Anthony of Saxony

Infobox Saxon Royalty
title = King of Saxony
name = Anthony
full name = Anton Clemens Theodor Maria Joseph Johann Evangelista Johann Nepomuk Franz Xavier Aloys Januar


imgw = 180px
reign =5 May 1827-6 June 1836
coronation =
predecessor =Frederick Augustus I
successor =Frederick Augustus II
succession = King of Saxony
heir =
spouse =Princess Marie Caroline of Savoy
Maria Theresia of Tuscany
issue = Princess Maria Ludovika
Prince Frederick Augustus
Princess Maria Johanna
Princess Maria Theresia
royal house =House of Wettin
royal anthem =
father =Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony
mother =Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria
date of birth =birth date|1755|12|27|df=y
place of birth = Dresden
date of death =death date and age|1836|6|6|1755|12|27|df=y
place of death = Dresden
place of burial=Katholische Hofkirche|

Anthony, King of Saxony (b. Dresden, 27 December 1755 – d. Dresden, 6 June 1836), also known by his German name Anton (full name: "Anton Clemens Theodor Maria Joseph Johann Evangelista Johann Nepomuk Franz Xavier Aloys Januar"),Holborn, p. 24] was a King of Saxony (1827-1836) from the House of Wettin. He became known as "Anton der Gütige",Quinger p. 35] (en: "Anthony the Kind"). [" [http://www.die-sachsen-kommen.de/en/king.htm The Kings of Saxony] ". Accessed January 27 2007.]

He was the fifth but third surviving son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony, and Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria.

Early life

With few chances to take part in the politics of the Electorate of Saxony or receive any land from his older brother Frederick Augustus III--after Johann Georg I, any Elector of Saxony give to his younger sons appanages--, Anton lived under the shadows.

During the first years of the reign of his older brother as Elector, Anton was the third in line, preceded only by his older brother Karl. The death of Karl (8 September 1781) make him the next in line to the Electorate as Crown Prince (de: "Kronprinz"); this was because all the pregnancies of the Electress Amalie, except for one daughter, ended in a stillbirth.

In Turin on 29 September 1781 (by proxy) and again in Dresden on 24 October 1781 (in person), Anton married firstly with the Princess Caroline of Savoy (Maria Carolina Antonietta Adelaida), daughter of the King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia. Caroline died after only one year of union, on 28 December 1782. They had no children.

In Florence on 8 September 1787 (by proxy) and again in Dresden on 18 October 1787 (in person), Anton married secondly with the Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (Maria Theresia Josephe Charlotte Johanna), daughter of the Grand Duke Leopold I of Tuscany, later Emperor Leopold II. They had four children, but none survived to the age of two:
#Maria Ludovika Auguste Fredericka Therese Franziska Johanna Aloysia Nepomucena Ignatia Anna Josepha Xaveria Franziska de Paula Barbara (b. Dresden, 14 March 1795 - d. Dresden, 25 April 1796).
#Frederick Augustus (b. and d. Dresden, 5 April 1796).
#Maria Johanna Ludovica Anna Amalia Nepomucena Aloysia Ignatia Xaveria Josepha Franziska de Chantal Eva Apollonia Magdalena Crescentia Vincentia (b. Dresden, 5 April 1798 - d. Dresden, 30 October 1799).
#Maria Theresia (b. and d. Dresden, 15 October 1799).

The Electress gave birth for last time in 1797 to another stillborn child. After this Anton became, officially, the Heir to the Electorate and, since 1806, the Kingdom of Saxony.

King of Saxony

Anton succeeded his brother Frederick August I as King of Saxony when he died, on 5 May 1827. The 71-years-old new King was completely inexperienced in the government, therefore, he had the intention to make any profound changes.

Prussian diplomats discussed granting the Prussian Rhineland (predominantly Catholic) to Anton (a Catholic) in exchange for Lutheran Saxony in 1827, but nothing came of these talks.Freitag, p. 216]

After the July Revolution of 1830 in France, disturbances in Saxony began in autumn. These were directed primarily against the old Constitution. Therefore, on 13 September the cabinet dismissed Count Detlev von Einsiedel, followed by Bernhard von Lindenau. Because the people wished a younger regent, Anton agreed to appoint his nephew Frederick Augustus Prince Co-Regent (de: "Prinz-Mitregenten"). As another consequence of the disturbances, a new constitution was accepted in 1831 which came into effect on 4 September of that year. With it Saxony became a Constitutional monarchy. The constitution was more conservative than other constitutions existing at this time in the German Union. The King kept his exclusive sovereignty but was bound by the Government Business to cooperate with the Ministers and the decisions of both Chambers of the States (de: "Kammern der Ständeversammlung") meeting. The entry of Saxony into the "Zollverein" in 1833 let trade, industry and traffic blossom farther.

Without surviving male issue, Anton was succeeded as King by his nephew, Frederick Augustus II.

Ancestors

Footnotes

References

cite book
last = Holborn
first = Hajo
title = A History of Modern Germany: 1840-1945
publisher = Princeton University
date =1982
location = Princeton
pages = 846
id = ISBN 0-691-05359-6

cite book
last = Quinger
first = Heinz
title = Dresden und Umgebung: Geschichte, Kunst und Kultur der sächsischen Hauptstadt
publisher = Mair Dumont Dumont
date = 1999
pages = 319
id = ISBN 3770140281

cite book
last = Freitag
first = Sabine
authorlink =
coauthors = Peter Wende
title = British Envoys to Germany 1816-1866: 1816-1829
publisher = Cambridge University Press
date = 2000
location =
pages = 614
url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521790662&id=Ho1DbUG5w_cC&pg=RA1-PA216&lpg=RA1-PA216&ots=_dusHUwOX_&dq=%22Anthony+of+Saxony%22&sig=Z6txEk4YaX1dkf5bOWGjzFciYPg#PRA1-PA216,M1
doi =
id = ISBN 0521790662

s-ttl|title=King of Saxony
years=1827-1836


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