Roman Shukhevych
Roman Shukhevych aka Taras Chuprynka
Shukhewich.jpg
Roman Shukhevych
Nickname Taras Chuprynka
Born June 30, 1907
Krakovets, Galicia, Austria–Hungary
Died March 5, 1950 (died at age 42)
Bilohorscha, Lviv, Ukrainian SSR
Allegiance Ukraine Ukraine
Service/branch OUN-r Flag 1941.svg Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Years of service 1928-1950
Rank General
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Hero of Ukraine ribbon bar.png Hero of Ukraine

Roman Taras Yosypovych Shukhevych (Ukrainian: Рома́н-Тарас Йо́сипович Шухе́вич; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka; June 30, 1907 — March 5, 1950) was a Ukrainian politician and military leader, the general of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.

Contents

Biography

Childhood

Roman Taras Yosypovych Shukhevych was born in the city of Krakovets, Jaworow powiat, in Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria which is located today between Lviv and the Ukrainian-Polish border. Both parents were involved with the Ukrainian national revival in the 19th century. The family lays claim to dozens of active community activists in politics, music, science and art. Shukhevych received his early education outside of Lviv. He returned to Lviv to study at the Gymnasium there living with his grandfather, an ethnographer. His political formation was influenced by Yevhen Konovaletz - the commander of the Ukrainian Military Organization who rented out a room in his father's house from 1921-22.[1]

Youth

In October 1926, Shukhevych entered the Lviv Politechnic Institute to study civil engineering.[2] In July 1934 he completed his studies with an engineering degree. At this time he was known for his athletic abilities for which he won numerous awards.[3] He was also an accomplished musician and with his brother Yuriy completed studies in piano and voice at the Lysenko Music Institute. He sang solo on occasions with his brother in the Lviv opera.

Scouting

During his student years in the Gymnasium, Roman became an active member of the Ukrainian Scouting organization Plast. Was a member of Lisovi Chorty. He organized Plast groups and founded the "Chornomortsi" (Black Sea Cossacks) kurin in 1927.[4]

Military training

From 1928-1929, Roman did his military service in the Polish Army. As a tertiary student, he was sent automatically for officer training, however he was deemed unreliable, and completed his military service as a private in the artillery in Volhynia.

Ukrainian Military Organization

Shukhevych in 1930

In 1925, Shukhevych joined the Ukrainian Military Organization UVO. In 1926, Shukhevych was ordered to assassinate the Lviv school superintendent, Stanisław Sobiński, accused of "Polonizing" the Ukrainian education system. The assassination was carried out by Roman Shukhevych and Bohdan Pidhainy on October 19, 1926.[5] In February 1929, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists was founded in Vienna. Shukhevych under the name "Dzvin" (Bell) became a representative of the Ukrainian Executive.

Shukhevych was a leader of a wave of attacks against Polish property and homes in Galicia in 1930 [6] intended to provoke Polish authorities into retaliation [7] and radicalise Ukrainian society.[6] The Polish administration retaliated with a process of "pacification" which intensified anti-Polish sentiment and increased Ukrainian nationalism.[citation needed]

Shukhevych continued to plan and also participate in terrorist activities and assassinations (sometimes claimed by Ukrainian Nationalists to be acts of protest against anti-Ukrainian policies). These included:

  • The co-ordination of a series of expropriations from Polish government offices in order to fund continued insurrection in the struggle for Ukrainian national determination, i.e. bank robberies and assaults on postal offices or wagons.[8]
  • September 1, 1931 assassination of Tadeusz Hołówko, a moderate Polish politician, who advocated cultural autonomy for Ukrainians. His murder caused a shock and was condemned by both societies.[8]
  • The assassination on March 22, 1932 of Police Commissioner Czechowski
  • The unsuccessful assassination of the Soviet consul in Lviv as a protest for the Holodomor in Central Ukraine by Mykola Lemyk, who mistakenly [9] assassinated the Special emissary of the NKVD, Alexiy Mayov.[citation needed]
  • The assassination of the minister of internal affairs Bronisław Pieracki, who was declared by the OUN to be "the main person responsible for organizing and executing the 'pacification'" and labeled the "hangman of the Ukrainian nation".[10] The assassination was carried out July 15, 1934 in Warsaw by Hryts Matseiko.[11]
  • 30 November 1932 Shukhevych participated in an assault on the post office in Gródek Jagielloński,[12] where a number of civilians were killed.[citation needed]

