Racial segregation
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Racial segregation is the separation of humans into racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home.[1] Segregation is generally outlawed, but may exist through social norms, even when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling's models of segregation and subsequent work. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence (such as lynchings, e.g.) Generally, a situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would usually be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. In the United States, legal segregation was required in some states and came with "anti-miscegenation laws" (prohibitions against interracial marriage).[2] Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, and/or mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races.

Contents

Historical cases

Racial segregation has appeared in all parts of the world where there are multiracial communities. Where racial amalgamation has occurred on a large scale, as in Hawaii and Brazil, there was no legal segregation, however, there has been occasional social discrimination. [3]

Indo-European-speaking nomadic groups from Europe, the Near East, Anatolia, and the Caucasus migrated to India. According to 19th century British historians, it was these "Aryans" who and established the caste system, an elitist act of social organization that (according to the British) separated the "light-skinned" Indo-Aryan conquerors from the "conquered dark-skinned" indigenous Dravidian tribes through enforcement of "racial endogamy". This claim was used by the British, defining themselves as "purely Aryan", to justify British Rule in India. Much of this was simply conjecture, fueled by British imperialism[4] British policies of divide and rule as well as enumeration of the population into rigid categories during the tenure of British rule in India contributed towards the hardening of these segregated caste identities.[5] Since the independence of India from British rule, the British fantasy of an "Aryan Invasion and subjugation of the dark skinned Dravidians in India" has become a staple polemic in South Asian geopolitics, including the propaganda of Indophobia in Pakistan.[6] There is no decisive theory as to the origins of the caste system in India, and globally renown historians and archaeologists like Jim Shaffer, J.P. Mallory, Edwin Bryant, and others, have disputed the claim of "Aryan Invasion".[7]

Some researchers from India, Europe and the U.S. claim that genetic similarities to Europeans were more common in members of the higher ranks.[8] Their findings, published in Genome Research, claimed the idea that members of higher castes are more closely related to Europeans than are the lower castes.[9][10] However, other researchers have criticized and contradicted this claim.[11] A study by Joanna L. Mountain et al. of Stanford University had concluded that there was "no clear separation into three genetically distinct groups along caste lines", although "an inferred tree revealed some clustering according to caste affiliation".[12] A 2006 study by Ismail Thanseem et al. of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (India) concluded that the "lower caste groups might have originated with the hierarchical divisions that arose within the tribal groups with the spread of Neolithic agriculturalists, much earlier than the arrival of Aryan speakers", and "the Indo-Europeans established themselves as upper castes among this already developed caste-like class structure within the tribes."[13] A 2006 genetic study by the National Institute of Biologicals in India, testing a sample of men from 32 tribal and 45 caste groups, concluded that the Indians have acquired very few genes from Indo-European speakers.[14] More recent studies have also debunked the British claims that so-called "Aryans" and "Dravidians" have a "racial divide". A study conducted by the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in 2009 (in collaboration with Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT) analyzed half a million genetic markers across the genomes of 132 individuals from 25 ethnic groups from 13 states in India across multiple caste groups.[15] The study establishes, based on the impossibility of identifying any genetic indicators across caste lines, that castes in South Asia grew out of traditional tribal organizations during the formation of Indian society, and was not the product of any mythical "Aryan Invasion" and "subjugation" of Dravidian people, unlike what British racial-revanchist and revisionist claims would have one believe.[16]

Jewish segregation

Jews in Europe generally were forced, by decree or by informal pressure, to live in highly segregated ghettos and shtetls.[17] In 1204 the papacy required Jews to segregate themselves from Christians and to wear distinctive clothing.[18] Forced segregation of Jews spread throughout Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries.[19] In the Russian Empire, Jews were restricted to the so-called Pale of Settlement, the Western frontier of the Russian Empire corresponding roughly to the modern-day countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine.[20] By the early 20th century, the majority of European Jews lived in the Pale of Settlement.

Jewish population were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited solely by the Jews.[21]

In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews:

"…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the greatest insults. The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask for them... Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the danger of atoning for it with his life... If... a Jew shows himself in the street during the three days of the Katel (Muharram)…, he is sure to be murdered."[22]

Canada

Racial Segregation in Canada, particularly British Columbia, was widespread during colonial times and continued through the 1950s. Early workplaces were often segregated, with different groups being allowed certain jobs and rates of pay. Fish canneries & coal mines were both highly segregated. In coal mining opes - such as the one at Cumberland in Vancouver Island - had separate China Towns, "Jap" Towns and white towns. Fish canneries were segregated as well - with separate living areas and jobs for Whites, Japanese, Chinese and First Nations ('Indians'). Non-whites were usually paid less and segregation served to prevent labour solidarity. Following the internment of the Japanese Canadians during the Second World War, the Japanese were removed from these systems and more First Nations were hired. In some locations there were whites-only bathrooms and water fountains. At Namu Cannery this system existed - though the Japanese were considered 'honourary whites' and allowed to use white bathrooms. In the case of Namu - it was desegregated when a group of First Nations women removed the 'whites-only' signs and took them to the cannery manager in the mid-20th century.

