Infobox Ethnic group

First row: Skłodowska–CuriePope John Paul IICopernicusWałęsaConrad. Second row: GretzkyJan III SobieskiKościuszkoRejewskiWajdaKolbe. Third row: Piłsudski • Lem • BrzezińskiWarnerWielickiWolszczan
population =60 million (est.) [http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=pwko Świat Polonii, witryna Stowarzyszenia Wspólnota Polska: „Polacy za granicą”] ("Polish people abroad" as per summary by Świat Polonii, internet portal of the Polish Association "Wspólnota Polska")]
pop1 = 38,860,000
ref1 = [ [http://www.stat.gov.pl/english/opracowania_zbiorcze/b-s/2006/06_06/tabele/tabela14.xls Excel spreadsheet from Polish Central Statistical Office] ]
region2 = USA
pop2 = 10,024,711
ref2 = [ [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-state=dt&-context=dt&-reg=DEC_2000_SF4_U_PCT001:001|547;&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-TABLE_NAMEX=&-ci_type=A&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B04003&-CONTEXT=dt&-tree_id=4001&-all_geo_types=N&-redoLog=true&-geo_id=01000US&-search_results=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en 2006 Community Survey] ]
region3 = BRA
pop3 = 1,800,000
ref3 = [ [http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=pwko Polish Society in Brazil] ]
region4 = DEU
pop4 = 1,055,700
ref4 = [de icon Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund - Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus 2005 [https://www-ec.destatis.de/csp/shop/sfg/bpm.html.cms.cBroker.cls?cmspath=struktur,vollanzeige.csp&ID=1020312 Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland] (German text about migrants in Germany) PDFlink|886 KiB.]
region5 = CAN
pop5 = 984,565
ref5 = [List of Canadians by ethnicity]
region6 = FRA
pop6 = 900,000
ref = [ Polonia ]
region7 = UK
pop7 = (est.) 500,000
ref7 = [en icon [http://www.polishexpress.co.uk/en/newspaper.aspx?id=1 Poles in the UK, Polish Express] , source: government statistics.
^ pl icon According to Tomasz Ziemba from Polish Express online 1,020,000 Polish visitors in the UK logged into Polish chatroom Gadu–Gadu in January: [http://www.polishexpress.co.uk/artykul.aspx?id=935 Policzyło nas Gadu–Gadu]
^ pl icon Tomasz Wybranowski, [http://wiadomosci.onet.pl/1431925,2678,kioskart.html Korespondencja,] Tygodnik Przegląd, 22.08.2007, onet.pl
^ en icon [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=384121&in_page_id=1770 Steve Doughty, Daily Mail,] Office for National Statistics recorded the number of Poles who have travelled to the UK in 2006 at over 2,000,000. The number of those who stay exceeds 250,000.
region8 = ARG
pop8 = 500,000
ref8 = [ [http://www.clarin.com/diario/2004/04/27/t-749506.htm Poles in Argentina] ]
region9 = BLR
pop9 = 400,000
ref9 = [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html Poles in Belarus] ]
region10 = LTU
pop10 = 250,000
ref10 = [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lh.html Poles in Lithuania] ]
region11 = RUS
pop11 = 173,000
ref11 = [ [http://www.perepis2002.ru/content.html?id=11&docid=10715289081463 Poles in Russia] ]
region12 = AUS
pop12 = 150,900
ref12 = [PDFlink| [http://www.crc.nsw.gov.au/statistics/Sect1/Table1p08Aust.pdf Poles in Australia] |56.3 KiB ]
region13 = UKR
pop13 = 144,130
ref13 = [ [http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/eng/results Poles in Ukraine] ]
region14 = NOR
pop14 = 120,000
ref14 = [ [http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article1443964.ece Aftenposten.no: - 120.000 polakker i Norge (Innenriks) ] ]
region15 = ESP
pop15 = 78,305
ref15 = [http://www.ine.es/prensa/np503.pdf]
region16 = IRL
pop16 = 63,090
ref16 = [ [http://www.cso.ie/census/documents/PDR%202006%20Tables%2019-30.pdf Poles in Ireland] ]
region17 = LVA
pop17 = 57,000
ref17 = [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lg.html#People CIA World Factbook] ]
region18 = CZE
pop18 = 52,000
ref18 = [PDFlink|http://wtd.vlada.cz/files/rvk/rnm/zprava_mensiny_2001_en.pdf|1.41 MiB ]
region19 = ITA
pop19 = 50,790
ref19 = [ [http://demo.istat.it/str2004/index.html Poles in Italy (click on Tutti i Paesi - Tavola)] ]
region20 = MEX
pop20 = 50,000
ref20 = [ [http://www.meksyk.polemb.net/index.php?document=31 Poles in Mexico] ]
region21 = KAZ
pop21 = 47,293
ref21 = [PDFlink| [http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Mes/pdf/51_cap1_2.pdf] |87.2 KiB ]
region22 = NLD
pop22 = 39,500
ref22 = [PDFlink| [http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/CCD504EA-9D41-40C2-AE28-BFB0A51C2045/0/2005k3b15p096art.pdf Poles in Netherlands] |162 KiB ]
region23 = AUT
pop23 = 21,000
ref23 = [PDFlink| [http://www.statistik.at/pub/neuerscheinungen/vzaustriaweb.pdf Poles in Austria] ]
region24 = ISL
pop24 = 10,000
ref24 = [ [http://www.hagstofa.is/?PageID=626&src=/temp/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=MAN12100%26ti=Mannfj%F6ldi+eftir+f%E6%F0ingarlandi+1981%2D2006+%26path=../Database/mannfjoldi/Faedingarland/%26lang=3%26units=Fjöldi www.hagstofa.is] ]
region25 = TUR
pop25 = 5,000
ref25 = [ [http://www.polonezkoy.com/index_eng.asp www.polonezkoy.com] ]
region26 = Flagicon|World Rest of World
pop26 = 1,145,000 (est.)
ref26 = [ [http://www.nasza-gazetka.com/Menu_Polonia/DIASPORA/DIASPORA.HTM Poles around the World (>polonia > statystyka)] ]
rels= Predominantly Roman Catholicism with Orthodox, Protestant, Atheist and Jewish minorities.

