Pope Clement V
Clement V
Papacy began 5 June 1305
Papacy ended 20 April 1314
Predecessor Benedict XI
Successor John XXII
Orders
Consecration 14 November 1305
Personal details
Birth name Raymond Bertrand de Got or de Gouth or de Goth
Born about 1264
Villandraut, Gascony, France (?)
Died April 20, 1314(1314-04-20)
Roquemaure (Gard), France
Other Popes named Clement
Papal styles of
Pope Clement V
C o a Clemente V.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father

Pope Clement V, born Raymond Bertrand de Got (also occasionally spelled de Gouth and de Goth) (c. 1264 – 20 April 1314) was Pope from 1305 to his death. He is memorable in history for suppressing the order of the Knights Templar and executing some of its members, and as the Pope who moved the Curia away from Rome, ushering in the period known as the Avignon Papacy.[1][2]

Contents

Biography

Born in Villandraut, Aquitaine, Bertrand was canon and sacristan of the Cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux, then vicar-general to his brother, the archbishop of Lyon, who in 1294 was created Cardinal-Bishop of Albano. He was then made bishop of St-Bertrand-de-Comminges, the cathedral church of which he was responsible for greatly enlarging and embellishing; and chaplain to Pope Boniface VIII (1294–1303), who made him archbishop of Bordeaux in 1297.[2]

Election

Coinage of Pope Clement V.

Following the death of Benedict XI in 1304, he was elected Pope Clement V in June 1305 (and was consecrated on 14 November), after a year's interregnum occasioned by the disputes between the French and Italian cardinals, who were nearly equally balanced in the conclave, which had to be held at Perugia. Bertrand was neither Italian nor a cardinal, and his election might have been considered a gesture towards neutrality. The contemporary chronicler Giovanni Villani reports gossip that he had bound himself to King Philip IV of France (1285–1314) by a formal agreement before his elevation, made at St. Jean d'Angély in Saintonge. Whether this was true or not, it is likely that the future pope had conditions laid down for him by the conclave of cardinals. At Bordeaux, Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to come to Italy; but he selected Lyon for his coronation, 14 November 1305, which was celebrated with magnificence and attended by Philip IV. Among his first acts was the creation of nine French cardinals.[2]

Relations with the Kingdom of France

Early in 1306, Clement V explained away those features of the bulls Clericis Laicos that might seem to apply to the King of France and essentially withdrew Unam Sanctam, the two bulls of Boniface VIII which were particularly offensive to Philip IV's ambitious ministry. He appears to have conducted himself throughout his pontificate as the mere tool of the French monarchy, a radical change in papal policy.[2]

Hayton of Corycus remitting his report on the Mongols La Flor des Estoires d'Orient, to Pope Clement V in 1307.

On Friday, 13 October 1307, came the arrest of hundreds of the Knights Templar in France, an action apparently financially motivated and undertaken by the efficient royal bureaucracy to increase the prestige of the crown. Philip IV was the force behind this ruthless move, but it has also tarnished the historical reputation of Clement V. From the very day of Clement V's coronation, the King had falsely charged the Templars with heresy, immorality and abuses, and the scruples of the Pope were compromised by a growing sense that the burgeoning French State might not wait for the Church, but would proceed independently.[3]

Meanwhile, Philip IV's lawyers pressed to reopen Nogaret's charges of heresy against the late Boniface VIII that had circulated in the pamphlet war around Unam sanctam. Clement V had to yield to pressures for this extraordinary trial, begun February 2, 1309, at Avignon, which dragged on for two years. In the document that called for the witnesses, Clement V expressed both his personal conviction of the innocence of Boniface VIII and his resolution to satisfy the King. Finally, in February 1311, Philip IV wrote to Clement V abandoning the process to the future council of Vienne. For his part, Clement V absolved all the participants in the abduction of Boniface at Anagni.[3]

Cameo of Pope Clement V.