First Nations (Indigenous/Native people) were also prohibited from using the same facilities in transportation - rail cars, accommodations on steamships are two examples. Both First Nations, and Asians were restricted from some professions in the early 20th Century. Indians were also prohibited from entering pool halls or bars, and owning logging licences (required to log). The right to vote was granted to Indians in 1960 for federal elections. Other non-white groups acquired voting rights earlier - shortly after World War Two.

Schools were segregated in some areas. The last segregated black school (Merlin, Ontario) was closed in 1965. The last Canadian segregated black school (Guysborough, Nova Scotia) was closed in 1983.[23]

China

Tang dynasty

Several laws enforcing racial segregation of foreigners from Chinese were passed by the Han chinese during the Tang dynasty. In 779 the Tang dynasty issued an edict which forced Uighurs to wear their ethnic dress, stopped them from marrying Chinese females, and banned them from pretending to be Chinese. Chinese disliked Uighurs because they practiced usury. The magristrate who issued the orders may have wanted to protect "purity" in Chinese custom. In 836 Lu Chun was appointed as governor of Canton, he was disgusted to find Chinese living with foreigners and intermarriage between Chinese and foreigners. Lu enforced separation, banning interracial marriages, and made it illegal for foreigners to own property. Lu Chun believed his principles were just and upright.[24] The 836 law specifically banned Chinese from forming relationships with "Dark peoples" or "People of colour", which was used to describe foreigners, such as "Iranians, Sogdians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, Sumatrans", among others.[25][26]

Qing dynasty

The Qing Dynasty was founded not by the Han Chinese who form the majority of the Chinese population, but the Manchus, who are today an ethnic minority of China. The Manchus were keenly aware of their minority status and during the early eras of their reign, they implemented a strict policy of racial segregation between the Manchus and Han Chinese. This ethnic segregation had cultural and economic reasons: intermarriage was forbidden to keep up the Manchurian heritage and minimize sinicization. Han Chinese and Mongols were banned from settling in Manchuria.[27] The Qing Dynasty started colonizing Manchuria with Han Chinese later on in the dynasty's rule, but the Manchu area was still separated from modern-day Inner Mongolia by the Outer Willow Palisade, which kept the Manchu and the Mongols in the area separate.

The policy of segregation applied directly to the banner garrisons, most of which occupied a separate walled zone within the cities in which they were stationed. While the Manchus followed the governmental structure of the preceding Ming dynasty, their ethnic policy dictated that appointments were split between Manchu noblemen and Han Chinese officials who had passed the highest levels of the state examinations, and because of the small number of Manchus, this insured that a large fraction of them would be government officials.

England and Ireland

Segregation may have existed in early Anglo-Saxon England, restricting intermarriage and resulting in the displacement of the native British population by Germanic incomers.[28] According to research led by the University College London, Anglo-Saxon settlers enjoyed substantial social and economic advantages over Celtic Britons.[29] However, Stephen Oppenheimer and Bryan Sykes argue that there was no population displacement, as the Anglo-Saxons had relatively little genetic impact on England.[30][31] In 2002, the BBC used the headline "English and Welsh are races apart" to report a genetic survey of test subjects from market towns in England and Wales.[32]

The Statutes of Kilkenny were a series of thirty-five acts passed at Kilkenny in 1366. They forbad the intermarriage between the native Irish and the English settlers in Ireland, the English fostering of Irish children, the English adoption of Irish children and use of Irish names and dress.[33]

Germany

In the early 14th century, some guilds in the cities of North-East Germany introduced statutes, under which persons of Wendish, i.e. Slavic, origin were forbidden from joining the guild.[34] According to Wilhelm Raabe, "down into the eighteenth century no German guild accepted a Wend."[35]

The ban of interracial marriage was part of the Nuremberg Laws enacted by the Nazis in Germany against the German Jewish community during the 1930s. The laws prohibited marriages between Jews and Aryan Germans, which were classified as different races.[36]

Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the Nazis divided the population into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed housing strips in the cities, public transportation, etc. In an effort to split Polish identity they attempted to establish ethnic divisions of Kashubians and Gorals (Goralenvolk), based on these groups' alleged "Germanic component".

Women behind the barbwire fence of the Lvov Ghetto in occupied Poland. Spring 1942

During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, and were, along with Romas (Gypsies), discriminated against by the racial laws. Jewish doctors and professors were not allowed to treat Aryan (effectively, gentile) patients or teach Aryan pupils, respectively. The Jews were not allowed to use any public transportation, besides the ferry, and were able to shop only from 3-5 pm in Jewish stores. After Kristallnacht ("The Night of Broken Glass"), the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members.

Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as "undesirable" "racial" groups in the Holocaust. The Nazis established ghettos to confine Jews and sometimes Romas into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de-facto concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of these ghettos, with 400,000 people. The Ghetto Litzmannstadt was the second largest, holding about 160,000.[37]

Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for forced labour (in all, about 12 million forced laborers were employed in the German war economy inside the Nazi Germany).[38][39] Although Nazi Germany also used forced laborers from Western Europe, Poles, along with other Eastern Europeans viewed as racially inferior,[40] were subject to deeper discriminatory measures. They were forced to wear identifying red tags with "P"s sewn to their clothing, subjected to a curfew, and banned from public transportation.

While the treatment of factory workers or farm hands often varied depending on the individual employer, Polish laborers as a rule were compelled to work longer hours for lower wages than Western Europeans — in many cities, they were forced to live in segregated barracks behind barbed wire. Social relations with Germans outside work were forbidden, and sexual relations (Rassenschande or "racial defilement") were punishable by death.[41]

Italy

In 1938, the fascist regime led by Benito Mussolini introduced a series of laws instituting an official segregationist policy in the Italian Empire, especially aimed against the Jews. This policy enforced various segregationist norms, like the prohibition for Jews to teach or study in ordinary schools and universities, to own industries reputed of major national interest, to work as journalists, to enter the military, and to wed non-Jews. Some of the immediate consequences of the introduction of the 'provvedimenti per la difesa della razza' (norms for the defence of the race) included many of the best Italian scientists leaving their job, or even Italy. Amongst these, world-renowned physicists Emilio Segrè, Enrico Fermi (whose wife was Jewish), Bruno Pontecorvo, Bruno Rossi, Tullio Levi-Civita, mathematicians Federigo Enriques and Guido Fubini and even the fascist propaganda director, art critic and journalist Margherita Sarfatti, who was one of Mussolini's mistresses. Rita Levi-Montalcini, who would successively win the Nobel Prize for medicine, was forbidden to work at the university. Albert Einstein, upon approval of the racial law, resigned from honorary membership of the Accademia dei Lincei.

Later, Fascist Italy participated actively in the persecution of the Italian Jews, arresting and handing over tens of thousands of Jews to Nazi Germany. The persecution of the Jews ended in southern Italy (controlled by the Kingdom of Italy) after the armistice with the Allies (September 8, 1943), while in central and northern Italy (controlled by the Italian Social Republic, a puppet state of Nazi Germany led by Mussolini) the persecution continued until the definitive fall of Mussolini's regime (April 25, 1945).

Latin America

Spanish colonists created caste systems in Latin American countries based on classification by race and race mixture. An entire nomenclature developed, including the familiar terms "mulatto", "mestizo", and "zambo" (the latter the origin of "sambo"). The Spanish had practiced a form of caste system in Hispania prior to their expulsion of the Jews and Muslims. While many Latin American countries have long since rendered the system officially illegal through legislation, usually at the time of independence, prejudice based on degrees of perceived racial distance from European ancestry combined with one's socioeconomic status remain, an echo of the colonial caste system.[42][43]

Rhodesia

The British colony of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), under Ian Smith, leader of the white minority government, declared unilateral independence in 1965. For the next 15 years, Rhodesia operated under white minority rule until international sanctions forced Smith to hold multiracial elections, after a brief period of re-established British rule in 1979.

"Petty apartheid": sign on Durban beach in English, Afrikaans and Zulu languages

Laws enforcing segregation had been around before 1965, although many institutions simply ignored them. One highly publicized legal battle occurred in 1960 involving the opening of a new theatre that was to be open to all races; the inclusion of an unsegregated restroom led to an argument nicknamed "The Battle of the Toilets".

South Africa

The Apartheid system enacted a nation-wide social policy "separate development" with the National Party victory in 1948, following the "colour bar"-discriminatory legislation dating back to the beginning of the Union of South Africa and the Boer republics before which, while repressive to black South Africans along with other minorities, had not gone nearly so far.

Apartheid laws can be generally divided into following acts. Firstly, the Population Registration Act in 1950 classified residents in South Africa into four racial groups: "black", "white", "colored", and "Indian" and noted their racial identities on their identifications. Secondly, the Group Areas Act in 1950 assigned different regions according to different races. People were forced to live in their corresponding regions and the action of passing the boundaries without a permit was made illegal, extending pass laws that had already curtailed black movement. Thirdly, Under the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act in 1953, amenities in public area, like hospitals, universities and parks, were labeled separately according to particular races. What is more, the Bantu Education Act in 1953 segregated national education in South Africa as well.

Uprisings and protests against Apartheid appeared immediately when Apartheid arose. As early as 1949, the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC) advocated the abolishment of Apartheid and suggested fighting against racial segregation by various methods. During the following decades, hundreds of anti-Apartheid actions occurred, including those of the Black Consciousness Movement, students’ protests, labor strikes, and church group activism etc. In 1994, Nelson Mandela won in the first multiracial democratic election in South Africa. His success fulfilled the ending of Apartheid in South African history.

United States

After the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in America, racial discrimination became regulated by the so called Jim Crow laws, which mandated strict segregation of the races. Though such laws were instituted shortly after fighting ended in many cases, they only became formalized after the end of Republican-enforced Reconstruction in the 1870s and 80s during a period known as the nadir of American race relations. This legalized segregation lasted up to the mid 1960s, primarily through the deep and extensive power of Southern Democrats.

