- Associate's degree
An associate degree is an
academic degreeawarded by community colleges, junior colleges, four-year universities, business colleges and some bachelor's degree-granting colleges/universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years.
Common abbreviations are:
* AA (
Associate of Arts)
* AS (
Associate of Science)
* ABS (
Associate of Baccalaureate Studies)
* APS (
Associate of Political science)
* AFA (Associate of Fine Arts)
* APS (Associate of Public Service)
* AAB (Associate of Applied Business)
* AAA (Associate of Applied Arts)
* AAS (Associate of Applied Science; or in some cases, Associate of Arts and Sciences)
* AIT (Associate of Industrial Technology)
* AOS (Associate of Occupational Studies)
* ABA (Associate of Business Administration)
* AAT (Associate of Arts in Teaching)
* AF (Associate of Forestry)
* AT (Associate of Technology)
* AE (Associate of Engineering; or, in some cases, Associate in Electronics Engineering Technology)
* AES (Associate of Engineering Science)
* AET (Associate in Engineering Technology)
* AN (Associate of Nursing)
* ASPT-APT (Associate in Physical Therapy)
* AGS (Associate of General Studies)
* ADN (
Associate Degree in Nursing)
United Statesand, more rarely, Canada, an associate degree is equivalent to the first two years of a four-year collegeor universitydegree. It is the lowest in the hierarchyof postsecondary academic degrees offered in these countries. It is also equivalent to the UK's foundation degreeand France's diplôme d'études universitaires généralesor DEUG. In 2000, Hong Kongintroduced associate degrees, as an equivalence to higher diplomas. These programmes are mainly provided through affiliated colleges at universities. In 2004, Australiaadded " [http://www.aqf.edu.au/ad.htm associate degree] " to the Australian Qualifications Framework. This title was given to more academically focused advanced diploma courses. However, very few courses yet use the new title.
Generalized categories or types of associate degrees
It is possible to break the associates degree into two general categories: transfer degrees and career or professional degrees.
This degree forms the foundation of a bachelors degree by allowing students to complete all of the
general educationrequirements prior to (possible) transfer to a four year university, although not all classes taken as general education will reliably transfer as general education. They include: An Associate of Arts degree is often awarded for programs that are intended for transfer to a four-year college or university, usually with a major in the social sciences or humanities, but may be awarded as a terminal degree. The Associate of Science degree is similarly awarded to terminal students or to potential transfer students to a four-year college or university, but the areas of concentration are usually in mathematics, natural sciences, or technology. The Associate of Fine Arts degree is typically awarded to student in Music, Theater, and Art (either performance or education related) and is usually transferable. In many cases, general education requirements are not satisfied upon conferral. The Associate of Arts in Teaching degree (or in some cases an associate of arts with an emphasis in teacher education) allows students who transfer to any participating four-year institution to receive full credit for their approved lower-division education courses. The intent is to encourage a larger, more diverse pool of students who want to become teachers by allowing students to test their interest in teaching early in their academic career and to shorten the time it takes them to obtain their baccalaureate degree. With this degree, one can also do Paraprofessional Education (Teacher's Aide) work. One can get this degree with a concentration in Paraprofessional Education, and assist teachers in the classroom, while pursuing a bachelor's degree.
Career or professional degrees
The Associate in Applied Science degree is awarded to students who are permitted to relax some of the general education requirements in order to study more course work in their program area. This kind of degree is for students who intend to enter the work force upon graduation.
The Associate in Industrial Technology This kind of degree is for students who intend to enter the work force upon graduation. It is awarded in fields of industrial technologies such as Computers, Electronics, Radio and Television Broadcasting, and Engineering. It may also be for those who continue on to a four year university program. The Associate in Business Administration degree is often awarded for programs that are terminal, but may also be intended for transfer to a four-year college or university, usually with a major in one of the business majors.
The Associate in Occupational Studies degree is for students who intend to enter the work force upon graduation. There are generally no liberal arts requirements for this degree.
Liberal Arts requirements
It is possible to categorize associate degrees by their liberal arts requirements. For example, New York State classifies its programs as follows: [http://www.highered.nysed.gov/ocue/chapter_i_of_title_8_of_the_offi.htm]
Associate in Occupational Studies (A.O.S.): no courses in the liberal arts and sciences.
Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.): one-third of the work shall be in the liberal arts and sciences.
Associate in Science (A.S.): one-half of the work shall be in the liberal arts and sciences.
Associate in Arts (A.A.): three-quarters of the work shall be in the liberal arts and sciences.
The associate degree is most often awarded to students completing educationally broad based post secondary programs requiring at least one but generally no more than two years of "full-time study".Fact|date=February 2007 In some instances, particularly allied health programs, three years is the norm. For students who place into developmental (sometimes called pre-college or remedial) courses, the time will be extended since these credits will not apply toward the associates.
A lesser diploma, called a
certificate, is awarded for specific studies that complete in a one year program or less, for example certification in a particular subfield of information technologymay only run for four to six months. However, for an associates degree it is not unusual for students to study part time, and therefore take more than two years to complete the degree. According to fall 2004 IPEDS data, 61 percent of US community colleges students are enrolled part time. To accommodate working students, most US community colleges offer required courses during evening and weekend hours and, increasingly, online (the Sloan Consortium reports that 51% of all degrees earned online are associates degrees.) ["Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006." [http://www.sloan-c.org/ The Sloan Consortium] .]
Names of associate degrees
Wittstruck (1975) notes that the associates degree goes by several different names formally:
The NCES data above are from 2,784 institutions (1,345 public, 727 private not-for-profit, and 712 private for-profit).
For details about the above figures and for more information, see the NCES (National Center for Education Statistics) web page [http://nces.ed.gov/] , particularly the report "Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2000 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 1999–2000" [http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002156.pdf] .
