- Alfred Edward Housman
Alfred Edward Housman (pronEng|ˈhaʊsmən; 26 March 1859 – 30 April 1936), usually known as A.E. Housman, was a classical scholar and English
poetbest known for his cycle of poems " A Shropshire Lad". Lyrical and almost epigrammatic in form, the poems were mostly written before 1900. Their wistful evocation of doomed youth in the English countryside, in spare language and distinctive imagery, appealed strongly to late Victorian, Edwardian and Georgian taste, and to many early twentieth century English composers (beginning with Arthur Somervell) both before and after the First World War. Through their song-settings the poetry therefore became closely associated with that era, and with Shropshireitself.
Housman was counted one of the foremost classicists of his age, and ranks as one of the greatest scholars of all time. ['a man who turned out to be not only the great English classical scholar of his time but also one of the few real and great scholars anywhere at any time'. Charles Oscar Brink, "English Classical Scholarship: Historical reflections on Bentley, Porson and Housman," James Clarke & Co, Oxford, Oxford University Press, New York, 1986 p.149] He established his reputation publishing as a
private scholarand on the strength and quality of his work was appointed Professor of Latin at UCL and later, at Cambridge. His editions of Juvenal, Maniliusand Lucanare still considered authoritative.
Housman was born in Fockbury, a
hamleton the outskirts of Bromsgrovein Worcestershire, the eldest of seven children of a country solicitor. His mother died on his twelfth birthday, and subsequently her place was taken by his stepmother Lucy, an elder cousin of his father's whom the latter married in 1873. His brother Laurence Housmanand sister Clemence Housman also became writers.
Housman was educated first at
King Edward's School, Birmingham, then Bromsgrove School, where he acquired a strong academic grounding and won prizes for his poetry. In 1877 he won an open scholarshipto St John's College, Oxford, where he studied classics. By nature rather withdrawn, Housman formed however strong friendships with his roommates Moses Jackson and A. W. Pollard. Jackson was the great love of Housman's life, though the latter's feelings were not reciprocated, as Jackson was heterosexual. [Summers 1995, p.371; Page 2004.] He obtained a first class in classical Moderations in 1879, but his immersion in textual analysis, particularly with Propertius, led him to neglect ancient historyand philosophy, which formed part of the Greats curriculum, and thus failed to obtain even a pass degree. Though some explain Housman's unexpected failure in his final exams as due to Jackson's rejection., [Cunningham 2000, p.981.] most biographers adduce a variety of reasons, indifference to philosophy, overconfidence in his praeternatural gifts, a contempt for inexact learning, and enjoyment of idling away his time with Jackson, conjoined with news of his father's desperate illness as the more immediate and germane causes. [Norman Page, "Macmillan, London 1983 pp.A.E. Housman: A Critical Biography"pp.43-46] [Richard Perceval Graves, "A.E. Housman: The Scholar-Poet" Charles Scribners, New York, 1979 pp.52-55] . [Charles Oscar Brink, "English Classical Scholarship", ibid.pp.152f.] The failure left him with a deep sense of humiliation, and a determination to vindicate his genius.
After Oxford, Jackson got a job as a clerk in the
Patent Officein Londonand arranged a job there for Housman as well. They shared a flat with Jackson's brother Adalbert until 1885 when Housman moved in to lodgings of his own. Moses Jackson married and moved to Karachi, India in 1887 and Adalbert Jackson died in 1892. Housman continued pursuing classical studies independently and published scholarly articles on such authors as Horace, Propertius, Ovid, Aeschylus, Euripidesand Sophocles. He gradually acquired such a high reputation that in 1892 he was offered the professorship of Latin at UCL, which he accepted. The "UCL Academic Staff Common Room" was dedicated to his memory as the "Housman Room".
Although Housman's sphere of responsibilities as professor included both
Latinand Greek, he put most of his energy into the study of Latin classics. In 1911 he took the Kennedy Professorship of Latinat Trinity College, Cambridge, where he remained for the rest of his life. It was unusual at the time for an Oxford man such as Housman to be appointed to a post at Cambridge. During 1903–1930, he published his critical edition of Manilius's "Astronomicon" in five volumes. He also edited works of Juvenal (1905) and Lucan (1926). Many colleagues were unnerved by his scathing critical attacks on those whom he found guilty of shoddy scholarship. To his students he appeared as a severe, reticent, remote authority. However, quite contrary to his usual outward appearance, he allowed himself several hedonistic pleasures: he enjoyed gastronomyand flying in aeroplanes and frequently visited France, [Page 2004.] where he read "books which were banned in Britain as pornographic". [Graves 1979, 155.] A fellow don described him as being "descended from a long line of maiden aunts".Critchley 1988.]
