Adolphe Sax

Antoine-Joseph 'Adolphe' Sax (November 6, 1814 – February 4, 1894 [Many sources give alternative dates for Sax's death, mainly 3 February and 7 February. A sign at Sax's grave in Montmartre says 7 February, for example. However, 4 February appears in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (8th ed., Nicolas Slonimsky); and in both the 1980 and the online version of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians.] ) was a Belgian musical instrument designer and musician (clarinetist), best known for inventing the saxophone.

Adolphe Sax was born in Dinant in Wallonia, Belgium. His father, Charles-Joseph Sax, was an instrument designer himself, who made several changes to the design of the horn. Adolphe began to make his own instruments at an early age, entering two of his flutes and a clarinet into a competition at the age of fifteen. He subsequently studied those two instruments at the Royal School of Singing in Brussels.

Having left the school, Sax began to experiment with new instrument designs, while his father continued to produce conventional instruments to bring money into the household. Adolphe's first important invention was an improvement of the bass clarinet design which he patented at the age of twenty.

In 1841, Sax relocated permanently to Paris and began work on a new set of instruments which were exhibited there in 1844.

They were valved bugles, and although he had not invented the instrument itself, his examples were so much more successful than those of his rivals that they became known as saxhorns. They range in approximately seven different sizes, and paved the path to the creation of the flugelhorn. Today, they are widely used in concert bands and sometimes in orchestras. The saxhorn also laid the groundwork for the modern euphonium.

Sax also developed the "saxotromba" family, valved brass instruments with narrower bore than the saxhorns, in 1845, though they survived only briefly. [cite book
last = Hubbard
first = W. L.
title = The American History and Encyclopedia of Music
publisher = Squire Cooley
location = Toledo, Ohio
date = 1910
pages = 454
Viewed 4 January 2007 in [ Google Books] .

Saxhorn instruments spread rapidly throughout the world. The saxhorn valves were accepted as state of the art and are still largely unchanged today. The advances made by Adolphe Sax were soon followed by the formation of the famous British brass band movement which exclusively adopted the saxhorn range. An example is the Jedforest Instrumental Band which formed in 1854 within the Scottish Borders only a decade after saxhorn models became available.

The period around 1840 saw Sax inventing the "clarinette-bourdon", an early (and unsuccessful) design of contrabass clarinet. Most significantly, at this time he developed the instrument for which he is now best known, the saxophone, patented in 1846. The saxophone was invented for use in both orchestras and concert bands. The composer Hector Berlioz wrote approvingly of the new instrument in 1842. By 1846 Sax had designed, on paper at least, a full range of saxophones (from sopranino to subcontrabass). Although they never became standard orchestral instruments, the saxophones made his reputation, and secured him a job teaching at the Paris Conservatoire from 1867.

Sax continued to make instruments later in life, as well as presiding over a new saxophone class at the Paris Conservatoire. However, rival instrument makers attacked the legitimacy of his patents and mounted a long campaign of litigation against Sax and his company, driving him into bankruptcy twice (in 1856 and 1873).

Sax suffered from lip cancer between 1853 and 1858 but made a full recovery. He died in 1894 in Paris and was interred in section 5 (Avenue de Montebello) at the Cimetière de Montmartre in Paris.



* "Adolphe Sax", Malou Haine, Ed. Bruxelles University, 1980
* "Sax, Mule & Co", Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Paris, H & D, 2004. ISBN 2-914-266-03-0

External links

* [ extensive biography of Adolphe Sax]
* [ Pictures of five Sax Saxophones (circa 1858-76)]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Adolphe Sax — Surnom Sasax Nom de naissance Antoine Joseph Sax Naissance 6 novembre 1814 Dinant Décès 7 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Adolphe Sax — Adolphe Sax, eigentlich Antoine Joseph Sax, (* 6. November 1814 in Dinant; † 7. Februar 1894 in Paris) war ein belgischer Instrumentenbauer und Musiker, er war der Entwickler der Saxhörner und des Saxophons …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Adolphe Sax — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • Adolphe Sax — noun a Belgian maker of musical instruments who invented the saxophone (1814 1894) • Syn: ↑Sax • Instance Hypernyms: ↑maker, ↑shaper …   Useful english dictionary

  • For Adolphe Sax — Infobox Album | Name = For Adolphe Sax Type = Album Artist = Peter Brötzmann |200px Released = 1967 Recorded = June 1967 Genre = jazz Length = Label = [http://www.fmp FMP] Producer = Reviews = | Last album = This album = For Adolphe Sax… …   Wikipedia

  • Quatuor Adolphe Sax — Le Quatuor Adolphe Sax de Paris (1981 1986) est un quatuor de saxophones composé de Jacques Baguet, Claude Delangle, Jean Paul Fouchécourt et Bruno Totaro. Il a enregistré 2 pièces majeures du répertoire néo classique: Introduction et variations… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Trio Adolphe Sax — Le Trio Adolphe Sax est un trio de saxophones belge composé de : Luc Capouillez, trompettiste Adhémar Pluvinage, corniste Roger Renard, tromboniste Portail de la musique Catégorie : Trio (ensemble) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Adolphe Saxe — Adolphe Sax Adolphe Sax Antoine Joseph Sax mieux connu sous le nom d Adolphe Sax (6 novembre 1814 à Dinant, Belgique 7 février 1894 à Paris) est un facteur d instrument …   Wikipédia en Français

  • SAX — steht für: Sax (Asteroid), ein Asteroid des Hauptgürtels Sax (Waffe), ein einschneidiges Hiebschwert des frühen Mittelalters Sax (Zigaretten Marke), eine italienische Zigaretten Marke Sax (Alicante), eine Gemeinde in der spanischen Provinz… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Adolphe — puede hacer referencia, entre otros, a los siguientes personajes: Adolphe Theodore Brongniart, médico, botánico y paleontólogo francés. Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quételet, astrónomo y matemático belga. William Adolphe Bouguereau, pintor francés.… …   Wikipedia Español

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”