In pursuance of the King's wishes, Clement V summoned the Council of Vienne (1311), which refused to convict the Templars of heresy. The Pope abolished the order anyway, as the Templars seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived their usefulness as papal bankers and protectors of pilgrims in the East. Their French estates were de jure granted to the Knights Hospitallers, but Philip IV held them until his death and expropriated the Templar's bank outright.[2]

Charges of heresy and sodomy aside, the guilt or innocence of the Templars is one of the more difficult historical problems, partly because of the atmosphere of hysteria that had built up in the preceding generation and the habitually intemperate language and extravagant denunciations exchanged between temporal rulers and churchmen, and partly because the subject has been embraced by conspiracy theorists and pseudo-historians.[4]

Relations with Rome

In March 1309 the entire papal court moved from Poitiers (where it had remained for 4 years) to to the Comtat Venaissin, around the city of Avignon, which was not then part of France but an imperial fief held by the King of Sicily. This move, actually to Carpentras, the capital of the territory, was justified at the time by French apologists on grounds of security, since Rome, where the dissensions of the Roman aristocrats and their armed militia had reached a nadir, and where the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano had been destroyed in a fire, was unstable and dangerous. But the decision proved the precursor of the long Avignon Papacy, the 'Babylonian captivity' (1309–77), in Petrarch's phrase, and marks a point from which the decay of the strictly Catholic conception of the pope as universal bishop may be dated.[3]

Clement V's pontificate was also a disastrous time for Italy. The Papal States were entrusted to a team of three cardinals, but Rome, the battleground of the Colonna and Orsini factions, was ungovernable. In 1310, the Emperor Henry VII (1308–13) entered Italy, established the Visconti as vicars in Milan, and was crowned by Clement V's legates in Rome (1312) before he died near Siena in 1313.[4]

In Ferrara, which was taken into the Papal states to the exclusion of the Este, papal armies clashed with Venice and their populace. When excommunication and interdict failed to have their intended effect, Clement V preached a crusade against the Venetians in May 1309, declaring that Venetians captured abroad might be sold into slavery, like non-Christians,[5] a symptom of how polarized that particular conflict had become.

Later career and death

Other remarkable incidents of Clement V's reign are his violent repression of the Dulcinian movement, which he considered a heresy, in Lombardy and his promulgation of the Clementine Constitutions in 1313. He died on April 20, 1314. According to one story, while his body was lying in state, a thunderstorm developed during the night and lightning struck the church where his body lay, igniting the building. The fire was so intense that, when it was extinguished, the body of Pope Clement V was almost destroyed. He was buried at the Collegiale church in Uzeste close to his birthplace in Villandraut as put down in his will.

Promulgation of a Crusade and relations with the Mongols

Clement engaged on and off in communications with the Mongol Empire, towards the possibility of creating a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims. In April 1305, the Mongol Ilkhan ruler Oljeitu sent an embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to Clement, Philip the Fair, and Edward I of England. In 1307, another Mongol embassy led by Tommaso Ugi di Siena reached European monarchs. However, no coordinated military action was forthcoming, and hopes of alliance petered out within a few years.

On April 4, 1312, a Crusade was promulgated by Pope Clement V at the Council of Vienne. Another embassy was sent by Oljeitu to the West and to Edward II in 1313. In 1313, the French king Philip the Fair "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Clement V's call. Philip was warned against leaving by Enguerrand de Marigny,[6] and died soon after in November 1314 in a hunting accident.[7]

Notes

  1. ^ Chamberlain, pp. 122, 123, 131
  2. ^ a b c d e Menache, pp. 1, 2, 16, 23, 178, 255
  3. ^ a b c Howarth, pp. 11–14, 261, 323
  4. ^ a b Duffy, pp. 403, 439, 460–463
  5. ^ Davidson, p. 40.
  6. ^ Jean Richard, "Histoire des Croisades", p.485
  7. ^ Richard, p.485

See also

References

  • Davidson, Basil, The African Slave Trade revised ed., 1961, Boston : Brown Little
  • Chamberlain, E. R., The Bad Popes. NY: Barnes & Noble, 1993. ISBN 9780880291163
  • Duffy, Eamon. Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 9780300115970
  • Howarth, Stephen. The Knights Templar. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1982. ISBN 9780880296632
  • Menache, Sophia. Clement V. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-52198-X
  • Richard, Jean , Histoire des croisades, Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2213597871

External links

Further reading

  • Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy over 2000 Years. London: Thames & Hudson, 1997. ISBN 978-0500017982
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Benedict XI
Pope
1305–14
Succeeded by
John XXII

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