Housman found his true vocation in classical studies and treated poetry as a secondary activity. He never spoke about his poetry in public until 1933 when he gave a lecture, 'The Name and Nature of Poetry', in which he argued that poetry should appeal to emotions rather than to the intellect. He died three years later in Cambridge. His ashes are buried near St Laurence's Church,
"A Shropshire Lad"
During his years in London, A E Housman completed his cycle of 63 poems, "A Shropshire Lad." After several publishers had turned it down, he published it at his own expense in 1896. The volume surprised both his colleagues and students. At first selling slowly, it rapidly became a lasting success, and its appeal to English musicians (see below) had helped to make it widely known before
World War I, when its themes struck a powerful chord with English readers. "A Shropshire Lad" has been in print continuously since May 1896.
The poems are pervaded by deep pessimism and preoccupation with death, without religious consolation. Housman wrote most of them before ever visiting that part of Shropshire (about thirty miles from his home), which he presented in an idealised pastoral light, as his 'land of lost content'. [A.E.HOusman, "A Shropshire Lad", XL] Housman himself acknowledged the influence of the songs of
William Shakespeare, the Scottish Border Ballads and Heinrich Heine, but specifically denied any influence of Greek and Latin classics in his poetry.fact|date=February 2008
In the early 1920s, when Moses Jackson was dying in
Canada, Housman wanted to assemble his best unpublished poems so that Jackson could read them before his death. These later poems, mostly written before 1910, show a greater variety of subject and form than those in "A Shropshire Lad" but lack the consistency of his previously published work. He published them as " Last Poems" (1922) because he felt his inspiration was exhausted and that he should not publish more in his lifetime. This proved true.
After his death Housman's brother, Laurence, published further poems which appeared in "More Poems" (1936) and "Collected Poems" (1939). Housman also wrote a parodic "Fragment of a Greek Tragedy", in English, and humorous poems published posthumously under the title "Unkind to Unicorns".
John Sparrow ["Collected Poems" (Penguin, Harmondsworth 1956), preface by John Sparrow.] found statements in a letter written late in Housman's life which describe how his poems came into existence:
Poetry was for him ...'a morbid secretion', as the pearl is for the oyster. The desire, or the need, did not come upon him often, and it came usually when he was feeling ill or depressed; then whole lines and stanzas would present themselves to him without any effort, or any consciousness of composition on his part. Sometimes they wanted a little alteration, sometimes none; sometimes the lines needed in order to make a complete poem would come later, spontaneously or with 'a little coaxing'; sometimes he had to sit down and finish the poem with his head. That .... was a long and laborious process ...Sparrow himself adds, "How difficult it is to achieve a satisfactory analysis may be judged by considering the last poem in "A Shropshire Lad". Of its four stanzas, Housman tells us that two were 'given' him ready made; one was coaxed forth from his subconsciousness an hour or two later; the remaining one took months of conscious composition. No one can tell for certain which was which."
"De Amicitia" (about friendship)
In 1942 Laurence Housman also deposited an essay entitled "A. E. Housman's 'De Amicitia'" in the
British Library, with the proviso that it was not to be published for twenty-five years. The essay discussed A. E. Housman's homosexuality and his love for Jackson. [Summers ed. 1995, 371.] Despite the conservative nature of the times, Housman, as distinct from the prudence of his public life, was quite open in his poetry, and especially his "A Shropshire Lad", about his deeper sympathies. In poem 30 of that sequence, for instance, we read that:::
"Others, I am not the first":::"have willed more mischief than they durst"as the voice speaks of how "Fear contended with desire". In "More Poems", he buries his love for Moses Jackson in the very act of commemorating it, as his feelings of love break his friendship, and must be carried silently to the grave. [Summers ed. 1995,372.] :-:::"Because I liked you better"::::"Than suits a man to say":::"It irked you, and I promised"::::"To throw the thought away."
