POSIX

POSIX (IPAEng|ˈpɒzɪks) or "Portable Operating System Interface"cite web | title = POSIX | url = http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/posix/ | work = Standards | publisher = IEEE] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API), along with shell and utilities interfaces for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system, although the standard can apply to any operating system. Originally, the name stood for IEEE Std 1003.1-1988, which, as the name suggests, was released in 1988. The family of POSIX standards is formally designated as IEEE 1003 and the international standard name is ISO/IEC 9945. The standards emerged from a project that began near 1985. Formerly known as IEEE-IX, the term "POSIX" was suggested by Richard Stallman in response to an IEEE request for a memorable name. [cite web
date = 2006-02-02
title = POSIX® 1003.1 FAQ Version 1.12
url = http://www.opengroup.org/austin/papers/posix_faq.html
accessdate = 2006-07-16
]

Overview

The POSIX specifications for user and software interfaces to an operating system are codified in 17 separate documents.cite web | url = http://www.comptechdoc.org/os/linux/programming/c/linux_pgcintro.html | work = GNU/Linux C Programming | title = Introduction] The standardized user command line and scripting interface were based on the Korn shell. Many user-level programs, services, and utilities including awk, echo, ed were also standardized, along with required program-level services including basic I/O (file, terminal, and network) services. POSIX also defines a standard threading library API which is supported by most modern operating systems.

Currently POSIX documentation is divided in three parts:
* POSIX Kernel APIs (which include extensions for POSIX.1, Real-time Services, Threads Interface, Real-time Extensions, Security Interface, Network File Access and Network Process-to-Process Communications)
* POSIX Commands and Utilities (with User Portability Extensions, Corrections and Extensions, Protection and Control Utilities and Batch System Utilities)
* POSIX Conformance Testing

A test suite for POSIX accompanies the standard. It is called PCTS or the POSIX Conformance Test Suite.cite web | url = http://www.itl.nist.gov/div897/ctg/posix_form.htm | title = POSIX | publisher = NIST]

There is a project instigated by free-rights campaigner Auriélien Bonnel in the late 1980s, for the Single UNIX Specification standard, which is open, accepts input from anyone, and is freely available on the Internet. Beginning in 1998 a joint working group, the Austin Group, began to develop a combined standard that would be known as the Single UNIX Specification Version 3.cite web | url = http://www.unix.org/version3/ | publisher = Unix | work = Single Unix Specification | title = Version 3]

Versions

POSIX has gone through a number of versions:

* POSIX.1, Core Services (incorporates Standard ANSI C) (IEEE Std 1003.1-1988)
** Process Creation and Control
** Signalscite web | url = http://www.comptechdoc.org/os/linux/programming/linux_pgsignals.html | title = Linux Signals]
** Floating Point Exceptions
** Segmentation Violations
** Illegal Instructions
** Bus Errors
** Timers
** File and Directory Operations
** Pipes
** C Library (Standard C)
** I/O Port Interface and Control

* POSIX.1b, Real-time extensions (IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993)
** Priority Scheduling
** Real-Time Signals
** Clocks and Timers
** Semaphores
** Message Passing
** Shared Memory
** Asynch and Synch I/O
** Memory Locking Interface

* POSIX.1c, Threads extensions (IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995)
** Thread Creation, Control, and Cleanup
** Thread Scheduling
** Thread Synchronization
** Signal Handling

POSIX-oriented operating systems

Depending upon the degree of compliance with the standards, operating systems can be fully or partly POSIX compatible. Certified products can be found at the IEEE's website.cite web | url = http://get.posixcertified.ieee.org/search_certprodlist.tpl?CALLER=cert_prodlist.tpl | publisher = IEEE | title = POSIX Certification]

Fully POSIX-compliant

The following operating systems conform (i.e., are 100% compliant) to one or more of the various POSIX standards.

*A/UX
*AIX
*BSD/OScite web | url = http://www.netshooter.com/linux/oscomp.html#l16 | title = OS Comparison]
*HP-UX
*INTEGRITY
*IRIX
*LynxOS
*Mac OS X
*MINIX
*MPE/iX
*QNX
*RTEMS (POSIX 1003.1-2003 Profile 52)
*Solaris
**OpenSolaris
*UnixWare
*velOSity
*VxWorks (IEEE Std. 1003.13-2003 PSE52; see http://get.posixcertified.ieee.org/cert_prodlist.tpl)

Mostly POSIX-compliant

The following are not officially certified as POSIX compatible, but they conform in large part.