Shukhevych, Stepan Bandera, Stepan Lenkavsky, Yaroslav Stetsko, Yaroslav Starukh and others developed the concept of "permanent revolution". According to their thesis the Ukrainian people being exploited by an occupier could only obtain freedom through continued pressure on the enemy. As a result the OUN took on the responsibility of preparing for an All-Ukrainian revolt. Shukhevych propagated the ideas that the revolution was an uncompromising conflict in order to permanently defeat the foe.[citation needed]

Shukhevych took an active part in developing a concept regarding the formation of a Ukrainian army. At that time two diametrically opposed arguments existed. The first was to form a Ukrainian army in the Ukrainian emigration,[clarification needed] the second, a national army to be formed in Western Ukraine organized by Ukrainians.[13]

Imprisonment

In July 1934, mass arrests took place regarding the death of Bronisław Pieracki. On July 18 Shukhevych was arrested and July 6–7 he was sent to the Bereza Kartuska Concentration Camp.[14] In camp he organized a Ukrainian self-defense group. In December 1935 he was acquitted and released from the camp for lack of evidence.[citation needed]

During the Warsaw process against the OUN (November 18, 1935 - January 13, 1936) he was called as a witness. Shukhevych stood by his right to speak in Ukrainian for which he was fined 200 zloty. After greeting the court with the call "Glory to Ukraine" was once again interred.[15]

From January 19, 1935 Shukhevych was confined to the Bryhidka jail in Lviv.[16] He was incriminated for his membership in the Regional executive of the OUN. The lawyer in the process was his uncle: Stepan Shukhevych. Shukhevych was sentenced to 3 years in jail, however, because of the 1935 amnesty he was released from jail after spending half a year in the Bereza Kartuska Concentration Camp [17] and two years in prison.[18]

After being released in 1937, Shukhevych set up an advertising cooperative in March called "Fama" which became a front for the activities of the OUN. Soon outlets were set up throughout Galicia, Volyn and within Poland itself. The workers of the company were members of the OUN, often recently released political prisoners. The company was very successful and had sections working with the press and film, publishing booklets, printing posters, selling mineral water, compiling address listings and also opened its own transportation section.[19]

Carpathian Ukraine

In November 1938, Carpatho-Ukraine gained autonomy within the Czecho-Slovak state. Shukhevych organized financial aid for the government of the fledgling republic and sent OUN members to set up the Carpathian Sich. In December 1938, he illegally crossed the border from Poland into Czechoslovakia, traveling to the Ukrainian city of Khust.[20] There, with the aid of local OUN members and German intelligence,[21] he set up the General headquarters for the fight against the Czecho-Slovak central government.

Moreover, in the January 1939 the OUN decided to throw off the autonomous government, which seemed too much pro-Czechoslovak to them. The coup d'état attempt occurred in the night of March 13.-14., in the relation to the proclamation of Slovak independence, managed by Germany. With help of sympathizers among the police the insurgents led by Shukhevych gained the weapons of the gendarmerie, but their assaults on garrisons of Czechslovak army failed. Just in the Khust 11 OUN fighters were killed and 51 captured.[22] However, after the Slovak proclamation of independence on March 14 and Nazi's seizure of Czech lands on March 15, Carpatho-Ukraine was immediately invaded and annexed by Hungary. Shukhevych took an active part in the short-term armed conflict with Hungarian forces and was almost killed in one of the actions.[citation needed]

After the occupation of Carpathian Ukraine by Hungary was done, Shukhevych traveled through Romania and Yugoslavia to Austria, where he consulted with OUN commanders and was given new orders and sent to Danzig to carry out subversive activities.[23]

World War II

In the Fall of 1939 Shukhevych moved to Kraków with his family where he acted as the contact for the Ukrainian Nationalist Command directed by Andriy Melnyk. He organized the illegal transportation of documents and materials across the Soviet-German border and collected information about OUN activities in Ukraine.