:::"To put the world between us"::::"We parted, stiff and dry;":::"Goodbye, said you, forget me."::::"I will, no fear, said I"
:::"If here, where clover whitens"::::"The dead man's knoll, you pass",:::"And no tall flower to meet you"::::"Starts in the trefoiled grass",
:::"Halt by the headstone naming"::::"The heart no longer stirred,":::"And say the lad that loved you"::::"Was one that kept his word." [A.E.Housman, "More Poems," Jonathan Cape, London 1936 p.48]
His poem, 'Oh who is that young sinner with the handcuffs on his wrists?', written after the trial of
Oscar Wilde, addressed more general social injustice towards homosexuality. [Housman 1937, 213.] In the poem the prisoner is suffering 'for the colour of his hair', a natural, given attribute which, in a clearly coded reference to homosexuality, is reviled as 'nameless and abominable' (recalling the legal phrase 'peccatum horribile, inter christianos non nominandum', 'the horrible sin, not to be named amongst Christians').
Housman in other art forms
Music and art song
Housman's poetry, especially "A Shropshire Lad", provided texts for a significant number of British - and in particular English - composers in the first half of the 20th century. The national, pastoral and traditional elements of his style resonated with [http://www.musicalresources.co.uk/WhatisEnglishPastoralMusic.php similar trends in English music] . The first was probably the cycle "A Shropshire Lad" set by
Arthur Somervellin 1904, who had begun to develop the concept of the English song-cyclein his version of Tennyson's "Maud" a little previously. Ralph Vaughan Williamsproduced his most famous settings of six songs, the cycle "On Wenlock Edge", for string quartet, tenorand piano(dedicated to Gervase Elwes) in 1909, [W. and R. Elwes, "Gervase Elwes - The Story of his Life" (Grayson and Grayson, London 1935), 195-97.] and it became very popular after Elwes recorded it with the London String Quartetand Frederick B. Kiddlein 1917. Between 1909 and 1911 George Butterworthproduced settings in two collections or cycles, as "Six Songs from A Shropshire Lad", and "Bredon Hill and other songs". He also wrote an orchestral tone poemon "A Shropshire Lad" (first performed at LeedsFestival under Arthur Nikischin 1912). [A. Eaglefield-Hull, "A Dictionary of Modern Music and Musicians" (Dent, London 1924), 73.]
Butterworth's death on
the Sommein 1916 was considered a great loss to English music; Ivor Gurney, another most important setter of Housman ("Ludlow and Teme", a work for voice and string quartet, and a song-cycle on Housman works, both of which won the Carnegie Award[Eaglefield-Hull 1924, 205.] ) experienced emotional breakdowns which were popularly (but wrongly) believed to have arisen from shell-shock. Hence the fatalistic strain of the poems, and the earlier settings, foreshadowed responses to the universal bereavement of the First World War and became assimilated into them. This was reinforced when their foremost interpreter and performer, Gervase Elwes(who had initiated the music festivals at Briggin Lincolnshireat which Percy Graingerand others had developed their collections of country music [W. and R. Elwes 1935, 156-166.] ) died in a horrific accident in 1921. Elwes had been closely identified with English wartime morale, having given six benefit performances of " The Dream of Gerontius" on consecutive nights in 1916, and many concerts in France in 1917 for British soldiers. [W. & R. Elwes 1935, 244-55.]
Among other composers who set Housman songs were John Ireland (song cycle, "Land of Lost Content"),
Michael Head(e.g. 'Ludlow Fair'), Graham Peel(a famous version of 'In Summertime on Bredon'), Ian Venables(Songs of Eternity and Sorrow), and the American Samuel Barber(e.g. 'With rue my heart is laden'). Gerald Finzirepeatedly began settings, though never finished any. Even composers not directly associated with the 'pastoral' tradition, such as Arnold Bax, Lennox Berkeleyand Arthur Bliss, were attracted to Housman's poetry. A 1976 catalogue listed 400 musical settings of Housman's poems. [Palmer and Banfield 2001.] Housman's poetry impacted on British music in a way comparable to that of Walt Whitmanin the music of Delius, Vaughan Williams and others: Housman's works provided song texts, Whitman's the texts for larger choral works.
The impact in music of Housman's poetry has not been limited in time, place or style. The contemporary
New Zealandcomposer David Downesincludes a setting of "March" on his CD "The Rusted Wheel of Things".
References to and quotations from Housman are frequent in English language literature.
*Housman is the main character in the 1998
Tom Stoppardplay " The Invention of Love".
*"A Shropshire Lad" is mentioned in
E.M. Forster's " A Room with a View": one of the characters, Reverend Beebe, picks up the book from a stack whilst visiting the Emerson home, and remarks, "Never heard of it", perhaps lamenting the son's "unconventional" - if not sacrilegious - literary taste.