The Polish people, or Poles, ( _pl. Polacy IPA-pl|p|o|'|l|a|c|y| ) are a Western Slavic ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Poles are sometimes defined as people who share a common Polish culture and are of Polish descent. Their religion is predominantly Roman Catholic. The Poles can also be referred to as the inhabitants of the Republic of Poland and Polish emigrants irrespective of their ethnicity. A wide-ranging Polish diaspora exists throughout Western and Eastern Europe, the Americas and Australia.

There is no commonly accepted definition of the Polish people. According to the preamble of the Constitution of Poland, the Polish Nation consists of all citizens of Poland. However, like in most European countries, many people limit the group to native speakers of the Polish language, people that share certain traditions, or people who share a common ethnic background originating from Poland. As to its origins, the name of the nation comes from a western Slavic ethnic group of Polans primarily associated with Poland and the Polish language. Poles belong to the Lechitic subgroup of these ethnic people. The Polans of Giecz, Gniezno, and Poznań were one of the most influential tribes of Greater Poland and managed to unite many other West Slavic tribes in the area under the rule of what became the Piast dynasty, thus giving birth to a new state. The Polish word for a Polish person is "Polak" (male) and "Polka" (female), however, when this common noun is used in the English language (usually spelled as "Polack") it is always offensive. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=polack polack - Definitions from Dictionary.com ] ]


Poles or Polish are the sixth largest national group in Europe. [NationMaster.com 2003-2008. [http://www.nationmaster.com/red/graph/peo_pop-people-population&int=-1&id=EUR&b_ac=1 People Statistics: Population (most recent) by country] Accessed 2008-01-25] Estimates vary depending on source, though available data suggests a total number around 60 million people worldwide (with approx. 21 million living outside of Poland). [http://www.wspolnota-polska.org.pl/index.php?id=pwko Świat Polonii, witryna Stowarzyszenia Wspólnota Polska: „Polacy za granicą”] ("Polish people abroad" as per summary by Świat Polonii, internet portal of the Polish Association "Wspólnota Polska")] There are almost 39 million Poles in Poland alone. There are also autochthonous Polish minorities in the surrounding countries including Germany, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Belarus. There are some smaller minorities in nearby countries such as Moldova and Latvia. There is also a Polish minority in Russia which included autochthonous Poles as well as those forcibly deported during and after World War II; the total number of Poles in what was the former Soviet Union is estimated at up to 3 million. [Gil Loescher, [http://books.google.com/books?id=eR5oYvO1uFgC&pg=PA119&dq=3+million+ethnic+Poles+in+the+former+Soviet+Union&sig=Kdm4ndGC7XbDsOS8qiXjPlxC5k8 Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis] , published by Oxford University Press US, 1993, 1996. ISBN 0195102940. Accessed 12-12-2007. ]

The term "Polonia" is usually used in Poland to refer to people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders, officially estimated at around 10-12 to 20 million. There is a notable Polish diaspora in the United States (Polish-Americans), Canada, (Polish-Canadians) and Brazil (Polish-Brazilians). France has a historic relationship with Poland and has a relatively large Polish-descendant population. Poles lived in France since the 1700s. In the early 20th century, over a million Polish people settled in France, mostly during world wars, among them Polish émigrés fleeing either Nazi occupation and later Soviet rule.