The new political realities required new forms of activity. The Command of the Ukrainian Nationalists could not come to a unified agreement regarding tactics. As a result on February 10, 1940 the organization in Kraków split into two factions - one led by Stepan Bandera and the other by Andriy Melnyk. Shukhevych became a member the Revolutionary Command of the OUN headed by Bandera, taking charge of the section dealing with territories claimed by the Ukrainians, which after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact had been seized by Germany (Pidliashshia, Kholm, Nadsiania and Lemkivshchyna).

A powerful web was formed for the preparation of underground activities in Ukraine. Paramilitary training courses were set up. Military cadres were prepared which were to command a future Ukrainian army. Shukhevych prepared the II Great congress of the OUN which took place in April 1941.[24]

Nachtigall Battalion

Prior to Operation Barbarossa, the OUN actively cooperated with Nazi Germany. According to the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and other sources, OUN-B leader Stepan Bandera held meetings with the heads of Germany's intelligence, regarding the formation of "Nachtigall" and "Roland" Battalions. February 25, 1941 head of the Abwehr Wilhelm Franz Canaris sanctioned the creation of the "Ukrainian Legion" under German command. The unit would have had 800 persons. Shukhevych became a commander of the Legion from the OUN-B side. OUN expected that the unit would become the core of the future Ukrainian army. In the spring the OUN received 2.5 million marks for subversive activities against the USSR.[25][26] In the spring of 1941 the Legion was reorganized into 3 units. One of the units became known as Nachtigall Battalion, a second became the Roland Battalion, a third was inmmidiately dispatched into Soviet Union for sabotage of Red Army's rear.[26]

After intensive training the battalion traveled to Riashiv on June 18, and entered Lviv on June 29 .,[27] where the Act for establishment of the Ukrainian Statehood was proclaimed. The German administration however did not support this act.

At same time it's estimated that in June–July 1941 over 4,000 Jews were murdered in pogroms in Lviv and other cities in Western Ukraine. There is controversy regarding the participation of the Nachtigall Battalion and Roman Shukhevych in these atrocities, as well as in the Massacre of Lviv professors.

The first company of the unit remained in Lviv for only 7 days, while the remainder of the unit joined later during their eastward march towards Zolochiv, Ternopil and Vinnytsia.[26]

There are claims that the soldiers of Nachtigall participated in the killing of Jews.[28][29] During the march at three villages of the Vinnytsia region, Jews were said to have been shot en masse.[30]

The German refusal to accept the OUN-B’s June 30 proclamation of Ukrainian independence in Lviv led to a change of the Nachtigall battalion direction. As the result, Shukhevych together with the battalion was recalled to Germany.[31][32]

201st Schutzmannschaft Battalion

In Germany, in November 1941 the Ukrainian personnel of the Legion was reorganized into the 201st Schutzmannschaft Battalion. It numbered 650 persons who were given individual contracts that required the combatants to serve for one additional year.[26]

Roman Shukhevych’s title was that of Hauptmann of the first company and the deputy commander of the Battalion, which was commanded by Yevhen Pobihushchyi.[33]

On March 19, 1942 the Battalion arrived in Belarus where it served in the triangle between Mahiliou-Vitsebsk-Lepel.[26] With the expiration of the one year contract all the Ukrainian soldiers refused to renew their services. On January 6, 1943 they were sent to Lviv where they arrived January 8. Roman Shukhevych escaped from arrest by the Gestapo.[29]

Polish-German historian and Holocaust expert Frank Golczewski from the University of Hamburg [34] describes the activities of 201st Schutzmannschaft Battalion at Belarus as “fighting partisans and killing Jews".[33][35] John Paul Himka, a specialist in Ukrainian history during World War II, notes that although units such as the 201st Battalion were routinely used to fight partisans and kill Jews, noone has studied the specific activities of the 201st battalion from this perspective and this ought to be a subject for further study.[36]

More than 2,000 of partisans were killed by battalion personnel during its stay in Belarus.[25][26]