*There is a reference to Housman in
Ian McEwan's novel "Atonement", when Robbie, an English literature graduate from Cambridge, glances at his copy of "Poems" and "A Shropshire Lad".
*Housman's poetry ("There's this to say for life and breath, it gives a man a taste for death") supplies the title and is quoted in
Peter O'Donnell's 1969 Modesty Blaisethriller, "A Taste for Death".
*The same phrase is used by
P.D. Jamesin her 1986 crime novel, "A Taste for Death", the seventh in her Adam Dalgliesh series.
*The last words of the poem "On Wenlock Edge" is used by Audrey R. Langer for the title of the 1989 "Ashes Under Uricon".
Nobel Prizewinning novelist Patrick Whitenamed his 1955 novel "The Tree Of Man" after a line in " A Shropshire Lad".
*Housman's poem "From far, from eve and morning" (Shropshire Lad XXXII) is included and heavily referenced in
Roger Zelazny's short story "For a breath I tarry" in " The Last Defender of Camelot" collection.
*Housman is mentioned and quoted several times by
Diana Gabaldonin her popular historical fictionseries, starting with " Outlander".
The Secret History" by Donna Tartt, "With Rue My Heart Is Laden" is recited by Henry during the burial ceremony of Bunny.
*In "Drover's Road" by New Zealand writer
Joyce West, "With Rue my Heart is Laden" is quoted by the narrator, Gay.
Chinua Achebe's novel " No Longer At Ease" the main character Obi frequently refers to Housman's poetry, particularly "Easter Hymn".
John Dos Passos' novel " Three Soldiers", "A Shropshire Lad" is quoted by the educated Andrews in part four, chapter one, "mocking" Andrews as it jingles through his head.
Patrick O'Brianhas a minor character quote from one of Housman's poems (Poem AP IX "When the bells justle in the tower") in his novel " The Thirteen Gun Salute". [ [http://www.hmssurprise.org/Miscellany/BellsInTheTower.html Bells in the Tower ] ]
*On the first chapter of
Alan Watts´s " Tao of Philosophy" (1995), The Myth and I, he quotes one of Housman's poems.
*There are several references to Housman in
Alan Bennett's " The History Boys". One character quotes "A Shropshire Lad": "The loveliest of trees, the cherry now...."
*Denise McCluggage, a noted automotive journalist and pioneer sports car racer in the 1950s and 1960s, used a line from A Shropshire Lad ("With Rue My Heart Is Laden . . .") as the title for a collection of her columns ("By Brooks Too Broad for Leaping")
A wall hanging of "
A Shropshire Lad" was created and now hangs prominently in the St Laurence Church, Ludlow, England. A plaque honouring the poet is also installed on the church grounds.
Nicolas Roeg's 1971 film "Walkabout" concludes with lines from "A Shropshire Lad", spoken by a narrator. John Irvin's (1981) film "The Dogs of War" ends with "Epitaph for an Army of Mercenaries" being sung over the end titles. Meryl Streep, portraying Karen Blixen, quotes " To an Athlete Dying Young" at the gravesite of Denys Finch Hattonin "Out of Africa" (1985). Toward the end of the film, she accepts a drink from the exclusive all men's club in Nairobi, and toasts "rose-lipped maidens, lightfoot lads" -- an allusion to Housman's "With Rue My Heart Is Laden".
A line from Housman's poem XVI "How Clear, How Lovely Bright", was used for the title of the last episode of the television movie series "
Inspector Morse" (The Remorseful Day). Morse also quotes the last stanzaof the poem 27 minutes into the episode.
Blue Remembered Hills", a television play by Dennis Potter, takes its title from "A Shropshire Lad" and features Potter reading part of the poem.
A fragment of his poem is quoted in "
The History Boys" by Hector.
In Episode 193, Season 9 of
The Simpsons, "The Last Temptation of Krust", Krusty calls a press conference to announce his retirement, and quotes from "To an Athlete Dying Young".
The 2002 sci fi film "Firestarter 2: Rekindled" (based on a Steven King novel, the villain Rainbird recites the second and third stanzas of "Others, I'm not the first" as the protagonist, Charlie, destroys a town with her pyrokinetic abilities. The lines "Ice and Fire, fear contended with desire" are used by Rainbird to describe the relationship between him and Charlie.
