Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne

Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC (16 April 172022 February 1794) was born in London, the second son of the 7th Earl of Lincoln. The Clintons were an ancient English family, whose forbears fought with William the Conqueror and were awarded the lordship of Clinton in 1067. Henry's father died in 1728, and his brother, the 8th Earl of Lincoln, died in 1730, making Henry the 9th Earl of Lincoln. As he was still a minor, his guardian was his uncle, the 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle was childless, and soon regarded Lord Lincoln as his heir. Newcastle, and his brother Henry Pelham, were the two most powerful men in England, and both would serve as Prime Minister. Newcastle controlled political patronage of Parliament and the Crown, and so Lord Lincoln was showered with sinecure posts which brought him a large income. Chief among these sinecures was the lifetime appointment as Controller of Customs for the port of London.

After graduating from university, Lord Lincoln was sent abroad to complete his education. At Turin, Italy, where he was studying fencing, he was joined by his schoolfriend, Horace Walpole. Walpole was in love with Lord Lincoln, and it is believed the two were loversFact|date=February 2007. Lord Lincoln was exceedingly good-looking, and would later have the reputation as the most handsome man in England. While still on his Grand Tour, Walpole and Lord Lincoln quarreled and separated.

After his return to England, Lord Lincoln was married on 16 October 1744 to his first cousin Catherine Pelham (24 July 1727-27 July 1760), the daughter of his uncle Henry Pelham, who was at that time prime minister. An agreement was signed whereby Lord Lincoln became the heir of both his uncles, Henry Pelham and the Duke. Through his uncles, Lord Lincoln was also given a place at court, being made a gentleman of the King's Bedchamber. In 1752, he was made a Knight of the Garter.

In 1756, his uncle, who was already Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, requested from King George II to also be created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne with a special remainder to his nephew, Lord Lincoln. George II granted the request, and when the Duke died in 1768, Lord Lincoln became the 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne.

The new duke steered clear of most politics, except in two instances. He had considerable influence because of the parliamentary seats he controlled. He used his influence to promote the career of his cousin Sir Henry Clinton, a career army officer. The Duke lobbied successfully for Sir Henry to be appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in America during the American Revolution. The Duke's son, Thomas, was the aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton. In 1768, the Duke was appointed to the Privy Council.

In December 1783, the Duke was asked by King George III to support the new ministry of William Pitt the Younger, who was facing difficulty in mustering support in parliament for his premiership. Henry ordered the six MPs under his control to support Pitt, helping Pitt gain enough votes in parliament to form a ministry.

The Duke died in 1794 in Westminster.

The Duke is mainly known today as the creator of Clumber Park, his country seat in Nottinghamshire, and the dog breed the Clumber spaniel, named after the estate. Clumber Park was begun in 1768 on the large estate the Duke had inherited from his uncle. Four thousand acres (16 square kilometers) of barren heath were landscaped into one of the most beautiful private parks in England, complete with a large man-made lake. The great mansion built there was demolished in 1938, but the park is today owned by the National Trust and is open to the public.

The papers of the 2nd Duke are now held by Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham.

Family life

Before his wife's death at the age of 33, the Duke had four sons with her:
*George Pelham-Clinton, Lord Clinton (26 November 1745-19 August 1752)
*Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (5 November 1750-18 October 1778), who married Lady Frances Seymour-Conway (4 December 1751-11 November 1820) on 21 May 1775 and had issue.
*Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne (1 July 1752-18 May 1795), who married Lady Anna Maria Stanhope (31 March 1760-18 October 1834) on 2 May 1782 and had issue.
*Lord John Pelham-Clinton (died 1781)

Titles from birth to death

*The Hon. Henry Pelham (1720-1730)
*The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Lincoln (1730-1752)
*The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Lincoln, KG (1752-1768)
*"His Grace" The Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC (1768-1794)

External links

* [http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/mss/collections/family-estate/collections/newcastle/2ndnewcastle_under_lyne.phtml Biography of the 2nd Duke, with links to online catalogues, from Manuscripts and Special Collections at The University of Nottingham]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne — Major General Thomas Pelham Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle under Lyne (1 July 1752 17 May 1795), known as Lord Thomas Pelham Clinton until 1779 and as Earl of Lincoln from 1779 to 1794, was a British soldier and politician. Pelham Clinton was the …   Wikipedia

  • Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle — For other people named Duke of Newcastle, see Dukes of Newcastle. His Grace The Duke of Newcastle KG PC Prime Minister of Great Britain …   Wikipedia

  • Duke of Newcastle — For the British Prime Minister, see Thomas Pelham Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle. Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne is a title which has been created three times in British history while the title of Duke of Newcastle under Lyne has been created once.… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln — Henry Fiennes Pelham Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (5 November 1750 ndash; 18 October 1778) was a short lived British politician, the second son of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle under Lyne.Lincoln became heir to his father on the death of his elder… …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham — Infobox Prime Minister honorific prefix = The Right Honourable name=Henry Pelham office=Prime Minister of Great Britain term start =27 August 1743 term end =6 March 1754 monarch =George II predecessor =The Earl of Wilmington successor =The Duke… …   Wikipedia

  • William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Harrington — General William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Harrington (December 18 1719 – April 1 1779) was an English politician, soldier and nobleman.The son of William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington, he took up a military career and joined the Foot Guards in… …   Wikipedia

  • Earl of Lincoln — is a title that has been created eight times in the Peerage of England. It was probably created fot the first time around 1143 as William d Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, is mentioned as Earl of Lincoln in 1143 in two charters for the abbey of… …   Wikipedia

  • Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire — This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. Since 1694, all Lords Lieutenant have also been Custos Rotulorum of Nottinghamshire.*Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland 1552–1563? *Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of… …   Wikipedia

  • Auditor of the Receipt of the Exchequer — The Auditor of the Receipt of the Exchequer was an office in the English Exchequer.The office originated in early times as the clerk of the Lord High Treasurer at the Receipt of the Exchequer. He was responsible for filing and entering the Teller …   Wikipedia

  • List of people involved in coronations of the British monarch — Below is a list of people involved in coronations of the British monarch:tandard BearersAustralia*1911: Henry Northcote, 1st Baron Northcote *1937: Stanley Bruce *1953: Sir Thomas WhiteCanada*1911: John Hamilton Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen *1937 …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”