- Antiderivative
In

calculus , an**antiderivative**,**primitive**or**indefinite integral**[*Antiderivatives are also called*] of a function "f" is a function "F" whose**general integrals**, and sometimes**integrals**. The latter term is generic, and refers not only to indefinite integrals (antiderivatives), but also to definite integrals. When the word integral is used without additional specification, the reader is supposed to deduce from the context whether it is referred to a definite or indefinite integral. Some authors define the indefinite integral of a function as the set of its infinitely many possible antiderivatives. Others define it as an arbitrarily selected element of that set. Wikipedia adopts the latter approach.derivative is equal to "f", i.e., "F" ′ = "f". The process of solving for antiderivatives is**antidifferentiation**(or**indefinite integration**). Antiderivatives are related to definite integrals through thefundamental theorem of calculus , and provide a convenient means for calculating the definite integrals of many functions.**Example**The function "F"("x") = "x"

^{3}/3 is an antiderivative of "f"("x") = "x"^{2}. As the derivative of aconstant is zero, "x"^{2}will have an infinite number of antiderivatives; such as ("x"^{3}/3) + 0, ("x"^{3}/ 3) + 7, ("x"^{3}/ 3) − 42, etc. Thus, the entire antiderivative family of "x"^{2}can be obtained by changing the value of C in "F"("x") = ("x"^{3}/ 3) + "C"; where "C" is an arbitrary constant known as the constant of integration. Essentially, the graphs of antiderivatives of a given function arevertical translation s of each other; each graph's location depending upon the value of "C".**Uses and properties**Antiderivatives are important because they can be used to compute definite integrals, using the

fundamental theorem of calculus : if "F" is an antiderivative of the integrable function "f", then::$int\_a^b\; f(x),dx\; =\; F(b)\; -\; F(a).$

Because of this, each of the infinitely many antiderivatives of a given function "f" is sometimes called the "general integral" or "indefinite integral" of "f" and is written using the integral symbol with no bounds::$int\; f(x),\; dx.$

If "F" is an antiderivative of "f", and the function "f" is defined on some interval, then every other antiderivative "G" of "f" differs from "F" by a constant: there exists a number "C" such that "G"("x") = "F"("x") + "C" for all "x". "C" is called the

arbitrary constant of integration . If the domain of "F" is adisjoint union of two or more intervals, then a different constant of integration may be chosen for each of the intervals. For instance:$F(x)=egin\{cases\}-frac\{1\}\{x\}+C\_1quad\; x0\backslash -frac\{1\}\{x\}+C\_2quad\; x0end\{cases\}$

is the most general antiderivative of $f(x)=1/x^2$ on its natural domain $(-infty,0)cup(0,infty).$

Every

continuous function "f" has an antiderivative, and one antiderivative "F" is given by the definite integral of "f" with variable upper boundary::$F(x)=int\_a^x\; f(t),dt.$Varying the lower boundary produces other antiderivatives (but not necessarily all possible antiderivatives). This is another formulation of thefundamental theorem of calculus .There are many functions whose antiderivatives, even though they exist, cannot be expressed in terms of

elementary function s (likepolynomial s,exponential function s,logarithm s,trigonometric functions ,inverse trigonometric functions and their combinations). Examples of these are :$int\; e^\{-x^2\},dx,qquad\; int\; frac\{sin(x)\}\{x\},dx,qquad\; intfrac\{1\}\{ln\; x\},dx,qquad\; int\; x^\{x\},dx.$See also

differential Galois theory for a more detailed discussion.**Techniques of integration**Finding antiderivatives of elementary functions is often considerably harder than finding their derivatives. For some elementary functions, it is impossible to find an antiderivative in terms of other elementary functions. See the article on elementary functions for further information.

We have various methods at our disposal:

* the

linearity of integration allows us to break complicated integrals into simpler ones

*integration by substitution , often combined with trigonometric identities or thenatural logarithm

*integration by parts to integrate products of functions

* theinverse chain rule method , a special case of integration by substitution

* the method ofpartial fractions in integration allows us to integrate allrational function s (fractions of two polynomials)

* theRisch algorithm

* integrals can also be looked up in atable of integrals

* when integrating multiple times, we can use certain additional techniques, see for instancedouble integral s and polar coordinates, theJacobian and theStokes' theorem

*computer algebra system s can be used to automate some or all of the work involved in the symbolic techniques above, which is particularly useful when the algebraic manipulations involved are very complex or lengthy