An African-American youth at a segregated drinking fountain in Halifax, North Carolina, in 1938.

While the U.S. Supreme Court majority in 1896 Plessy explicitly upheld only "separate but equal" facilities (specifically, transportation facilities), Justice John Marshall Harlan in his dissent protested that the decision was an expression of white supremacy; he predicted that segregation would "stimulate aggressions … upon the admitted rights of colored citizens," "arouse race hate" and "perpetuate a feeling of distrust between [the] races. Feelings between whites and blacks were so tense, even the jails were segregated."[44]

Institutionalized racial segregation was ended as an official practice by the efforts of such civil rights activists as Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr., Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr., working during the period from the end of World War II through the passage of the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 supported by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Many of their efforts were acts of non-violent civil disobedience aimed at disrupting the enforcement of racial segregation rules and laws, such as refusing to give up a seat in the black part of the bus to a white person (Rosa Parks), or holding sit-ins at all-white diners.

By 1968 all the forms of segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court and by 1970, support for formal legal segregation had dissolved. Formal racial discrimination was illegal in school systems, businesses, the American military, other civil services and the government. Separate bathrooms, water fountains and schools all disappeared and the civil rights movement had the public's support.

Since then, African-Americans have played a significant role as mayors, governors, and state officials in both Southern and Northern states and on the national level have been on the Supreme Court, in the House of Representatives and the Senate, in presidential cabinets, as head of the joint chiefs of staff, and in 2009, the first black President of the United States.

Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[45] access to health care,[46] or even supermarkets[47] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[48] areas. The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. Over the next twenty years, a succession of further court decisions and federal laws, including the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and measure to end mortgage discrimination in 1975, would completely invalidate de jure racial segregation and discrimination in the U.S., although de facto segregation and discrimination have proven more resilient. According to the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, the actual de facto desegregation of U.S. public schools peaked in the late 1980s; since that time, the schools have, in fact, become more segregated mainly due to the ethnic segregation of the nation with whites dominating the suburbs and minorities the urban centers.

The Supreme Court Cases: Dred Scott v. Sandford -- 1857, slaves considered not citizens but property

Plessy v. Ferguson -- 1896, segregation allowed if equal but separate

Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia -- 1946, segregation of races not allowed on motor carriers

Sweatt v. Painter -- 1950, higher education facilities must be equal in order to be segregated; "intangibles" must be taken into account when determining quality

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas -- 1954, segregation outlawed in public schools

Green v. County School Board of New Kent County -- 1968, parents cannot choose a previous all-white or all-black school for children

Contemporary segregation

Bahrain

After municipal elections in Bahrain in 2002 brought Islamist opposition party Al Wefaq Islamic Action to power in the capital Manama, its newly installed mayor, Murthader Bader called for the introduction of racial segregation with the removal from the city of all non-Bahraini South Asian inhabitants and for the creation of a new township to house them. In 2004, the head of Manama City Council, Al Wefaq’s Murthader Bader, called for the introduction of racial segregation [49][dead link] in the city with the removal of South Asian nationals to other parts of the country.In 2006, the call was reiterated by Al Wefaq councillor Sadiq Rahma who said Asians 'make the neighbourhood dirty'.[50][dead link] The move has been criticised by Bahraini human rights groups as a 'a violation of basic human rights' .[51][dead link] After 2006’s elections, the party’s Abdullah Al A’ali used his parliamentary platform to call for legislation to restrict expatriate labour away from Bahraini families, saying "Labourers who now live in neighbourhoods with Bahraini families should be given a grace period to relocate before they face legal action." [52]

Canada

In Canada, the Mohawk tribe of Kahnawake has been criticized for evicting non-Mohawks from the Mohawk reserve.[53] Mohawks who marry outside of their race lose their right to live in their homelands.[54][55] The Mohawk government claims that its policy of racially exclusive membership is for the preservation of its identity,[56] but there is no exemption for those who adopt Mohawk language or culture.[54] The policy is based on a 1981 moratorium which was made law in 1984.[57] All interracial couples are sent eviction notices regardless of how long they have lived on the reserve.[55] The only exemption is for interracial couples married before the 1981 moratorium.

Although some concerned Mohawk citizens have contested the racially-exclusive membership policy, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal has ruled that the Mohawk government may adopt policies it deems necessary to ensure the survival of its people.[56]

A long standing practice of segregation has also been imposed upon the commercial salmon fishery in British Columbia since 1992 when separate commercial fisheries were created for select aboriginal groups on three B.C. river systems. Canadians of other races who fish in the separate fisheries have been arrested, jailed and prosecuted. Although the fishermen who were prosecuted were successful at trial (see the decision in R. v. Kapp),[58] the decision was overturned on appeal.[59] On final appeal, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in favour of the program on the grounds that segregation of this workplace is a step towards equality in Canada.[60] Affirmative action programs in Canada are protected from equality rights challenges by s. 15(2) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The segregation continues today though more than 35 percent of the fishermen in the B.C. commercial fishery are of aboriginal ancestry, yet Canadians of aboriginal ancestry comprise less than 4 percent of B.C.'s population.[citation needed]