Massacres of Poles

In late 1942, Ukrainian nationalist groups began a campaign of ethnic cleansing of Volhynia, and in early 1944, these campaigns began to include Eastern Galicia. It is alleged that up to 100,000 Polish civilians were murdered, by Ukrainian groups, including the OUN-Bandera, led by Mykola Lebed and then Shukhevych.[37] Shukhevych commanded the UPA during the time when some of those massacres occurred. In August 1943, during III OUN Convention Shukhevych accepted "Volhynia stategy" (ethnic cleansing) against Poles realized by Dmytro Klyachkivsky. As the Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army he continued anti-Polish action in Eastern Lesser Poland (Eastern Galicia). In April 1944, main Command of UIA ordered massive ethnic cleansing of Poles from Galicia.[38]

Ukrainian Insurgent Army

Shukhevych in October 1943

After escaping from German custody Shukhevych once again headed the Military section of the OUN. In May he became a member of the leadership of the OUN and in time the head. In August 1943 at the III Special Congress of the OUN he was elected head of the Direction of the OUN and Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army known as UPA.[citation needed]

Under Shukhevych's leadership the evolution of the program for which the OUN fought was further refined. Its core tenets were:

  • Opposition to all forms of totalitarian government
  • Construction of a democratic state system in Ukraine
  • Guaranteed right for self determination against empire and imperialism.[39]

The Insurgent Army was joined by various people from the Caucasus and Central Asia who had fought in German formations. The rise of non-Ukrainians in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army gave stimulus to the special conference for Captive Nations of Europe and Asia which took place November 21–22, 1943 in Buderazh, not far from Rivne. The agenda included the formation of a unified plan for the attack against occupational forces.[40]

During the period of German occupation Shukhevych spent most of his time fighting in the forests, and from August 1944 under the Soviet occupation living in various villages in Western Ukraine. In order to unite all Ukrainian national forces to fight for Ukrainian independence Shukhevych organized a meeting between all the Ukrainian political parties. As a result the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council (UHVR) was formed.

Death

Shukhеvych died in combat with special units of the MVD near Lviv on March 5, 1950, aged 42. He was succeeded as leader of UPA by Vasyl Kuk.

Family

Soviet authorities applied the rationale of collective guilt and persecuted all the members of the Shukhevych family. Roman's brother Yuri was murdered at Lviv's Bryhidka Prison, just before the German occupation of Lviv.[citation needed] His mother Yevhenia and his wife, Nataliya Berezynska, were exiled to Siberia. His son Yuri Shukhevych and daughter Mariyka were placed in an orphanage. In September 1972, Yuri was sentenced to ten years camp imprisonment and another five years exile after already having spent 20 years in Soviet camps.[citation needed]

According to NKVD officers' memoirs, Roman Shukhevych's body was transported out of Ukraine, burned, and the ashes scattered. This was done on the left bank of the Zbruch River. The unburned remains were thrown into the Zbruch, where a commemorative stone cross was erected in 2003.[citation needed]

Rescue of Irene Reichenberg

According to Vladimir Vyatrovich, a historian specializing in UPA, Natalia Shukhevych, wife of the UPA Head Commander Roman Shukhevych, sheltered a Jewish girl, Irene Reichenberg (or Reisinberg, Reitenberg), the daughter of a neighbor from September 1942 until February 1943.[41] [42][43][44] According to Yuri Shukhevych, at the beginning of the World War II their family lived in Lviv on Queen Yadvyga Street, where their neighbors, Wolf and Ruzha Reichenberg owned a textile shop. The elder daughter, Irma Reichenberg, was shot by the Nazis in the street in 1942. Her younger sister Irene lived with Shukhevych family for a certain period of time while preparing for school.[45]

Roman Shukhevych used his connections to provide the girl with new documents in the Ukrainian name of Iryna Vasylivna Ryzhko. Girl's actual birth year was changed from 1936 to 1937.[46] [47] In her new documents "Iryna" was listed as the daughter of a Red Army officer killed early in the war.

