Stavka


Stavka

Stavka ( _ru. Ставка) was the term used to refer to command element of armed forces from the time of the Kievan Rus′, more formally during the history of Imperial Russia as administrative staff and General Headquarters during late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and those of the Soviet Union. In western literature it is sometimes incorrectly written STAVKA in uppercase, although the word is not an acronym. The term may be applied to personnel of the military Staff, as well as to military Staff location, its original meaning from the Russian root став- to halt (movement).

Stavka of the Commander-in-chief during World War I

The commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the beginning of World War I was Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. He was appointed at the last minute in August, 1914, and had no part in formulating the military plans in use at the beginning of the war. He was competent, if not brilliant. Nikolai Yanushkevich was his chief of staff. In the summer of 1915 the Tsar himself took personal command. Mikhail Alekseyev was his chief of staff.

Stavka was divided into several departments:
* Department of General-Quartermaster (Operations department)
* Department of General on Duty (Organisation of troops, supplies, promotions, staff matters)
* Department of military transportations
* Naval department
* Diplomatic chancery (liaison with Ministry of foreign affairs)

The Stavka was first established in Baranovichi. In august 1915 after the German advance Stavka was moved to Mogilev.


= Stavka of the RKKA during World War II =

Stavka of the Soviet Armed Forces during World War II (The Great Patriotic War), or the headquarters of the "Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of SSR" ("Stavka Glavnogo Komandovaniya") ( _ru. Ставка Главного Командования Вооруженных Сил Союза ССР), was established on June 23, 1941 by the top secret decree signed by Joseph Stalin in his capacities both as the head of government and as the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. According to this decree Stavka was composed of the defence minister Marshal Semyon Timoshenko (as its president), the head of General Staff Georgy Zhukov, Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, Marshal Semyon Budyonny and the People's Commissar (Narkom) of the Navy Admiral Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov.

The same decree organized at Stavka "the institution of permanent counsellors of Stavka comprising of comrades Marshal Kulik, Marshal Shaposhnikov, Kirill Meretskov, head of the Air force Zhigarev, Nikolay Vatutin, head of Air Defence Voronov, Mikoyan, Kaganovich, Lavrenty Beria, Voznesenskiy, Zhdanov, Malenkov, Mekhlis".

Very soon afterwards the deputy defence minister army Meretskov was arrested following the false charges by Beria and Merkulov. Meretskov was subsequently released from the jail and on the same day at the end of the first week of September 1941 was called for by Stalin.

Stavka of the Main Command was reorganised into the Stavka of the Supreme Command ("Stavka Verkhovnogo Komandovaniya") [http://ru.wikisource.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%93%D0%9A%D0%9E_%E2%84%96_83%D1%81%D1%81_%D0%BE%D1%82_10.07.41] on July 10, 1941. On August 8, 1941 it was again reorganised into Stavka of the Supreme Main Command ("Stavka Verkhovnogo Glavnokomandovaniya").

On the same day were instituted the commands of Strategic Directions.

References

[http://victory.mil.ru/war/1941/policy/02_01_03.html Creation of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of SSR]


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