In the United States a significant number of Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Detroit, New York City, Orlando, and Buffalo. The majority of Polish Canadians arrived to Canada since World War II, the number of Polish immigrants increased between 1945 – 1970, and again since the fall of Communism in 1989. In Brazil the majority of Polish immigrants settled in Paraná State, the city of Curitiba has the second largest Polish diaspora in the world (after Chicago) and Polish music, dishes and culture are quite common in the region. In recent years, since joining the European Union, many Polish people have emigrated to countries such as Ireland; where an estimated 200,000 Polish people have entered the labour market. It is estimated that over half a million Polish people have immigrated to the United Kingdom. The Polish community in Norway has increased dramatically and has grown to a total number of 120,000, making Poles the largest immigrant group in Norway.

Polish tribes

The following is the list of Polish tribes - tribes which constituted the lands of Poland in the early Middle Ages, at the beginning of the Polish state. Some of them have remained a separate ethnicity while others have been assimilated into the culture of Poland.

European Union

:"(for ethnic Poles living abroad see Polonia, for those living and working in the United Kingdom see Polish British)"

A survey carried out by the CBOS public opinion institute, between March 30 and April 2, 2007, found that 86% of Poles felt that EU membership had had a positive effect, with only 5% of the respondents speaking against it, down from 22 percent in 2004. The institute also found that 55% of those surveyed prefer the EU to remain a union of sovereign states, while 22% supported the idea of a "United States of Europe". [EU Business, 21 June 2007, [http://www.eubusiness.com/Poland/1182434414.99/ Poles more pro-EU than ever: survey] Accessed 12-06-2007.] Principal areas of Polish life that have been improved by EU membership, are agriculture (according to 75% of those surveyed), the environment (61%), productivity (57%) and unemployment (56%). [EU Business, 02 May 2007, [http://www.eubusiness.com/Poland/poland-eu.28/ Three years after entering the EU, 86% of Poles are satisfied] ]

Among the ten new EU members, of which eight are Central or Eastern European, Poles are the most mobile, with considerable numbers of Polish migrants found in almost all ‘old’ EU countries, filling numerous vacancies on the European labour market, especially in areas where indigenous workforce is insufficient. According to Franck Duvell of Oxford, some countries, like Germany and Austria, missed on that opportunity by discriminating against mobile Europeans, granting them freedom of movement without freedom of employment, which resulted in the increase of numbers of illegal migrant workers there. “In fact, the EU accession process, and namely the Polish experience could possibly serve as a paradigm for easing some of Europe’s migration dilemma,” Duvell suggested. [Franck Duvell, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, Oxford, PDFlink| [http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/publications/papers/2006-05-17-Duvell-Poles.pdf Poles in Europe - From Illegal Immigrants to Members of the European Union] |22.3 KiB , accessed 12-06-2007.]


ee also

External links

* [http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/legacy/chap-5.html#chap5-4 History of Polish war veterans being admitted to Canada after World War II]
* [http://www.zpwb.org.uk Federation of Poles in Great Britain]
* [http://www.firmypolonia.com/ Firmy i Organizacje Polonijne] [http://www.polishfirms.info/katalog/polonia ("Polonia Directory: Firms, Companies and Organizations")]
* [http://www.polishheritage.co.nz/TRUST/TRUST.HTM Polish Heritage Trust of New Zealand]
* [http://www.polishplanet.com/ Polacy w Wielkiej Brytanii, Polish Community in the UK]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • poles — poles; poles·man; …   English syllables

  • poles — poliai statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. poles vok. Pole, m rus. полюсы, m pranc. pôles, m …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • pôles — poliai statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. poles vok. Pole, m rus. полюсы, m pranc. pôles, m …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • Poles’ye — Sp Paliẽsis Ap Палессе/Palyessye baltarusiškai (gudiškai) Ap Полесье/Poles’ye rusiškai L ŠV Baltarusija …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Poles’ye — Sp Polèsė Ap Палессе/Palyessye baltarusiškai (gudiškai) Sp Palèsė Ap Полесье/Poles’ye rusiškai Ap Полісся/Pоlissya ukrainiškai Ap Polesie lenkiškai L žem. Baltarusijoje, Lenkijoje, Ukrainoje ir RF …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Poles — This unusual name has a number of possible origins, the first and probably most likely for modern day bearers of the name being a topographical surname for someone who lived near a pool or pond. The derivation is from the Old English pre 7th… …   Surnames reference

  • POLES — Polar Exchange at the Sea Surface Contributor: GSFC …   NASA Acronyms

  • poles — pəʊl n. axis point of a sphere; one item from a pair of oppositions; rod, staff; long staff on which a flag is raised, flag pole v. move a boat by using pole …   English contemporary dictionary

  • poles — slope …   Anagrams dictionary

  • POLES — …   Useful english dictionary

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