- GSM localization
GSM localization is the use of
multilaterationto determine the location of GSM mobile phones, usually with the intent to locate the user [ [http://to.swang.googlepages.com/ICC2008LBSforMobilessimplifiedR2.pdf "Location Based Services for Mobiles: Technologies and Standards“] , Shu Wang, Jungwon Min and Byung K. Yi, IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC) 2008, Beijing, China] .
Types of LBS Technology
Localization-Based Systems can be broadly divided into:
* Network based
* Handset based
Network-based techniques utilize the service provider's network infrastructure to identify the location of the handset. The advantage of network-based techniques is that they can be implemented non-intrusively, without affecting the handsets.
The accuracy of network-based techniques varies, with cell identification as the least accurate and
triangulationas the most accurate. The accuracy of network-based techniques is closely dependent on the concentration of base station cells, with urban environments achieving the highest possible accuracy.
One of the key challenges of network-based techniques is the requirement to work closely with the service provider, as it entails the installation of hardware and software within the operator's infrastructure. Often, a legislative framework, such as
E911, would need to be in place to compel the cooperation of the service provider as well as to safeguard the privacy of the information.
Handset-based technology requires the installation of client software on the handset to determine its location. This technique determines the location of the handset by computing its location by cell identification, signal strengths of the home and neighboring cells or the
latitudeand longitude, if the handset is equipped with a GPSmodule. The calculated location is then sent from the handset to a location server.
The key disadvantage of this technique is the necessity of installing software on the handset. It requires the active cooperation of the mobile subscriber as well as software that must be able to handle the different operating systems of the handsets. Typically, only a
smart phone, such as one based on Symbianor Windows Mobile, would be able to run such software.
One of the proposed work-arounds is the installation of embedded hardware or software on the handset by the manufacturers. However, the obvious difficulty of convincing different manufacturers to cooperate on a common mechanism and to address the cost issue means that this avenue has not made any significant headway.
Another difficulty would be to address the issue of foreign handsets that are roaming in the network.
Hybrid-based techniques use a combination of network-based and handset-based technologies for location determination. One example would be Assisted-GPS, which uses both
GPSand network information to compute the location. Hybrid-based techniques give the best accuracy of the three but inherit the limitations and challenges of network-based and handset-based technologies.
Examples of LBS technologies
*Cell Identification - The accuracy of this method can be as good as a few hundred meters in urban areas, but as poor as 32 km in suburban areas and rural zones. The accuracy depends on the known range of the particular network base station serving the handset at the time of positioning.
*Enhanced Cell Identification - With this method, one can get a precision similar to Cell Identification, but for rural areas, with circular sectors of 550 meters.
Time difference of arrival- The network determines the time difference and therefore the distance from each base station to the mobile phone.
Time of arrival- Same as TDOA, but this technology uses the absolute time of arrival at a certain base station rather than the difference between two stations.
Angle of arrival- AOA mechanism locates the mobile phone at the point where the lines along the angles from each base station intersect.
* E-OTD - This is similar to TDOA, but the position is estimated by the mobile phone, not by the base station. The precision of this method depends on the number of available LMUs in the networks, varying from 50 to 200 m.
Assisted-GPS- A largely GPS-based technology, which uses an operator-maintained ground station to correct for GPS errors caused by the atmosphere/topography. Assisted-GPS positioning technology typically falls back to cell-based positioning methods when indoors or in an urban-canyon environment.
Global Positioning System
Internationalisation: usability, product design, user interfaceand cultural data collection
Real Time Locating
* [http://www.openBmap.org openB
* [http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~walex/papers/are_gsm_phones_the_solution_for_localization_wmcsa2006.html GSM Localization on Mobile Phones]
* [http://www.opencellid.org OpenCellID: An OpenSource CellID database]
* [http://www.cellspotting.com CellSpotting: A Global Cell Id-Based Information Service]
* [http://www.gisdevelopment.net/technology/lbs/techlbs006.htm LBS, the ingredients and the alternatives]
* [http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~czhou/docs/jsr179/lapi/ Location API for J2ME]
* [http://developers.sun.com/techtopics/mobility/apis/articles/location/ J2ME and Location-Based Services]
* [http://www.afischer-online.de/sos/celltrack/p.html Celltrack for Symbian phones]
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