Fiji

Two military coups in Fiji in 1987 removed from power a government that was led by an ethnic Fijian,[61] but was supported principally by the Indo-Fijian (ethnic Indian) electorate. A new constitution was promulgated in 1990, establishing Fiji as a republic, with the offices of President, Prime Minister, two-thirds of the Senate, and a clear majority of the House of Representatives reserved for ethnic Fijians, Ethnic Fijian ownership of the land was also entrenched in the constitution.[62]

Fiji's case is a situation of de facto ethnic segregation.[63] Fiji has a long complex history with more than 3500 years as a divided Tribal nation. Unification under the British rule as a Colony for 96 years brought other racial groups, particularly immigrants from the Indian sub-continent.

India

Some activists consider that the Indian caste system is a form of racial discrimination.[64] The participants of the United Nations Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa in March 2001, condemned discrimination due to the caste system, and tried to pass a resolution declaring that caste as a basis for the segregation and oppression of peoples in terms of their descent and occupation is a form of apartheid. However, no formal resolution was passed to that effect[65]

India's treatment of Dalits has been described by some authors as "India's hidden apartheid".[66][67]

Controversy exists as to whether caste-based discrimination is equivalent to racial discrimination. Such allegations have been rejected by some scholars such as Andre Béteille, an Indian sociologist, who writes that treating caste as a form of racism is "politically mischievous" and worse, "scientifically nonsense" since there is no discernible difference in the racial characteristics between Brahmins and Scheduled Castes. While he admits the existence of caste-based discrimination, he writes that "Every social group cannot be regarded as a race simply because we want to protect it against prejudice and discrimination".[68]

Pakistani-American sociologist Ayesha Jalal also rejects these allegations. In her book, "Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia", she writes that "As for Hinduism, the hierarchical principles of the Brahmanical social order have always been contested from within Hindu society, suggesting that equality has been and continues to be both valued and practiced."[69]

Israel

The level of de facto segregation of Arabs from Jews in Israel is high. During the 1970s and 1980s, the Jewish Agency and Jewish National Fund used resources to diminish the Arab presence and increase Jewish communities in Negev and the Galilee. Since 1948, no new town has been established for the burgeoning Arab population, except for a few small Bedouin communities in Negev. The Israeli government has also withdrawn approval on various occasions to allow reasonable growth to meet Arab citizens' needs.[70]

In 2010, the Knesset finalized the "Amendment to the Cooperative Associations Bill," with the intention of bypassing previous rulings of the High Court of Justice against Arab segregation in Israel. If implemented, the amendment will give acceptance committees of communal villages the authority to limit residence in their towns exclusively to Jewish Israelis.[70]

Support for segregation and suspicion of Arabs in Israel is on the rise. A 2008 poll by the Center Against Racism (2008) found a worsening of Jewish citizens' perceptions of their Arab counterparts:[71] For instance, 75% of Israeli Jews would not agree to live in a building with Arab residents, 60% would not accept any Arab visitors at their homes, 40% believed that Arabs should be stripped of their right to vote, and 59% believe that the culture of Arabs is primitive.[71]

Malaysia

Malaysia has an article in its constitution which distinctly segregates the ethnic Malays and indigenous peoples of Malaysia—i.e. bumiputra—from the non-Bumiputra such as the Chinese and the East Indians under the social contract, of which by law would guarantee the former certain special rights and privileges. To question these rights and privileges however is strictly prohibited under the Internal Security Act, legalised by the 10th Article(IV) of the Constitution of Malaysia.[72] The privileges mentioned herein covers—few of which—the economical and education aspects of Malaysians, e.g. the Malaysian New Economic Policy; an economic policy recently criticised by Thierry Rommel—who headed a European Commission's delegation to Malaysia—as an excuse for "significant protectionism"[73][74] and a quota maintaining higher access of Malays into public universities. This system of segregation is seen as a form of apartheid by its opponents.[75]

Mauritania

Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007[76] It was already abolished in 1980 though it was still affecting the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery before generations, who live now in Mauritania as "black Moors" or haratin and who partially still serve the "white Moors", or bidhan (the name means literally white-skinned people), as slaves. The number of slaves in the country was not known exactly, but is was estimated to be up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population.[77][78]

For centuries, the so-called Haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by white Moors of Arab/Berber ancestry. Many descendants of the Arab and Berber tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their ancestors. This ideology has led to oppression, discrimination and even enslavement of other groups in the region of Sudan and Western Sahara.[79][80] In certain villages in Mauritania there are mosques for lighter-skinned nobles and mosques for black slaves, who are still buried in separate cemeteries.[81]

United Arab Emirates

There is considerable racial segregation in the United Arab Emirates, where there are areas that house large numbers of South Asian migrant workers (primarily Indian, as well as Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka).[82]

