Tropical Storm Thelma
Tropical Storm Thelma
Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHS)
Tropical Storm Thelma nearing the Philippines on November 4
Formed November 1, 1991
Dissipated November 8, 1991
Highest winds 10-minute sustained:
75 km/h (45 mph)
1-minute sustained:
85 km/h (50 mph)
Lowest pressure 992 mbar (hPa; 29.29 inHg)
Fatalities 5,101-8,000+ direct
Damage $19 million (1991 USD)
Areas affected Philippines, Vietnam
Part of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season

Tropical Storm Thelma (international designation: 9125, JTWC designation: 27W, Philippine name: Uring) was the deadliest tropical storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season, killing between 5,101 to 8,100 people as it crossed the Philippines.


Meteorological history

Storm path

A tropical disturbance developed over the eastern Caroline Islands in late October. The disturbance was in a line of future storms, including what would become Super Typhoon Seth and Tropical Storm Verne. The disturbance that would become Thelma tracked to the west-northwest, to become Tropical Depression 27W on November 1. Its convection increased as it turned westward, and it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Thelma on the November 4.

Thelma was originally forecast to move northward in response to a break in the subtropical ridge, but the ridge remained strong. Thelma began a west-southwest track on November 4, reaching a peak of 50 mph (80 km/h) winds before interaction with the Philippines weakened it. The storm made landfall on the island of Samar in the eastern Philippines on the November 5, continued to the west, and weakened to a 40 mph (64 km/h) tropical storm. In the South China Sea, strong vertical shear kept Thelma a minimal storm, where it weakened to a tropical depression on November 7, hit eastern Vietnam on the 8th, and dissipated shortly thereafter.


Thelma while nearly stationary on November 5

Tropical Storm Thelma caused around 7,000 casualties in the Philippines (estimated death toll ranges from 5,101 to over 8,000), making it the deadliest tropical cyclone in Philippine history.[1] In addition, tens of thousands were left homeless in the aftermath of the storm.

In the time Thelma crossed the Philippines, it dropped over 6 inches (150 mm) of rain in some areas, with a local maximum of 580.5 millimetres (22.85 in) falling at Tongonan Geothermal Site.[2] The city hardest hit was Ormoc City on Leyte Island. Most of the storm's death toll occurred here. Three-quarters of the city was destroyed in the flooding.

Because of the death toll and other effects of the storm, the names Thelma and Uring were retired from future use.

See also

Cyclone Catarina from the ISS on March 26 2004.JPG Tropical cyclones portal


  1. ^ "Natural catastrophes and man-made disasters in 2008: North America and Asia suffer heavy losses". Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd. 21 January 2009. pp. 38. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Leoncio A. Amadore, Ph.D. Socio-Economic Impacts of Extreme Climatic Events in the Philippines. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.

External links

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