After the arrest of Natalia Shukhevych in 1943 by the Gestapo, Roman Shukhevych took Irene to the orphan shelter at the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Convent of Vasilianky in the village of Phylypove, near the township of Kulykiv in 30 kilometres from Lviv, where Irene remained until the end of the World War II surviving German occupation and Holocaust.[48][49] In 1956 Irene sent a letter with her picture to the prioress of the monastery. After the war Irene remained in Ukraine and died in 2007 in Kiev, aged 72. Her son Vladimir lives in Kiev. Yuri Shukhevych met with him after his mothers death.[43] The Reichenberg family is mentioned in the list of victims of the Nazis at the Yad Vashem memorial in Israel.

According to Ukrainian historian and former UPA soldier Lev Shankovsky, immediately upon assuming the position of commander of UPA Shukhevych issued an order banning participation in anti-Jewish activities. No written record of this order, however, has been found.[50]

Legacy

Ukrainian postage stamp honoring Shukhevych on the 100th anniversary (2007) of his birth.
₴5 commemorative coin depicting Shykhevych, 2008

On Shukhevych's birthdays remembrance mass meetings take place in various Ukrainian cities.[51]

He was portrayed by Ukrainian-Canadian actor Hryhoriy Hladiy in the Ukrainian film Neskorenyi (The Undefeated).[52]

On October 23, 2001 the Lviv Historic Museum converted the house in which Shukhevych was killed into a memorial museum.[53]

Postage stamps and coins have been minted in his honour of the 100th anniversary of his birth. Posthumously, he was awarded the UPA's highest decorations: the Gold Cross of Combat Merit First Class and the Cross of Merit in gold.[54]

Hero of Ukraine Award

Roman Shukhevych was posthumously conferred the title of Hero of Ukraine by President Viktor Yushchenko on October 12, 2007.[55] On February 12, 2009, an administrative Donetsk region court ruled the Presidential decree awarding the title to be legal after a lawyer had claimed that his rights as a citizen were violated because Shukhevych was never a citizen of Ukraine.[56]

President Viktor Yanukovych stated on March 5, 2010 he would make a decision to repeal the decrees to honor the title as Heroes of Ukraine to Shukhevych and fellow nationalist Stepan Bandera before the next Victory Day.[57] Although the Hero of Ukraine decrees do not stipulate the possibility that a decree on awarding this title can be annulled.[58] On April 21, 2010, Donetsk Administrative Court of Appeals has declared unlawful former Ukrainian President Viktor Yuschenko's decree of October 12, 2007 to award the Hero of Ukraine title to Roman Shukhevych. The court ruled that the former President had had no right to confer this title to Shukhevych, because Shukhevych had died in 1950 and therefore he had not lived on the territory of independent Ukraine (after 1991). Consequently, Shukhevych was not a Ukrainian citizen, and this title could not be awarded to him.[59] On August 12, 2010 the High Administrative Court of Ukraine dismissed suits to declare four decrees by President Viktor Yanukovych on awarding the Hero of Ukraine title to Soviet soldiers illegal and cancel them.[60] The filer of these suit stated they were based on the same arguments used by Donetsk Administrative Court of Appeals that on April 21 satisfied an appeal that deprived Roman Shukhevych the Hero of Ukraine title, as Shukhevych was not a citizen of Ukraine.[60] The title however was not rescinded, pending an appeal to the Supreme Administrative Court of Ukraine which set aside all previous court decisions on February 17, 2011.[61]