United States

Rajiv Sethi, economist at Columbia University, writes that black-white segregation is declining fairly consistently for most metropolitan areas in the US. Despite these pervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas are small.[83] Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.[84] Thirty years (the year 2000) after the civil rights era, the United States remained in many areas a residentially segregated society, in which blacks, whites and Hispanics inhabited different neighborhoods of vastly different quality.[85][86][87]

Dan Immergluck writes that in 2002 small businesses in black neighborhoods still received fewer loans, even after accounting for businesses density, businesses size, industrial mix, neighborhood income, and the credit quality of local businesses.[88] Gregory D. Squires wrote in 2003 that it is clear that race has long affected and continues to affect the policies and practices of the insurance industry.[89] Workers living in American inner-cities have a harder time finding jobs than suburban workers.[90]

The desire of many whites to avoid having their children attend integrated schools has been a factor in white flight to the suburbs.[91] Recent studies in San Francisco showed that groups of homeowners of all races tended to self-segregate in order to be with people of the same education level and race.[92] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been mostly replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in predominantly white areas.[93] Today, many whites are willing, and are able, to pay a premium to live in a predominantly white neighborhood. Equivalent housing in white areas commands a higher rent.[94] By bidding up the price of housing, many white neighborhoods effectively shut out blacks, because blacks are unwilling, or unable, to pay the premium to buy entry into these expensive neighborhoods. Conversely, equivalent housing in black neighborhoods is far more affordable to those who are unable or unwilling to pay a premium to live in white neighborhoods. Through the 1990s, residential segregation remained at its extreme and has been called "hypersegregation" by some sociologists or "American Apartheid"[95]

In February 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v. California 543 U.S. 499 (2005) that the California Department of Corrections' unwritten practice of racially segregating prisoners in its prison reception centers — which California claimed was for inmate safety (gangs in California, as throughout the U.S., usually organize on racial lines)— is to be subject to strict scrutiny, the highest level of constitutional review.[citation needed]

Sociologists in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s long studied the impact of racial segregation in California, the nation's most populous and racially diverse state not known for customary segregation the Southeast US was infamous. (See also Demographics of California).[citation needed] A socially liberal, but racially divided state can have softer prevalent forms of racial segregated communities populated of nearly all whites, blacks, Asian-Americans, and Hispanics (of any race, an ethnic designation) brought upon by economic changes, housing integration, white flight and immigration (in the case of Mexican and Latin American) in California.[citation needed] For examples, South L.A. and west Oakland are a majority (or plurally) black, East Los Angeles is predominantly Mexican American and San Francisco has strictly Chinese American neighborhoods.

There are 105 historically black colleges (HBCU) in the United States today, including public and private, two-year and four-year institutions, medical schools and community colleges.[96] The 2009 "Stimulus Bill" would include more than $1.3 billion for HBCU campuses.[97]

