Settlers race in Oklahoma for prime land in the Cherokee Strip.
*1901 - Alturas, California, is incorporated as the only city in Modoc County.
*1908 - General Motors is founded.
*1919 - The American Legion is incorporated.
*1920 - The Wall Street bombing: a bomb in a horse wagon explodes in front of the J.P.Morgan building in New York City - 38 are killed and 400 injured.
*1940 - Sam Rayburn is elected Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. He is widely regarded as the most effective Speaker of the House in American history.
*1941 - World War II: concerned that Reza Pahlavi the Shah of Persia was to align his petroleum-rich country with Germany during World War II, the United Kingdom and the USSR invade Iran in late August and force him to resign in favor of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
*1947 - Typhoon Kathleen hit Saitama, Tokyo and Tone River erea, at least 1,930 killed.
*1955 - Juan Perón is deposed in Argentina.
*1963 - Malaysia is formed from Malaya, Singapore, British North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak.
*1966 - The Metropolitan Opera House opens at Lincoln Center in New York City with the world premiere of Samuel Barber's opera, "Antony and Cleopatra".
*1970 - King Hussein of Jordan declares military rule following the hijacking of four civilian airliners by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). This results in the formation of the Black September Palestinian paramilitary unit.
*1975 - Papua New Guinea gains its independence from Australia.
*1975 - The first prototype of the MiG-31 interceptor makes its maiden flight.
*1976 - Shavarsh Karapetyan saves 20 people from the trolleybus that had fallen into Erevan reservoir.
*1978 - An earthquake hits the city of Tabas, Iran measuring 7.5-7.9 on the Richter scale killing about 25,000 people.
*1982 - Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon.
*1987 - The Montreal Protocol is signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion.
*1991 - The trial of Panamanian "strongman" Manuel Noriega begins in the United States.
*1992 - Black Wednesday: the Pound Sterling is forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism by currency speculators and is forced to devalue against the Deutschmark.
*2005 - Camorra boss Paolo Di Lauro is arrested in Naples.
*2007 - One-Two-GO Airlines Flight 269 carrying 128 crew and passengers crashes in Thailand killing 89 people.