References

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  2. ^ ДАЛО. — Ф. 27 (Львівська політехніка). — Оп. 5. — Спр. 18001 (Особова справа студента Львівської політехніки Романа Шухевича). — Арк. 4. (SALO) Lviv Politechnic sheet 4.
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  4. ^ Кравців Б. Людина і вояк // Збірник на пошану ген. Романа Шухевича. — Мюнхен — Лондон: Українська Видавнича Спілка, Український Інститут Освітньої Політики, 1990. — С. 93 — 95.(Kravtsiv B. Person and warrior - Collection in honour of Roman Shukhevych. Munich-London, Ukrainian Publishers union, Ukrainian Institute of Political Education, 1990, p. 93
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  15. ^ Книш З. Варшавський процес ОУН на підложжі польсько-українських відносин тієї доби. — Торонто: Срібна сурма, 1986. — Т. 1. — С. 273, 340 — 341, 354; Варшавський акт обвинувачення Степана Бандери та товаришів / Упорядник Микола Посівнич. — Львів: Медицина світу, 2005. — С. 10, 159. (Knysh, Z. The Warsaw process of the OUN and the basis for Polish-Ukrainian connections of that era - Toronto; Silver trumpet, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 273, 340-341, 354: The Warsaw Act of incrimination of Stepan Bandera and his colleagues / edited by Mykola Posivnych - Lviv: Medical World, 2005 p. 10, 159
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  20. ^ (Кук В. Роман Шухевич… — С. 32 — 33).
  21. ^ Ivan Kazymyrovych Patryliak, Viis’kova diial’nist’ OUN(b) u 1940-1942 rokakh (Kyiv: NAN Ukraїny, 2004) p 265
  22. ^ Pop, Ivan. Dějiny Podkarpatské Rusi v datech. Libri, Praha 2005. ISBN 80-7277-237-6
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  24. ^ Дужий П. Роман Шухевич — політик, воїн, громадянин. — Львів: Галицька видавнича спілка, 1998. — С. 57 — 60. (Duzhyj, P. Roman Shukhevych - Politician, warrior, community leader - Lviv: Galician publishers Union, 1998 p. 57-60
  25. ^ a b Організація українських націоналістів і Українська повстанська армія. Інститут історії НАН України.2004р Організація українських націоналістів і Українська повстанська армія, Раздел 1 http://www.history.org.ua/LiberUA/Book/Upa/1.pdf стр. 17-30
  26. ^ a b c d e f І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках. — Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004 (No ISBN) p.273-275
  27. ^ Дружини українських націоналістів у 1941 — 1942 роках. — Без місця видання, 1953. — С. 6, 109 — 110. (Teams of Ukrainian Nationalists in 1941-42 - 1953, 109
  28. ^ Ivan Kazymyrovych Patryliak, Viis’kova diial’nist’ OUN(b) u 1940-1942 rokakh (Kyiv: NAN Ukraїny, 2004) p 361-362 - " постріляли всіх стрічних нам жидів"
  29. ^ a b Per Anders Rudling University of Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) The Shukhevych Cult in Ukraine: Myth Making with Complications. World War II and the (Re)Creation of Historical Memory in Contemporary Ukraine An international conference September 23–26, 2009 Kyiv, Ukraine
  30. ^ "... скрепив нашу ненависть нашу до жидів, що в двох селах ми постріляли всіх стрічних жидів. Під час нашого перемаршу перед одним селом... ми постріляли всіх стрічних там жидів" from Nachtigal third company activity report Центральний державний архів вищих органів влади та управління України (ЦДАВО). — Ф. 3833 . — Оп. 1. — Спр. 157- Л.7
  31. ^ Дружини українських націоналістів у 1941 — 1942 роках. — Без місця видання, 1953. — С. 110  — 110. (Teams of Ukrainian Nationalists in 1941-42 - 1953, 110 "По нараді з командиром Р.Шухевич вислав письмо до Команди що наша частина не є здібна дальше воювати. Цілий легіон було стягнено з фронту та відправлено назад до Нойгаммеру
  32. ^ Ivan Kazymyrovych Patryliak, Viis’kova diial’nist’ OUN(b) u 1940-1942 rokakh (Kyiv: NAN Ukraїny, 2004) p 361-362