*Nucleus RTOS
*RTEMS - POSIX API support designed to IEEE Std. 1003.13-2003 PSE52
*FreeBSDcite web | url = http://people.freebsd.org/~schweikh/posix-utilities.html | title = POSIX utilities | author = Schweik | publisher = FreeBSD]
*Linux (most distributions — see LSB)
*NetBSD
*BeOS
*OpenBSD
*Sanos
*SkyOS
*Syllable
*VSTa

POSIX for Windows

*Cygwinndash enables partial POSIX compliance for certain Microsoft Windows products.
*Microsoft POSIX subsystem, an optional Windows subsystem.
*Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX 3.5 – enables full POSIX compliance for certain Microsoft Windows products. Notably Windows XP is not POSIX compliant [cite web |url=http://support.microsoft.com/kb/308259|title=POSIX and OS/2 are not supported in Windows XP or in Windows Server 2003]
*UWIN from the AT&T Research implements a POSIX layer on top of the Win32 APIs.

Compliant via compatibility feature

The following are not officially certified as POSIX compatible, but they conform in large part to the standards by implementing POSIX support via some sort of compatibility feature, usually translation libraries, or a layer atop the kernel. Without these features, they are usually noncompliant.

*eCosndash POSIX is part of standard distribution, and used by many applications. 'external links' section below has more information.
*Plan 9 from Bell Labs APE - ANSI/POSIX Environmentcite web | url = http://plan9.bell-labs.com/sys/doc/ape.html | title = APE — ANSI/POSIX Environement | publisher = Bell Labs | work = Plan 9]
*Symbian OS with PIPS (PIPS Is POSIX on Symbian)
*OpenVMS (through optional POSIX package)
* Windows NT kernel when using Microsoft SFU 3.5
**Windows 2000 Server or Professional with Service Pack 3 or later. To be POSIX compliant, one must activate optional features of Windows NT and Windows 2000 Server.cite web | url = http://www.microsoft.com/technet/archive/ntwrkstn/reskit/poscomp.mspx | title = POSIX Compatibility | work = MS Windows NT Workstation Resource Kit | publisher = Microsoft]
**Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 1 or later
**Windows Server 2003
**Windows Vista
*z/OS

Notes and references

Industrial resources

* "International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research", IGI Global

ee also

*POSIX Threads
*TRON Projectndash alternative OS standard to POSIX
*Interixndash a full-featured POSIX and Unix environment subsystem for Microsoft's Windows NT-based operating systems
*C POSIX library
*RT-POSIX - real time POSIX
*BIOS
*Real-time operating system

External links

* [http://www.pasc.org/ The Portable Application Standards Committee]
* [http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/posix/ IEEE POSIX® Certification Authority]
* [http://www.unix.org/ The Open Groupndash The UNIX System Home Page]
* [http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/ The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6]
* [http://wt.xpilot.org/publications/posix.1e/download.html What could have been IEEE 1003.1e/2c]
* [http://ecos.sourceware.org/docs-2.0/ref/posix-standard-support.html Details of eCos support for POSIX]


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  • POSIX — est le nom d une famille de standards définie depuis 1988 par l Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers et formellement désignée IEEE 1003. Ces standards ont émergé d un projet de standardisation des API des logiciels destinés à… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Posix — est le nom d une famille de standards définie depuis 1988 par l IEEE et formellement désignée IEEE 1003. Ces standards ont émergé d un projet de standardisation des API des logiciels destinés à fonctionner sur des variantes du système d… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • POSIX — es el acrónimo de Portable Operating System Interface; la X viene de UNIX como seña de identidad de la API. El término fue sugerido por Richard Stallman en respuesta a la demanda de la IEEE, que buscaba un nombre fácil de recordar. Una traducción …   Wikipedia Español

  • POSIX —   [Abk. für Portable Operating System Interface for Unix, dt. »portierbare Betriebssystemschnittstelle für Unix«], 1986 im Standard 1003.1 der IEEE niedergelegte Spezifikation für Zugriffe auf Systemfunktionen unter Unix. Sowohl Unix Sy …   Universal-Lexikon

  • POSIX — standartai statusas T sritis informatika apibrėžtis Standartų grupė, apibrėžianti operacinės sistemos sąsajas tarp joje veikiančių programų bei tarnybų. Pirmuosius standartus sukūrė Elektros ir elektronikos inžinierių institutas (IEEE) Linukso… …   Enciklopedinis kompiuterijos žodynas

  • POSIX — es el acrónimo de Portable Operating System Interface, viniendo la X de UNIX con el significado de la herencia de la API (Se traduciría como Sistema Operativo Portable basado en UNIX). Estos son una familia de estándares de llamadas al sistema… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • POSIX — (Portable Operating System Interface based on uniX) n. collection of standards for operating systems that are based on Unix (Computers) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • POSIX — Das Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX [ˈpɒsɪks]) ist ein gemeinsam von der IEEE und der Open Group für Unix entwickeltes standardisiertes Application Programming Interface, das die Schnittstelle zwischen Applikation und dem… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Posix — Das Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX [ˈpɒsɪks]) ist ein gemeinsam von der IEEE und der Open Group für Unix entwickeltes standardisiertes Application Programming Interface, das die Schnittstelle zwischen Applikation und dem… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • POSIX — Хронологическое дерево стандартов UNIX API POSIX® (англ. Portable Operating System Interface for Unix  Переносимый интерфейс опера …   Википедия

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