Potential difference


Potential difference

In physics, the potential difference or p.d. between two points is the difference of the points' scalar potential, equivalent to the line integral of the field strength between the two points.

There are various types of potential difference related to the amount of energy required to move an object from one place to another against various types of forces.

* in electrodynamics, the potential difference corresponds to the amount of work that would need to be done on a unit electric charge to move it from one point to the other against an electric field. [ [http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/physics/u3b23phy.html Physics 30 - Electricity - Electric Potential Difference ] ] P.d. is synonymous with voltage [ [http://www.powerstream.com/1922/battery_1922_WITTE/batteryfiles/definitions.htm Battery - Definitions ] ] and is measured in volts. It is the line integral of the electric field strength between two points. [Pitt, V.H. (ed.), "The Penguin Dictionary of Physics", Penguin Books Ltd., 1977, ISBN 0140510710] Also, if "v" is the p.d. in volts, "w" is the work in joules (J), and "q" is the charge in coulombs (C), then:
*: v = { w over q } {mathrm{J} over mathrm{C mathrm{or} {w over q} mathrm{V}
*:main|Voltage
* In mechanics, the "gravitational potential difference" between two points on Earth is related to the energy that would be required to move a unit mass from one point to the other against the Earth's gravitational field. Units: joules per kilogram.
* In fluid systems the "potential difference" is the difference in pressure. Units: pascals.
* In thermal systems the "potential difference" is the difference in temperature. Units: kelvins.

In some engineering fields, "potential" is sometimes described as the 'across variable', whereas flux is the 'through variable'. The product of the flux and the potential difference is the power, which is the time rate of change of energy.

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • potential difference — elektrinių potencialų skirtumas statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Apibrėžtį žr. priede. priedas( ai) Grafinis formatas atitikmenys: angl. electric potential difference; potential difference vok. elektrische… …   Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas

  • potential difference — potencialų skirtumas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. potential difference; voltage difference vok. Potentialdifferenz, f; Potentialunterschied, m rus. разница потенциалов, f; разность потенциалов, f pranc. différence des… …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • potential difference — potencialų skirtumas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. potential difference vok. Potentialdifferenz, f; Potentialunterschied, m rus. разность потенциалов, f pranc. différence de potentiel, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • potential difference — potencialų skirtumas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Dydis, lygus elektrinio lauko darbui, kurio reikia perkelti vienetinį teigiamą elektros krūvį iš vieno lauko taško į kitą. atitikmenys: angl. potential difference rus. разность потенциалов …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • potential difference — potential dif·fer·ence dif (ə )rən(t)s n the difference in electrical potential between two points that represents the work involved or the energy released in the transfer of a unit quantity of electricity from one point to the other compare… …   Medical dictionary

  • potential difference — difference in electrical tension between two points (Electricity) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • potential difference — noun the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts • Syn: ↑electric potential, ↑potential, ↑potential drop, ↑voltage • Hypernyms: ↑electrical phenomenon • Hyponyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • potential difference — noun the difference in potential energy between two points in an electric field; the difference in charge between two points in an electrical circuit; voltage …   Wiktionary

  • potential difference — noun Date: 1892 the difference in potential between two points that represents the work involved or the energy released in the transfer of a unit quantity of electricity from one point to the other …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • potential difference — noun Physics the difference of electrical potential between two points …   English new terms dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.