Yemen

See also Castes in Yemen

In Yemen, the Arab elite practices an unofficial form of discrimination against the lower class Akhdam people.[98]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Principles to Guide Housing Policy at the Beginning of the Millennium, Michael Schill & Susan Wachter, Cityscape
  2. ^ E.g., Virginia Racial Integrity Act, Virginia Code § 20-58 and § 20-59
  3. ^ Racial segregation. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  4. ^ From Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru, reproduced from "History : Modern India" (p108) by S.N. Sen, New Age Publishers, ISBN 8122417744.
  5. ^ Corbridge, Staurt; Harriss, John (2000). Reinventing India: Liberalization, Hindu Nationalism and Popular Democracy. Polity press. p. 8. 
  6. ^ Ayesha Jalal. (1995). Conjuring Pakistan: History as Official Imagining. International Journal of Middle East Studies. 27(1). pp. 73-89.
  7. ^
    • Jim Shaffer - "Current archaeological data do not support the existence of an Indo-Aryan or European invasion into South Asia any time in the pre- or protohistoric periods. Instead, it is possible to document archaeologically a series of cultural changes reflecting indigenous cultural developments from prehistoric to historic periods"Jim Shaffer. The Indo-Aryan Invasions : Cultural Myth and Archaeological Reality. 
    • J.P. Mallory - "... the extraordinary difficulty of making a case for expansions from Andronovo to northern India, and that attempts to link the Indo-Aryans to such sites as the Beshkent and Vakhsh cultures only gets the Indo-Iranian to Central Asia, but not as far as the seats of the Medes, Persians or Indo-Aryans". As quoted in Bryant (see below)
    • Edwin Bryant - "India is not the only Indo-European-speaking area that has not revealed any archaeological traces of immigration."there is at least a series of archaeological cultures that can be traced approaching the Indian subcontinent, even if discontinuous, which does not seem to be the case for any hypothetical east-to-west emigration"
    Bryant, Edwin (2001). The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195137779. . Bryant, Edwin F.; Patton, Laurie L., eds (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and inference in Indian history. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1463-4. 
  8. ^ Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations -- Bamshad et al. 11 (6): 994. Genome Research.
  9. ^ Scientists Connect Indian Castes and European Heritage. Scientific American. May 15, 2001.
  10. ^ Trivedi, Bijal P (2001-05-14). "Genetic evidence suggests European migrants may have influenced the origins of India's caste system". Genome News Network (J. Craig Venter Institute). http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/05_01/Indo-European.shtml. Retrieved 2005-01-27. 
  11. ^ Basu, Analabha; Namita Mukherjee, Sangita Roy, Sanghamitra Sengupta, Sanat Banerjee, Madan Chakraborty, Badal Dey, Monami Roy, Bidyut Roy, Nitai P. Bhattacharyya, Susanta Roychoudhury and Partha P. Majumder (2003). "Ethnic India: A Genomic View, With Special Reference to Peopling and Structure". Genome Research 13 (10): 2277–2290. doi:10.1101/gr.1413403. PMC 403703. PMID 14525929. http://www.genome.org/cgi/reprint/13/10/2277. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  12. ^ Mountain, Joanna L.; J M Hebert, S Bhattacharyya, P A Underhill, C Ottolenghi, M Gadgil, and L L Cavalli-Sforza (April 1995). "Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity". American Journal of Human Genetics 56 (4): 979–992. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1801212. PMID 7717409. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1801212. 
  13. ^ Thanseem, Ismail; Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Vijay Kumar Singh, Lakkakula VKS Bhaskar, B Mohan Reddy, Alla G Reddy, and Lalji Singh (August 2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA" (PDF). BMC Genetics 7: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-42. PMC 1569435. PMID 16893451. http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2156-7-42.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  14. ^ Brian Handwerk (2006-01-10). "India Acquired Language, Not Genes, From West, Study Says". National Geographic News. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/01/0110_060110_india_genes.html. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  15. ^ "Indians are one people descended from two tribes". Dnaindia.com. 2009-09-25. http://www.dnaindia.com/scitech/report_indians-are-one-people-descended-from-two-tribes_1292864. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  16. ^ Aryan-Dravidian divide a myth: Study, Times of India.
  17. ^ Wirth, Louis. The Ghetto. Transaction Publishers (1997), pp. 29–40. ISBN 1560009837.
  18. ^ "A Short History of the Jewish Tradition". .kenyon.edu. http://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/margin/jew.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  19. ^ Ghetto. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  20. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Anti-Semitism in modern Europe". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-215022/anti-Semitism. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  21. ^ "The Jews of Morocco, by Ralph G. Bennettett". Sefarad.org. http://www.sefarad.org/publication/lm/017/morocco.html. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  22. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 181–183
  23. ^ "What Was School Life Like? - A Virtual Schoolhouse - Library and Archives Canada". Collectionscanada.gc.ca. 2010-03-23. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/schoolhouse/008003-2200-e.html. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  24. ^ Edward H. Schafer (1963). The golden peaches of Samarkand: a study of Tʻang exotics. University of California Press. p. 22. ISBN 0520054628. http://books.google.com/?id=jqAGIL02BWQC&pg=PA22&dq=chinese+uighurs+779+edict+lure+canton+836+foreigners+and+chinese+lu+governor+forbade+marriages+forced+separate#v=onepage&q=chinese%20uighurs%20779%20edict%20lure%20canton%20836%20foreigners%20and%20chinese%20lu%20governor%20forbade%20marriages%20forced%20separate&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  25. ^ Mark Edward Lewis (2009). China's cosmopolitan empire: the Tang dynasty. Harvard University Press. p. 170. ISBN 067403306X. http://books.google.com/?id=vpgVvAh2_EsC&pg=PA170&dq=836+law+tang+dynasty#v=onepage&q=836%20private%20intercourse%20dark%20peoples&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  26. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 294. ISBN 0521497817. http://books.google.com/?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=a+history+of+chinese#v=snippet&q=836%20decree%20chinese%20people%20of%20colour&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-28. 
  27. ^ "From Ming to Qing". Darkwing.uoregon.edu. http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~inaasim/Mingqing04/Qing2.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  28. ^ "Ancient Britain Had Apartheid-Like Society, Study Suggests". News.nationalgeographic.com. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/07/060721-england.html. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  29. ^ Thomas, Mark G. et al. Evidence for a segregated social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273(1601): 2651–2657.
  30. ^ "Gene Expression: Blood of the Wakas Wakas". Scienceblogs.com. http://scienceblogs.com/gnxp/2006/09/blood_of_the_british.php. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  31. ^ "Special report: 'Myths of British ancestry' by Stephen Oppenheimer | Prospect Magazine October 2006 issue 127". Prospect-magazine.co.uk. http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/article_details.php?search_term=oppenheimer&id=7817. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  32. ^ "English and Welsh are Races Apart", BBC, 30 June 2002
  33. ^ Simms, Katherine. "Gaelicization." Medieval Ireland An Encyclopedia. 1st ed. Routledge 2005., p.191
  34. ^ "The Situation with the Sorbs in the Past and Present" (pdf).
  35. ^ Raabe, p. 189.
  36. ^ The Laws for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour (September 15, 1935), section 1. "Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad."
  37. ^ "Holocaust Timeline: The Ghettos". Fcit.usf.edu. 1939-11-23. http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/timeline/ghettos.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  38. ^ Michael Marek (nda). "Final Compensation Pending for Former Nazi Forced Laborers". Dw-world.de. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1757323,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  39. ^ "Forced Labor at Ford Werke AG during the Second World War". Summeroftruth.org. http://summeroftruth.org/enemy/barracks.html. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  40. ^ "Hitler’s Plans". Dac.neu.edu. http://www.dac.neu.edu/holocaust/Hitlers_Plans.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  41. ^ "Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era". Holocaust-trc.org. http://www.holocaust-trc.org/poles.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  42. ^ Soong, Roland. "Racial Classifications in Latin America", 1999.
  43. ^ Cline, Howard F., "Review", The American Historical Review, Vol. 76, No. 5 (Dec., 1971), 1626-1628.
  44. ^ "Brown at 50". Thenation.com. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20040503/fonerkennedy. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  45. ^ "Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities" (PDF). http://www.core.ucl.ac.be/services/psfiles/dp99/dp9913.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  46. ^ See: Race and health
  47. ^ In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
  48. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  49. ^ Clashes spark call to relocate expats Gulf Daily News, July 29, 2004
  50. ^ 'No go' rule for bachelor labourers Gulf Daily News, January 23, 2006
  51. ^ Segregation of Asians slammed Gulf Daily News, January 30, 2006
  52. ^ Deputy calls for labour housing regulations, Gulf News, 13 March 2007
  53. ^ "Natives only, please: A look into the eviction of non-natives from the Kahnawake reserve". Nationalpost.com. http://www.nationalpost.com/news/canada/story.html?id=2529314#ixzz0gEyxbZlC. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  54. ^ a b "Mohawk role model faces eviction over non-native fiancé". Nationalpost.com. http://www.nationalpost.com/news/a9/3288607/story.html. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  55. ^ a b Brennan, Richard (2010-02-21). "Evicting 26 non-natives splits reserve". The Star (Toronto). http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/768952--evicting-26-non-natives-splits-reserve. 
  56. ^ a b "Not native? Then leave reserve, Mohawks say". Nationalpost.com. http://www.nationalpost.com/news/canada/native+Then+leave+reserve+Mohawks/2515716/story.html. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  57. ^ "The Agenda - The Agenda Blogs - Behind The Headlines". Tvo.org. http://www.tvo.org/cfmx/tvoorg/theagenda/index.cfm?page_id=3&action=blog&subaction=viewpost&blog_id=445&post_id=11966. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  58. ^ "R. v. Kapp et al - Reasons for Judgment". Provincialcourt.bc.ca. http://www.provincialcourt.bc.ca/judgments/pc/2003/02/p03_0279.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  59. ^ "2004 BCSC 958 R. v. Kapp et al". Courts.gov.bc.ca. 2004-07-12. http://www.courts.gov.bc.ca/jdb-txt/sc/04/09/2004bcsc0958.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
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  62. ^ Tom Cockrem. "Fiji: History". Lonelyplanet.com. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/fiji/history. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  63. ^ Posted at 22:42 on 09 April, 2006 UTC (2006-04-09). "UN seminar highlights concern in Fiji over ethnic segregation". Rnzi.com. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=23319. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  64. ^ "An Untouchable Subject?". Npr.org. 2001-08-29. http://www.npr.org/programs/specials/racism/010828.caste.html. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
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  66. ^ Gopal Guru, with Shiraz Sidhva. India’s "hidden apartheid"
  67. ^ Rajeev Dhavan. India's apartheid
  68. ^ Race and caste by Andre Beteille
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References