* if a function has no elementary antiderivative (for instance, exp("x"^{2})), its definite integral can be approximated usingnumerical integration

* to calculate the ($n$ times) repeated antiderivative of a function $f,$ Cauchy's formula is useful: :$int\_\{x\_0\}^x\; int\_\{x\_0\}^\{x\_1\}\; dots\; int\_\{x\_0\}^\{x\_\{n-1\; f(x\_n)\; dx\_n\; dots\; ,\; d\; x\_2\; d\; x\_1=\; int\_\{x\_0\}^x\; f(t)\; frac\{(x-t)^\{n-1\{(n-1)!\}dt\; .$**Antiderivatives of non-continuous functions**To illustrate some of the subtleties of the fundamental theorem of calculus, it is instructive to consider what kinds of non-continuous functions might have antiderivatives. While there are still open questions in this area, it is known that:

* Some highly pathological functions with large sets of discontinuities may nevertheless have antiderivatives.

* In some cases, the antiderivatives of such pathological functions may be found by Riemann integration, while in other cases these functions are not Riemann integrable.We first state some general facts and then provide some illustrative examples. Throughout, we assume that the domains of our functions are open intervals.

* A necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a function "f" to have an antiderivative is that "f" have the intermediate value property. That is, if ["a","b"] is a subinterval of the domain of "f" and "d" is any real number between "f"("a") and "f"("b"), then "f"("c")="d" for some "c" between "a" and "b". To see this, let "F" be an antiderivative of "f" and consider the continuous function "g"("x")="F"("x")-"dx" on the closed interval ["a", "b"] . Then "g" must have either a maximum or minimum "c" in the open interval ("a","b") and so 0="g"′("c")="f"("c")-"d".

* The set of discontinuities of "f" must be a meagre set. This set must also be anF-sigma set (since the set of discontinuities of any function must be of this type). Moreover for any meagre F-sigma set, one can construct some function "f" having an antiderivative, which has the given set as its set of discontinuities.

* If "f" has an antiderivative, is bounded on closed finite subintervals of the domain and has a set of discontinuities ofLebesgue measure 0, then an antiderivative may be found by integration.

* If "f" has an antiderivative "F" on a closed interval ["a","b"] , then for any choice of partition $a=x\_0=b\; math>,\; if\; one\; chooses\; sample\; points$ x\_i^*in\; [x\_\{i-1\},x\_i]$as\; specified\; by\; themean\; value\; theorem,\; then\; the\; corresponding\; Riemann\; sumtelescopesto\; the\; value\; "F"("b")-"F"("a").:$ sum\_\{i=1\}^n\; f(x\_i^*)(x\_i-x\_\{i-1\})\; =\; sum\_\{i=1\}^n\; [F(x\_i)-F(x\_\{i-1\})]\; =\; F(x\_n)-F(x\_0)\; =\; F(b)-F(a)$:However\; if\; the\; set\; of\; discontinuities\; of\; "f"\; has\; positive\; Lebesgue\; measure,\; a\; different\; choice\; of\; sample\; points$ x\_i^*$will\; give\; a\; significantly\; different\; value\; for\; the\; Riemann\; sum,\; no\; matter\; how\; fine\; the\; partition.\; See\; Example\; 4\; below.$**Some examples**- The function:$f(x)=2xsinleft(frac\{1\}\{x\}\; ight)-cosleft(frac\{1\}\{x\}\; ight)$
with $fleft(0\; ight)=0$ is not continuous at $x=0$ but has the antiderivative

:$Fleft(x\; ight)=x^2sinleft(frac\{1\}\{x\}\; ight)$

with $Fleft(0\; ight)=0$. Since "f" is bounded on closed finite intervals and is only discontinuous at 0, the antiderivative "F" may be obtained by integration: $F(x)=int\_0^x\; f(t),dt$.

- The function
:$f(x)=2xsinleft(frac\{1\}\{x^2\}\; ight)-frac\{2\}\{x\}cosleft(frac\{1\}\{x^2\}\; ight)$

with $fleft(0\; ight)=0$ is not continuous at $x=0$ but has the antiderivative

:$F(x)=x^2sinleft(frac\{1\}\{x^2\}\; ight)$

with $Fleft(0\; ight)=0$. Unlike Example 1, "f"("x") is unbounded in any interval containing 0, so the Riemann integral is undefined.