Births

* 16 - Drusilla, daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder (d. 38)
*1098 - Hildegard of Bingen, German magistra and the first composer whose biography is known (d. 1179)
*1387 - King Henry V of England, (d. 1422)
*1507 - Jiajing, Emperor of China (d. 1567)
*1557 - Jacques Mauduit, French composer (d. 1627)
*1651 - Engelbert Kaempfer, German physician and traveler (d. 1716)
*1666 - Antoine Parent, French mathematician (d. 1716)
*1678 - Henry St John, English statesman and philosopher (d. 1751)
*1722 - Gabriel Christie, British general (d. 1799)
*1725 - Nicolas Desmarest, French geologist (d. 1815)
*1745 - Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, Russian field marshal (d. 1813)
*1782 - Daoguang, Emperor of China (d. 1850)
*1823 - Francis Parkman, American historian (d. 1893)
*1827 - Jean Albert Gaudry, French geologist (d. 1908)
*1853 - Albrecht Kossel, German physician, Nobel laureate (d. 1927)
*1858 - Andrew Bonar Law, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1923)
*1859 - Yuan Shikai, Chinese politician (d. 1916)
*1875 - James C. Penney, American department store founder (d. 1971)
*1881 - Clive Bell, English art critic (d. 1964)
*1883 - T. E. Hulme, English writer (d. 1917)
*1886 - Jean Arp, Alsatian sculptor and painter (d. 1966)
*1887 - Nadia Boulanger, French composer and teacher (d. 1979)
*1888 - F. E. Sillanpää, Finnish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1964)
*1891 - Stephanie von Hohenlohe, Austrian-born German spy (d. 1972)
* 1891 - Karl Dönitz, German naval leader (d. 1980)
*1893 - Alexander Korda, Hungarian film director (d. 1956)
* 1893 - Albert Szent-Györgyi, Hungarian physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1986)
*1898 - H.A. Rey, American children's author, creator of "Curious George" (d. 1977)
*1905 - Vladimír Holan, Czech poet (d. 1980)
*1906 - Jack Churchill, English soldier (d. 1996)
*1910 - Karl Kling, German race car driver (d. 2003)
* 1910 - Erich Kempka, Adolf Hitler's chauffeur (d. 1975)
*1914 - Allen Funt, American radio and television personality (d. 1999)
*1916 - Robert Bradshaw, Saint Kitts and Nevis politician (d. 1978)
* 1916 - M.S. Subbulakshmi, Indian singer (d. 2004)
* 1916 - Frank Leslie Walcott, Barbadian labour leader (d. 1999)
*1919 - Laurence J. Peter, Canadian born educator and writer (d. 1990)
*1921 - Jon Hendricks, American jazz singer
*1922 - Janis Paige, American actress
* 1922 - Marcel Mouloudji, French actor and singer (d. 1994)
*1923 - Lee Kuan Yew, Minister Mentor of Singapore
*1924 - Lauren Bacall, American actress
*1925 - Charlie Byrd, American musician (d. 1999)
* 1925 - B. B. King, American musician
* 1925 - Charles Haughey, Prime Minister of Ireland (d. 2006)
*1926 - Tommy Bond, American actor (d. 2005)
*1927 - Peter Falk, American actor
* 1927 - Jack Kelly, American actor (d. 1992)
*1928 - Lady Gwen Thompson, British occultist (d. 1986)
*1930 - Anne Francis, American actress
*1934 - George Chakiris, American actor
*1934 - Ronnie Drew, Ex-Singer of The Dubliners and Solo Artist (d.2008)
*1935 - Carl Andre, American artist
* 1935 - Bob Kiley, American public transit specialist
*1937 - Alexander Medved, Russian wrestler
*1939 - Breyten Breytenbach, South African writer and painter
*1941 - Richard Perle, American political advisor
*1942 - Bernie Calvert, British musician (The Hollies)
*1943 - James Alan McPherson, American writer
*1944 - Winston Grennan, Jamaican American drummer
*1946 - Cathee Dahmen, American fashion model
* 1946 - Mike Reynolds, Australian politician
* 1946 - Camilo Sesto, Spanish singer
*1947 - Russ Abbot, British comedian
* 1947 - Enrique Krauze, Mexican historian and writer
*1948 - Ron Blair, American bassist
* 1948 - Kenney Jones, English musician (The Small Faces; Faces; The Who)
*1949 - Ed Begley, Jr., American actor
*1950 - Loyd Grossman, American television presenter
*1953 - Alan Barton, English musician (Black Lace, Smokie) (d. 1995)
* 1953 - Nancy Huston, Canadian-born novelist and essayist
* 1953 - Eric Vail, Canadian ice hockey player
*1954 - Earl Klugh, American jazz guitarist
* 1954 - Colin Newman, English musician (Wire)
* 1954 - Frank Reed, American singer (Chi-Lites)
*1955 - Ron Brewer, American basketball player
* 1955 - Janet Ellis, British television presenter
* 1955 - Yolandita Monge, Puerto Rican singer
* 1955 - Robin Yount, American baseball player
*1956 - David Copperfield, American magician
* 1956 - Mickey Rourke, American actor
*1957 - David McCreery, Irish footballer
*1958 - Orel Hershiser, American baseball player
* 1958 - Neville Southall, Welsh footballer
* 1958 - Jennifer Tilly, American actress
*1959 - Tim Raines, American baseball player
*1960 - Danny John-Jules, British actor
* 1960 - Kurt Busiek, American comic book writer
*1961 - Bilinda Butcher, British singer (My Bloody Valentine)
*1963 - Richard Marx, American singer
*1964 - Molly Shannon, American actress
* 1964 - Mary Coustas, Austalian entertainer
* 1964 - Rossy de Palma, Spanish actress
*1965 - Katy Kurtzman, American actress
*1966 - Kevin Young, American athlete
*1967 - Hiroya Oku, Japanese Manga-ka
*1968 - Marc Anthony, American singer
* 1968 - Walt Becker, American director and writer
*1969 - Justine Frischmann, English musician (Elastica)
*1970 - Mark Schultz, American musician
*1971 - Amy Poehler, American comedian (Saturday Night Live)
*1972 - Mark Bruener, American football player
*1973 - Alexander Vinokourov, Kazakh cyclist
* 1973 - Justin Haythe, American writer
* 1973 - George Corrie, English Footballer
*1974 - Tom Dolan, American swimmer
*1975 - Shannon Noll, Australian singer and songwriter
*1976 - Tina Barrett, British singer (S Club)
* 1976 - Greg Buckner, American basketball player
* 1976 - Heather Hopper, American actress
*1977 - Greg Ball, American politician
*1978 - Dan Dickau, American basketball player
* 1978 - Matthew Rogers, American singer
*1979 - Bobby Korecky, American baseball player
*1980 - Patrik Stefan, Czech hockey player
*1981 - Fan Bingbing, Chinese actress
* 1981 - Alexis Bledel, American actress (Gilmore Girls)
*1982 - Leon Knight, English footballer
* 1982 - Michael McCall, Irish chemist
*1983 - Kirsty Coventry, Zimbabwean Olympic swimmer
*1984 - Sabrina Bryan, American actress and singer
* 1984 - Katie Melua, Georgian-British singer
*1985 - Madeline Zima, American actress
*1986 - Kyla Pratt, American actress
*1987 - Louis Clement Ngwat-Mahop, Cameroonian football player
* 1987 - Travis Wall, American Dancer/Dance Instructor
* 1987 - Daren Kagasoff, American actor
*1988 - Teddy Geiger, American singer
* 1988 - Sarah Steele, American actress
*1992 - Nick Jonas, American singer-songwriter and actor