The number of associate degrees awarded rose rapidly in the 1970s. In 1981–1982, 434,515 associate's degrees were awarded, representing a 25% increase over the number of associate's degrees awarded during 1973–1974. All of the increase is accounted for by growth in the number of vocational degrees awarded. Between 1973–1974 and 1981–1982, percent changes in the number of associate's degrees awarded were as follows:
*data processing technologies (225%)
*mechanical and engineering technologies (86%)
*business and commerce technologies (39%)
*health services and paramedical technologies (31%)
*natural sciences technologies (30%)
*arts and sciences or general programs (-4.5%)
*public service-related technologies (-7%)
In terms of absolute numbers, 158,000 nonvocational and 276,493 vocational degrees were awarded in 1981–1982. Of the vocational degrees awarded:
* 35% were in business and commerce technologies,
* 22% were in health services and paramedical technologies;
* 21% were in mechanical and engineering technologies;
* 9% were in public service-related technologies;
* 8% were in data processing technologies, and
* 5% were in natural science technologies.
The growing popularity of vocational degrees is not necessarily a sign of the diminution of the transfer function, because many occupational students transfer to senior institutions. Indeed, a study conducted by the
State University of New York(SUNY) found that 29% of SUNY community college students receiving vocational associates degrees in 1980 transferred to a four-year institution. Illinoisdata also shed light on transfers with vocational associates degrees. Of the 3,871 students who transferred with an associates degree from an Illinois community college to an Illinois senior institution in Fall 1979, 19% (727) held the associate in applied science (AAS) degree. While the baccalaureate attainment rate for AAS transfers (19%) was lower than the baccalaureate attainment rate of those transfers with Associate of Arts or Associate of Science degrees (31%), it was higher than the attainment rate of those community college transfers who had earned no associate's degree at all (11%).
Students who earn this degree
Since 1976–1977, more than 50% of associate's degrees have been earned by women. Though female students are beginning to enter occupational curricula in which women have been traditionally under-represented, most women who obtain occupational associates degrees remain in health, office, and public service occupations. The 1981–1982 data reveal that women made up:
*88% of the degree recipients in health services and paramedical technologies (compared to 89% in 1971–1972)
*65% of the degree recipients in business and commerce technologies (compared to 47% in 1971–1972)
*52% of the degree recipients in public service-related technologies (compared to 38.6% in 1971–1972)
*50% of the degree recipients in data processing technologies (compared to 30% in 1971–1972)
*41% of the degree recipients in natural science technologies (compared to 24% in 1971–1972)
*9% of the degree recipients in mechanical and engineering technologies (compared to 2% in 1971–1972)
Of the nonvocational associate's degrees awarded in 1981–1982, 54% were awarded to women (compared to 43% in 1971–1972).
(See above for more recent data on degrees conferred by program of study.)
Advantages include lower costs, more evening classes for those with day jobs, and often a more convenient location. Many students first attend a local community college before transferring to four-year college for a combination of these reasons. See
Community Collegefor a more detailed list of the advantages.
Koltai (1984) presents a comprehensive analysis of the current status of the associates degree. He reports several issues that need to be addressed as community college educators plan associates degree programs for the future. These issues include:
* college-by-college variation in subject area and unit requirements
* the fact that many colleges and universities prefer their own transfer requirements rather than accepting the associates degree as qualifying students for transfer
* the need to keep up with high technology in vocational associates degree programs
* the desirability of competency-based programs that certify the learning outcomes of associates degree programs
* the need for more honor sections to attract and retain gifted students
* the types of courses for terminal two year programs are not adequate (or not transferable) for a four year college
In light of these issues, Koltai recommends that colleges establish testing and placement procedures for entering students, specify competency standards for degree graduates, improve the pre-service and in-service professional development of community college faculty, and establish associates degree committees to work with faculty, students, four-year institutions and businesses in improving counseling, job-placement, and transfer. In response, many community colleges have made arrangements with four-year institutions (usually those nearby or that offer advanced training in a specialized field) whereby the associates degree and the related hours will normally meet the "core" requirements for the first two years towards a bachelor's degree.
*"Associate Degrees: A Look At The 70's., National Center For Educational Statistics Bulletin".
Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, 1981. ED 207 628.
*Bragg, A. K. "Fall 1979 Transfer Study. Report 3: Second Year Persistence And Achievement". Springfield: Illinois Community College Board, 1982. ED 230 228.
*Koltai, L. "Redefining The Associate Degree". Washington, D.C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1984. ED 242 378.
*"SUNY Community College Graduates: Their Futures". Analysis Paper No. 822. Albany: State University of New York, Office for Community Colleges, 1982. ED 223 282.
*U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, [E.D. Tabs] Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2000 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 1999–2000, NCES 2002–156, by Laura G. Knapp, et.al.. Project Officer: Susan G. Broyles. Washington, DC: 2001.
*Wittstruck, J. R. "Requirements For Certificates, Diplomas And Associate Degrees: A Survey Of The States".
Denver, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers Association, 1985.
*I. Elaine Allen and Jeff Seaman. "Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006." The Sloan Consortium, 2006.
* [http://education-portal.com/article_directory/Glossary_of_Associate%27s_Degree_Programs.html Glossary of Associate Degree Programs] - Overviews of nearly every associate degree imaginable.
* [http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2002/winter/art01.htm Associate degree: Two years to a career or a jump start to a bachelor’s degree] - More information on Associate Degrees provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
* [http://www.elearners.com/online-degrees/associate/ Online Associate Degrees] - List of accredited online associate degrees.
* [http://www.associatedegreeonline.com/ Associate Degrees Online] - Comprehensive guide to accredited online associate degree programs and schools.
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