- If "f"("x") is the function in Example 1 and "F" is its antiderivative, and $\{x\_n\}\_\{nge1\}$ is a dense
countable subset of the open interval $left(-1,1\; ight)$, then the function:$g(x)=sum\_\{n=1\}^infty\; frac\{f(x-x\_n)\}\{2^n\}$

has as antiderivative

:$G(x)=sum\_\{n=1\}^infty\; frac\{F(x-x\_n)\}\{2^n\}.$

The set of discontinuities of "g" is precisely the set $\{x\_n\}\_\{nge1\}$. Since "g" is bounded on closed finite intervals and the set of discontinuities has measure 0, the antiderivative "G" may be found by integration.

- Let $\{x\_n\}\_\{nge1\}$ be a
dense countable subset of the open interval $left(-1,1\; ight)$. Consider the everywhere continuous strictly increasing function:$F(x)=sum\_\{n=1\}^inftyfrac\{1\}\{2^n\}(x-x\_n)^\{1/3\}.$

It can be shown that

:$F\text{'}(x)=sum\_\{n=1\}^inftyfrac\{1\}\{3cdot2^n\}(x-x\_n)^\{-2/3\}$

for all values "x" where the series converges, and that the graph of "F"("x") has vertical tangent lines at all other values of "x". In particular the graph has vertical tangent lines at all points in the set $\{x\_n\}\_\{nge1\}$.

Moreover $Fleft(x\; ight)ge0$ for all "x" where the derivative is defined. It follows that the inverse function $G=F^\{-1\}$ is differentiable everywhere and that

:$gleft(x\; ight)=G\text{'}left(x\; ight)=0$

for all "x" in the set $\{F(x\_n)\}\_\{nge1\}$ which is dense in the interval $left\; [Fleft(-1\; ight),Fleft(1\; ight)\; ight]$. Thus "g" has an antiderivative "G". On the other hand, it can not be true that

:$int\_\{F(-1)\}^\{F(1)\}g(x),dx=GF(1)-GF(-1)=2,$

since for any partition of $left\; [Fleft(-1\; ight),Fleft(1\; ight)\; ight]$, one can choose sample points for the Riemann sum from the set $\{F(x\_n)\}\_\{nge1\}$, giving a value of 0 for the sum. It follows that "g" has a set of discontinuities of positive Lebesgue measure. Figure 1 on the right shows an approximation to the graph of "g"("x") where $\{x\_n=cos(n)\}\_\{nge1\}$ and the series is truncated to 8 terms. Figure 2 shows the graph of an approximation to the antiderivative "G"("x"), also truncated to 8 terms. On the other hand if the Riemann integral is replaced by the

Lebesgue integral , thenFatou's lemma or thedominated convergence theorem shows that "g" does satisfy the fundamental theorem of calculus in that context. - In Examples 3 and 4, the sets of discontinuities of the functions "g" are dense only in a finite open interval $left(a,b\; ight)$. However these examples can be easily modified so as to have sets of discontinuities which are dense on the entire real line $(-infty,infty)$. Let:$lambda(x)\; =\; frac\{a+b\}\{2\}\; +\; frac\{b-a\}\{pi\}\; an^\{-1\}(x).$Then $gleft(lambda(x)\; ight)lambda\text{'}(x)$ has a dense set of discontinuities on $(-infty,infty)$ and has antiderivative $Gcdotlambda.$
- Using a similar method as in Example 5, one can modify "g" in Example 4 so as to vanish at all
rational numbers . If one uses a naive version of theRiemann integral defined as the limit of left-hand or right-hand Riemann sums over regular partitions, one will obtain that the integral of such a function "g" over an interval $left\; [a,b\; ight]$ is 0 whenever "a" and "b" are both rational, instead of $Gleft(b\; ight)-Gleft(a\; ight)$. Thus the fundamental theorem of calculus will fail spectacularly.

**ee also***

Antiderivative (complex analysis) **Notes****References*** "Introduction to Classical Real Analysis", by Karl R. Stromberg; Wadsworth, 1981 (see [

*http://groups.google.com/group/sci.math/browse_frm/thread/8d900a2d79429d43/0ba4ff0d46efe076?lnk=st&q=&rnum=19&hl=en#0ba4ff0d46efe076 also*] )

* "Historical Essay On Continuity Of Derivatives", by Dave L. Renfro; http://groups.google.com/group/sci.math/msg/814be41b1ea8c024- The function:$f(x)=2xsinleft(frac\{1\}\{x\}\; ight)-cosleft(frac\{1\}\{x\}\; ight)$

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