- Fort Christina
Infobox_nrhp | name =Fort Christina
location= East 7th St. at the Christina River,
lat_degrees = 39
lat_minutes = 44
lat_seconds = 13.64
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 75
long_minutes = 32
long_seconds = 18.46
long_direction = W
locmapin = Delaware
November 5, 1961cite web|url=http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=160&ResourceType=Site
title=Fort Christina |accessdate=2007-09-27|work=National Historic Landmark summary listing|publisher=National Park Service]
October 15, 1966cite web|url=http://www.nr.nps.gov/|title=National Register Information System|date=2007-01-23|work=National Register of Historic Places|publisher=National Park Service]
governing_body = State
Fort Christina (later renamed Fort Altena) was the first Swedish settlement in
North Americaand the principal settlement of the New Swedencolony. Built in 1638and named after Queen Christina of Sweden, it was located approximately 1 mi (1.6 km) east of the present downtown Wilmington, Delaware, at the confluence of the Brandywine Creek and the Christina River, approximately 2 mi (3 km) upstream from the mouth of the Christina on the Delaware River. It was the first permanent European settlement in the Delaware Valley.
The Dutch, as part of the
New Netherlandcolony, had previously attempted a settlement along Delaware Bayat Zwaanendael(near present-day Lewes) in 1631, but the colony had been massacred the following year by Native Americans. Following plans by King Gustavus Adolphusof Swedento establish a Swedish colony in North America, the Swedes arrived in Delaware Bay on March 29, 1638 aboard the ships " Kalmar Nyckel" and " Fogel Grip" under the command of Peter Minuit, the former director general of the New Netherlandcolony. They landed at a spot along the Christina Riverat the present site of Old Swedes Church in Wilmington. Minuit selected the site on the Christina River near the Delaware as being optimal for trade in beaver pelts with the local Lenape.
At the time, the Dutch had claimed the area south to the Delaware (then called "South River"). The Swedes claimed an area for the
Realm of Swedenon the south side of the Delaware that encompassed much of the present-day U.S. stateof Delaware, eventually including parts of present-day southeastern Pennsylvaniaand southern New Jerseyon the north side of the river.
The colony remained in constant friction with the Dutch. In
1651, the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesantestablished Fort Casimirat present-day New Castle, only 7 mi (12 km) south of Fort Christina, in order to menace the Swedish settlement. In 1654, the Swedes captured Fort Casimir, but the following year in 1655, the Dutch took control of New Sweden, ending the official Swedish colonial presence in North America and renaming the fort 'Fort Altena'. The land remained as part of New Netherland until it became part of the British Empire when an English fleet invaded the area in 1664.
The site was designated a
National Historic Landmarkin 1961.,citation|title=PDFlink| [http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/66000260.pdf National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Fort Christina] |321 KiB |author=Richard Greenwood|date=July 21, 1975|publisher=National Park Service and PDFlink| [http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Photos/66000260.pdf "Accompanying 2 photos, from 1975"] |267 KiB ]
It is now preserved as
Fort Christina State Parkon E. 7th Street in Wilmington, along with a replica of the "Kalmar Nyckel".
Swedish colonization of the Americas
Fort Nya Elfsborg
* [http://www.nnp.org/vtour/regions/Delaware/fort_christina.html New Netherland Virtual Tour: Fort Christina]
* [http://www.hsd.org/DHE/DHE_when_settlement.htm Delaware History Online: Fort Christina]
* [http://www.kalmarnyckel.org The Kalmar Nyckel Foundation & Tall Ship Kalmar Nyckel.]
* [http://www.colonialswedes.org The Swedish Colonial Society]
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