- Andreas Schlüter
Andreas Schlüter (
20 May 1664in Hamburg["nach älteren Quellen angeblich am 20. Mai 1664 in Hamburg als Sohn des Bildhauers Gerhart Schlüter geboren" - [http://mdz10.bib-bvb.de/~db/bsb00008413/images/index.html?seite=187 "Andreas Schlüter"] , in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie(ADB). Bd. 55, Leipzig 1910, S. 184–194.] – May 1714) was a German baroque sculptorand architectassociated with the Petrine Baroquestyle of architecture and decoration.
The early life of the sculptor Andreas Schlüter is obscured as at least three different persons of that names are documented. The records of
St. Michaelis Church, Hamburgshow that an Andreas Schlüter, son of sculptor Gerhart Schlüter, had been baptized there on May 22 1664. Documents from Danzig (Gdańsk) reported that an Andreas Schlüter "(senior)" had worked 1640-1652 in Danzig's Jopengasse lane. Possibly born in 1640, an "Andres Schliter" is recorded as apprentice on 9 May 1656 by the mason's guild. Other sources state 1659 as year of birth. [ Deutsches Historisches Museumonline article on Zeughaus[http://www.dhm.de/magazine/zeughaus/Skulpturenschmuck.html] ]
He probably did spend several years abroad as
Journeyman. His first work, in 1675, may have been epitaphs of the Dukes Samborand Mestwinin the dome of Pelplin monastery.
Schlüter's first known work was the decoration of the
facadeof the St. Johannis Chapel, or Danzig Royal Chapel, in 1681. He later created statues for King John III Sobieski's Wilanów Palacein Warsawand sepulchral sculptures in Żółkiew (Zhovkva). In 1689, he moved to Warsaw and made the pedimentreliefs and sculptural work of Krasiński Palace.
Schlüter was invited to
Berlinin 1694 by Eberhard von Danckelmannto work as court sculptor at the Zeughausfor Elector Frederick III. His sculpted decorations are a masterpiece of baroque expression and pathos. While the more visible reliefs on the outside had to praise fighting, the statues of dying warriors in the interior denounced war and gave an indication of his pacifist religious beliefs (he is said to have been a Mennonite). Travelling through Italy in 1696, he studied the work of masters like Michelangelo Buonarrotiund Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
Schlüter also worked as an architect and built many state buildings in Berlin in his role of "Hofbaumeister" (Court Architect), which he lost when one tower showed signs of a weak fundament. He also served as director of the
Akademie der Künstefrom 1702 to 1704, after which he began concentrating on sculpting again, as "Hofbildhauer" (Court Sculptor). His most important equestrian sculptureis that of the "Great Elector", Frederick William of Brandenburg, cast in 1708 and placed at "Lange Brücke" near the Berlin City Palace, now situated in the Charlottenburg Palace.
The Berlin City Palace, and many of his works, were partially destroyed by bombing in
World War IIand by the subsequent Communist regime. A similar fate probably happened to the Amber Room, made between 1701 and 1709, Schlüter's most famous work of architecture.
In 1713 Schlüter's fame brought him to work for Tsar Peter the Great in
Saint Petersburg, where he died of an illness after creating several designs. Together with Johann Friedrich Braunstein, he designed the Grand Palace and MonplaisirPalace in Peterhof. Also the city's oldest building, Kikin's Palace, and the reliefs at the Summer Palace are attributed to him.
facadeof the Royal Chapel, Gdańsk, 1681
*Sculptures on the facade of
Wilanów Palace, Warsaw, after 1681
*Sculptures on the
pedimentof Krasiński Palace, Warsaw, 1682-3, 1689-93
Epitaphof Adam Zygmunt Konarski, St. Mary's Cathedral of the Assumption, Frombork, after 1683
altarand crucifix in church, Węgrównear Warsaw, 1688-90
*sepulchral sculptures of the
Sobieskifamily, Zhovkvanear Przemyśl, 1692-93
altarin Czerniaków church, Warsaw, 1690
*portrait bishop Jan Małachowski in
Wawel Cathedral, Kraków1693
* Statue of Elector Frederick William on horse,
Charlottenburg, Berlin, 1689-1703 [Gallery [http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/s/schluter/] ]
* [http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~hart/schlueter/schlueter.htm Biography, by Heinz Ladendorf, 1935]
* [http://morgenpost.berlin1.de/archiv2002/020705/politik/story532514.html Article in Morgenpost newspaper]
* [http://www.dhm.de/magazine/zeughaus/Skulpturenschmuck.html dhm.de: Schlüter bio at Zeughaus]
* [http://nevsky-prospekt.com/kikin.html English site about Kikin's Palace (Mansion House)]
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