Black Grouse

Taxobox
name = Black Grouse
status = LC | status_system = IUCN3.1



image_width = 200px
image_caption = Female
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Galliformes
familia = Tetraonidae
genus = "Tetrao"
species = "T. tetrix"
binomial = "Tetrao tetrix"
binomial_authority = (Linnaeus, 1758)

The Black Grouse or Blackgame ("Tetrao tetrix") is a large bird in the grouse family. It is a sedentary species, breeding across northern Eurasia in moorland and bog areas near to woodland, mostly boreal. The Black Grouse is closely related to the Caucasian Black Grouse. These birds have a group display or lek in early spring.

As with many Gamebirds, the male is larger than the female at 49-55 cm compared to her 40-45 cm length. The cock is very distinctive, with black plumage, apart from red wattles and a white wingbar, and a lyre-shaped tail, which appears forked in flight. His song is loud, bubbling and somewhat dove-like.

The female is greyish-brown and has a cackling call. She takes all responsibility for nesting and caring for the chicks, as is typical with gamebirds.

The male and female are sometimes referred to by their folk names, Blackcock and Greyhen respectively.

Reproduction and Distribution

Black grouse have a very distinctive and well recorded courtship ritual or game. At dawn in the spring, the males strut around in a traditional area and display whilst making a highly distinctive mating call. This process is called a Lek - the grouse are said to be "lekking".

Black Grouse can be found across Europe from Great Britain (but not Ireland) through Scandinavia and into Russia. In eastern Europe they can be found in Hungary, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and Poland. There is a population in The Alps, and isolated remnants in Germany, Denmark, France and Holland.

Conservation

This species is declining in western Europe due to loss of habitat, disturbance, predation by foxes, crows, etc., and small populations gradually dying out.

They have declined in the UK (especially England), having disappeared from many of their former haunts. They are now extinct in Lancashire, Derbyshire, Exmoor, East Yorkshire, New Forest, Nottinghamshire, Worcestershire, Quantock Hills, Cornwall, Dartmoor, Kent, Wiltshire and Surrey.

A program to re-introduce Black Grouse into the wild started in 2003 in the Upper Derwent Valley area of the Peak District in England. 30 grouse were released in October 2003, followed by 10 male grouse in December 2004 and a further 10 male and 10 female in April 2005. The programme is being run jointly by the National Trust, Severn Trent Water and Peak District National Park.

Conservation groups helping to revive the Black Grouse include the RSPB and the Game Conservancy Trust.

Meanwhile, it should be noted that the tails of black-cocks have, since late Victorian times, been popular adornments for hats worn with Highland Dress. Most commonly associated with Glengarry and Balmoral or Tam O'Shanter caps, they still continue to be worn by pipers of civilian and military pipe-bands. Since 1904, all ranks of the Royal Scots and King's Own Scottish Borderers have worn them in their full-dress headgear and that tradition is carried on in the dress glengarries of the current Scottish-super regiment, The Royal Regiment of Scotland.

References

* Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern

External links

* [http://www.blackgrouse.info/ Black Grouse in the UK]
* [http://www.rspb.org.uk/wildlife/birdguide/name/b/blackgrouse/index.asp RSPB Black Grouse]
* [http://www.gct.org.uk/conservationguide_intro.asp?ImageId=6 Game Conservancy Trust Conservation Guide]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Black grouse — Black Black (bl[a^]k), a. [OE. blak, AS. bl[ae]c; akin to Icel. blakkr dark, swarthy, Sw. bl[ a]ck ink, Dan. bl[ae]k, OHG. blach, LG. & D. blaken to burn with a black smoke. Not akin to AS. bl[=a]c, E. bleak pallid. [root]98.] 1. Destitute of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • black grouse — black′ grouse′ n. orn a large grouse, Lyrurus tetrix, of Europe and W Asia, the male of which is black, the female mottled gray and brown …   From formal English to slang

  • black grouse — n. a large grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) of Europe and Asia: the male is almost entirely black …   English World dictionary

  • black grouse — noun grouse of which the male is bluish black • Hypernyms: ↑grouse • Hyponyms: ↑European black grouse, ↑heathfowl, ↑Lyrurus tetrix, ↑Asian black grouse, ↑Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • black grouse — heathfowl heathfowl, heath fowl heath fowl . A large Northern European black grouse ({Lyrurus tetrix} formerly {Tetrao tetrix}) with a lyre shaped tail; it is also called {heath grouse}, {black game}, {black grouse}, {heath poult}, {heath fowl},… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • black grouse — Heath Heath (h[=e]th), n. [OE. heth waste land, the plant heath, AS. h[=ae][eth]; akin to D. & G. heide, Icel. hei[eth]r waste land, Dan. hede, Sw. hed, Goth. hai[thorn]i field, L. bucetum a cow pasture; cf. W. coed a wood, Skr. ksh[=e]tra field …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Black Grouse — tetervinas statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Tetrao tetrix angl. Black Grouse vok. Birkhuhn …   Paukščių anatomijos terminai

  • black grouse — noun Date: 1678 a large grouse (Tetrao tetrix syn. Lyrurus tetrix) of western Asia and Europe of which the male is black with white wing patches and the female is barred and mottled …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • black grouse — a large grouse, Lyrurus tetrix, of Europe and western Asia, the male of which is black, the female mottled gray and brown. [1820 30] * * * …   Universalium

  • black grouse — n. large grouse the male of which is black and white marks on its wings …   English contemporary dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”