*2005 - Princess Jalilah bint Ali, of Jordan

Deaths

* 96 - Domitian, Roman Emperor (b. 51)
* 307 - Flavius Valerius Severus, deposed Roman Emperor (murder)
* 827 - Pope Valentine
*1087 - Pope Victor III (b. 1026)
*1100 - Bernold of Constance, German chronicler (b. 1054)
*1345 - John IV, Duke of Brittany (b. 1295)
*1380 - King Charles V of France (b. 1338)
*1394 - Avignon Pope Clement VII (b. 1342)
*1406 - Cyprian, Metropolitan of Moscow (b. 1336)
*1498 - Tomás de Torquemada, first grand inquisitor of Spain (b. 1420)
*1589 - Michael Baius, Flemish theologian (b. 1513)
*1672 - Anne Bradstreet, American colonial poet (b. 1612)
*1701 - James II of England and VII of Scotland (b. 1633)
*1736 - Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist (b. 1686)
*1775 - Allen Bathurst, 1st Earl Bathurst, English privy councillor (b. 1684)
*1782 - Farinelli, Italian castrato singer (b. 1705)
*1803 - Nicolas Baudin, French explorer (b. 1754)
*1824 - King Louis XVIII of France (b. 1755)
*1829 - Nikolay Raevsky, Russian general and statesman (b. 1771)
*1864 - John Hanning Speke, English explorer (b. 1827)
*1865 - Christian Julius De Meza, Danish general (b. 1792)
*1898 - Ramón Emeterio Betances, Puerto Rican politician, medical doctor and diplomat (b. 1827)
*1911 - Edward Whymper, English mountain climber (b. 1840)
*1925 - Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman, Russian physicist (b. 1888)
*1932 - Ronald Ross, English physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1857)
*1933 - George Gore, baseball player (b. 1857)
*1944 - Gustav Bauer, Chancellor of Germany (b. 1870)
*1945 - John McCormack, Irish tenor (b. 1884)
*1950 - Pedro de Cordoba, American actor (b. 1881)
*1957 - Qi Baishi, Chinese painter (b. 1864)
*1965 - Ahn Eak-tai, Korean musician, composer, and conductor (b. 1906)
*1975 - Irene Hayes, Ziegfeld girl and businesswoman (b. 1896)
*1977 - Marc Bolan, English musician (b. 1947)
*1977 - Maria Callas, Greek-American soprano (b. 1923)
*1980 - Jean Piaget, Swiss psychologist (b. 1896)
*1987 - Howard Moss, American poet, dramatist, and critic (b. 1922)
*1992 - Millicent Fenwick, American politician and writer (b. 1910)
*1993 - Rok Petrovič, Slovenian skier (b. 1966)
*1996 - McGeorge Bundy, U.S. National Security Advisor (b. 1919)
*1996 - Gene Nelson, American actor (b. 1920)
*2000 - Georgiy Gongadze, Ukrainian journalist (b. 1969)
*2001 - Samuel Z. Arkoff, American film producer (b. 1918)
*2002 - James Gregory, American actor (b. 1911)
*2003 - Erich Hallhuber, German actor (b. 1951)
*2003 - Sheb Wooley, singer and actor (b. 1921)
*2005 - Gordon Gould, inventor of the laser (b. 1920)
*2006 - Rob Levin, creator of Freenode (b. 1955)
*2006 - Floyd Curry, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1925)
*2007 - Robert Jordan, author of the Wheel of Time series (b. 1948)
*2008 - Norman Whitfield, associated with the Temptations (b. 1940)

Holidays and observances

*In ancient Greece, the third day of the Eleusinian Mysteries, when the initiates walked to the sea at Phaleron and purified themselves in the water.
*RC Saints - Saint Cyprian, Pope Cornelius, Saint Ludmila, Curcodomus
*Also see September 16 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics).
*Mexico - Independence Day (from Spain; proclaimed 1810, recognised 1821, instituted 1825; See Fiestas Patrias (Mexico)).
*Malaysia - Hari Malaysia (formation of Malaysia, 1963).
*Papua New Guinea - Independence Day (from Australia, 1975).
*International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/16 BBC: On This Day]
*
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Sep&day=16 On This Day in Canada] ----


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