  • Dobratz, Betty A. and Shanks-Meile, Stephanie L, White Power, White Pride: The White Separatist Movement in the United States, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001, 384 pages, ISBN 0-8018-6537-9.
  • Rural Face of White Supremacy: Beyond Jim Crow, by Mark Schultz. University of Illinois Press, 2005, ISBN 0-252-02960-7.

Further reading

  • Elliott, Mark (2006). Color-Blind Justice: Albion Tourgée and the Quest for Racial Equality from the Civil War to Plessy v. Ferguson. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195181395. 
  • Tushnet, Mark (2008). I dissent: Great Opposing Opinions in Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 69–80. ISBN 9780807000366. 
  • Brook, Thomas (1997). Plessy v. Ferguson: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford Books. 
  • Fireside, Harvey (2004). Separate and Unequal: Homer Plessy and the Supreme Court Decision That Legalized Racism. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0786712937. 
  • Lofgren, Charles A. (1987). The Plessy Case: A Legal-Historical Interpretation.. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Medley, Keith Weldon (2003). We As Freemen: Plessy v. Ferguson. Gretna, LA: Pelican. ISBN 1589801202.  Review
  • Chin, Gabriel J. (1996). "The Plessy Myth: Justice Harlan and the Chinese Cases". Iowa Law Review 82: 151. SSRN 1121505. 

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