  33. ^ a b Per Anders Rudling University of Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) The Shukhevych Cult in Ukraine: Myth Making with Complications. World War II and the (Re)Creation of Historical Memory in Contemporary Ukraine An international conference September 23–26, 2009 Kyiv, Ukraine
  34. ^ http://www.geschichte.uni-hamburg.de/personal/golczewski1.html
  35. ^ "Die Kollaboration in der Ukraine", Christoph Dieckmann, Babette Quinkert, Tatjana Tönsmeyer (eds.), Kooperation und Verbrechen. Formen der “Kollaboration“ im östlichen Europa 1939-1945 (Göttingen: Wallenstein, 2003), p. 176
  36. ^ "True and False Episodes from the Nachtigall Episode"; op-ed by John Paul Himka
  37. ^ Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations, p. 164
  38. ^ Grzegorz Motyka, Ukraińska partyzantka 1942-1960 (Ukrainian Partisan Operations, 1942-1960), Warsaw, 2006, pp. 376-81.
  39. ^ Бандера С. Слово до українських націоналістів-революціонерів за кордоном // Бандера С. Перспективи української революції [передрук]. — Мюнхен: ОУН, 1978. — С. 93. (Bandera S. "A word to Ukrainian Nationalists-revolutionaries outside the borders", The perspective of Ukrainian revolution (reprint) - Munich: OUN, 1978, p. 93)
  40. ^ Русначенко А. Народ збурений. Національно-визвольний рух в Україні й національні рухи опору в Білорусії, Литві, Латвії, Естонії у 1940 — 50-х роках. — Київ: Пульсари, 2002. — С. 90 — 94, 100 — 101; Лоґуш О. Командир Чупринка на Конференції поневолених народів. (Уривки зі спогадів) // До зброї. — 1950. — Ч. 9 (22). — С. 6 (Rusnachenko A. The people riled up. The National-self-determination movement in Ukraine and the national movement of opposition in Belorus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia in 1940-50 - Kyiv: Pulsars, 2002 - P.90-94, 100-101; Logush O. Commander Chuprynka at the conference of Captive peoples. (Sections from memoirs) // To Arms - 1950. #9 (22) p. 6)
  41. ^ BBCUkrainian.com|Україна|Євреї в УПА? www.bbc.co.uk
  42. ^ Телеканал СТБ: В поисках истины. На звание мирового праведника претендует Роман Шухевич ВИДЕО
  43. ^ a b Новинар » Україна » Розсекречення архівів: Євреї відстоювали незалежність України
  44. ^ «В поисках истины. На звание мирового праведника претендует Роман Шухевич, novynar.com.ua
  45. ^ Головна www.1plus1.tv
  46. ^ Óêðà¿íñüêî-ºâðåéñüê³ áóðæóàçí³ íàö³îíàë³ñòè » Àãåíöiÿ ãðîìàäñüêèõ òà ïîëiòè÷íèõ íîâèí "Ìåäià Êðèì" mediacrimea.com.ua
  47. ^ Служба безпеки України, www.sbu.gov.ua
  48. ^ Украинский национализм и евреи: тайны архивов КГБ, izrus.co.il
  49. ^ Бійці УПА, євреї - гідно билися за незалежність України. Ми - це пам'ятаємо, www.aratta-ukraine.com
  50. ^ Phillip Friedman. (1980). "Ukrainian-Jewish Relations During the Occupatio", Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust, New York: Conference on Jewish Social Studies, p. 203
  51. ^ Events by themes: Solemn procession to Roman Shukhevich’s birthday took place in Zaporozhye, UNIAN (July 1, 2009)
  52. ^ "Тhe Undefeated" Photo Album, UKEMONDE.COM
  53. ^ Тимчасовий устрій УГВР // Літопис Української Повстанської Армії. — Львів, 1992. — Т. 8: Українська Головна Визвольна Рада. — Книга перша, 1944 — 1945. — С. 31 — 32. The interim government of the UHVR // Chronicles of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, 1945, pp. 31-32)
  54. ^ Display Page
  55. ^ President.Gov.Ua
  56. ^ Bandera writes to Yanukovych, Kyiv Post (April 9, 2010)
  57. ^ Yanukovych to strip nationalists of hero status, Kyiv Post (March 5, 2010)
  58. ^ Party of Regions proposes legal move to strip Bandera of Hero of Ukraine title, Kyiv Post (February 17, 2010)
  59. ^ Donetsk court deprives Shukhevych of Ukrainian hero title, Kyiv Post (April 21, 2010)
  60. ^ a b "High Administrative Court dismisses appeals against illegal award of Hero of Ukraine title to Soviet soldiers", Kyiv Post (August 13, 2010)
  61. ^ [3]

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