A Shropshire Lad" (1896)
Last Poems" (1922)
*"More Poems" (1936)
*"Collected Poems" (1939); the poems included in this volume but not the three above are known as "Additional Poems". The Penguin Edition of 1956 includes an Introduction by
*"Manuscript Poems: Eight Hundred Lines of Hitherto Un-collected Verse from the Author's Notebooks", ed. Tom Burns Haber (1955)
*"Unkind to Unicorns: Selected Comic Verse", ed. J. Roy Birch (1995; 2nd ed. 1999)
*"The Poems of A. E. Housman", ed. Archie Burnett (1997)
*"M. Manilii Astronomica" (1903-1930; 2nd ed. 1937; 5 vols.)
*"D. Iunii Iuuenalis Saturae: editorum in usum edidit" (1905; 2nd ed. 1931)
*"M. Annaei Lucani, Belli Ciuilis, Libri Decem: editorum in usum edidit" (1926; 2nd ed. 1927)
*"The Classical Papers of A. E. Housman", ed. J. Diggle and F. R. D. Goodyear (1972; 3 vols.)
*"William White, "Housman's Latin Inscriptions", CJ (1955) 159 - 166, reports also a Latin elegiac poem, dedicating Manilius to M. J. Jackson, a Latin address to the University of Sydney signed by "The President of University College, London", and "Hendecasyllables", a translation of John Dryden's "King Arthur", printed in the Bromsgrovian (1882) over the signature "A. E. H." White's article includes the text of eight Latin inscriptions written by Housman for various memorial brasses.
These lectures are listed by date of delivery, with date of first publication given separately if different.
*Introductory Lecture (1892)
*"Swinburne" (1910; published 1969)
*Cambridge Inaugural Lecture (1911; published 1969 as "The Confines of Criticism")
*"The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism" (1921; published 1922)
*"The Name and Nature of Poetry" (1933)
*"The Letters of A.E. Housman", ed. Henry Maas (1971)
*"The Letters of A.E. Housman", ed. Archie Burnett (2007)
*Critchley, Julian, 'Homage to a lonely lad', "Weekend Telegraph" (UK), 23 April 1988.
*Cunningham, Valentine ed., "The Victorians: An Anthology of Poetry and Poetics" (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000)
*Graves, Richard Perceval, "A. E. Housman: The Scholar-Poet" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 155
*Housman, Laurence, "A.E.H.: Some Poems, Some Letters and a Personal Memoir by his Brother" (London: Jonathan Cape, 1937)
*Page, Norman, ‘Housman, Alfred Edward (1859–1936)’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
*Palmer, Christopher and Stephen Banfield, 'A. E. Housman', "The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians" (London: Macmillan, 2001)
*Summers, Claude J. ed., "The Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage" (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1995)
*Holden, A. W. and J. R. Birch, "A. E Housman - A Reassessment" (Palgrave Macmillan, London 1999)
*Shaw, Robin, "Housman's Places" (The Housman Society, 1995)
On Housman in general and his life
* [http://www.housman-society.co.uk The Housman Society]
* [http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/housman.htm Housman's Grave]
* [http://www.tls.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,25336-2646321,00.html Star man] : An article in the [http://www.the-tls.co.uk TLS] by Robert Douglas Fairhurst, 20 June 2007
* [http://www.glbtq.com/literature/housman_ae.html glbtq.com] An informative page by Joseph Cady of the University of Rochester. Cady wrote the entry in Summers ed. (see References below).
* [http://www.newcriterion.com/archive/10/sept91/housman.htm Leithauser] "A footnote for Housman" by Brad Leithauser in "
The New Criterion" September 1991
* [http://www.musicalresources.co.uk/EnglishComposersandA.E.Hou.php Musical Resources: "English Composers and A.E. Housman" by Tim Foxon ] at www.musicalresources.co.uk English Composers and A.E. Housman]
* [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~martinh/poems/complete_housman.html Complete serious poems]
* [http://www.bryantmcgill.com/World_Poetry/~A/A.E._Housman/ A.E. Housman Poetry and Translations] at the Open Translation Project sponsored by
Bryant H. McGill
* [http://www.gwywyr.com/essays/housman.html Swinburne] — Housman discusses Swinburne's poetic virtues and vices
* [http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~martinh/poems/housman.html Selected Housman Poems]
"A Shropshire Lad"
*" [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/HouShro.html A Shropshire Lad] "
* [http://www.johnwheater.net/Housman.php Account of the 1996 centenary reading of A Shropshire Lad complete, by The Housman Society, with one audio excerpt]
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