Anoa Lowland Anoa Conservation status Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Artiodactyla Family: Bovidae Subfamily: Bovinae Genus: Bubalus Species: B. quarlesi
Binomial name Bubalus quarlesi
(H. Smith, 1827)
Anoa, also known as Dwarf Buffalo and Sapiutan, are a subgenus of Bubalus comprising two species native to Indonesia: the Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). Both live in undisturbed rainforest, and are essentially miniature water buffalo. They are similar in appearance to a deer, weighing 150–300 kilograms (330–660 lb).
Both are found on the island of Sulawesi and the nearby island of Buton in Indonesia. They apparently live singly or in pairs, rather than herds, except when the cows are about to give birth. One young is born per year.
Both species of anoa have been classified as endangered since the 1960s and the population continues to decrease. It is believed unlikely that there are more than 5000 animals of each species remaining. Reasons for the decline of the anoa include hunting for hide, horns and meat by the local peoples and loss of habitat due to the advancement of settlement. Currently, hunting is the more serious factor in most areas.
Lowland Anoa is a small bovid, standing barely over 90 centimetres (35 in) at the shoulder. They are also known as Anoa de Ilanura or Anoa des Plaines. It is most closely allied to the larger Asiatic buffaloes, showing the same reversal of the direction of the hair on the back. The horns are peculiar for their upright direction and comparative straightness, although they have the same triangular section as in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes present below the eyes, and there may be white markings on the legs and back; and the absence or presence of these white markings may be indicative of distinct races. The horns of the cows are very small. The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain extinct buffaloes, of which the remains are found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India. In habits the animal appears to resemble the Indian buffalo.It is usually solitary,they live in lowland forests and wet lands,it feeds on plants and understory.
Mountain Anoa are also known as Anoa de Montana, Anoa de Quarle, Anoa des Montagnes, Anoa Pegunungan, and Quarle's Anoa. Standing at 70 centimetres (28 in) at the shoulder, it is even smaller than the lowland anoa and the smallest of all wild cattle. They also have longer, woolier hair that moults every February to April, showing faint spots on the head, neck and limbs..
- Lowland Anoa bubalus depressicornis Smith from wildcattleconservation.org
- ARKive - images and movies of the mountain anoa (Bubalus quarlesi)
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