in Japanese, but typically pronEng|ˈænɪmeɪ, IPA|/ˈænɪmə/, IPA|/ə'naɪm/, or IPA|/'ænaɪm/ in English) is animation in Japan and considered Japanese animation in the rest of the world. [cite web|url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anime|title=www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anime ] Anime dates from about 1917.
Anime is in Japan is popular among a small community and is now viewed throughout the world. Anime itself is considered a form of limited animation. Anime can be broadcasted either through television or released directly to video, which are often called OVAs or OAV (Original Animation Video).
Anime can be hand drawn or computer-assisted. It is used in
television series, films, video, video games, commercials, and internet-based releases, and represents all genres of fiction.
The history of anime begins at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the
animationtechniques that were being explored in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia.cite book |last=Schodt |first=Frederik L. | title=Manga! Manga!: The World of Japanese Comics |publisher= KodanshaInternational |date=Reprint edition (August 18, 1997) |location =ToKyo, Japan |isbn=ISBN 0-87011-752-1 ] The oldest known anime in existence was screened in 1917; it was a two minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat. [cite web | url = http://www.hdrjapan.com/japan/japan-news/historic-91%11year%11old-anime-discovered-in-osaka// | title = Historic 91-year-old anime discovered in Osaka | publisher = HDR Japan | date = 2008-03-30 | accessdate = 2008-05-12]
By the 1930s, animation became an alternative format of storytelling compared to the underdeveloped live-action industry in Japan. Unlike America, the live-action industry in Japan remained a small market and suffered from budgeting, location, and casting restrictions. The lack of Western-looking actors, for example, made it next to impossible to shoot films set in Europe, America, or fantasy worlds that do not naturally involve Japan. Animation allowed artists to create any characters and settings.cite web|title=Do Manga Characters Look "White"?|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060517194357sh_re_/www.matt-thorn.com/mangagaku/faceoftheother.html | accessmonthday = December 11 | accessyear = 2005 ]
The success of Disney's 1937 feature film "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" influenced Japanese animators. [cite web|url=http://www.corneredangel.com/amwess/papers/history.html|title=A Brief History of Anime|date=1999|accessdate=2007-09-11|work=Michael O'Connell, Otakon 1999 Program Book]
Osamu Tezukaadapted and simplified many Disney animation techniques to reduce the costs and number of frames in the production. This was intended to be a temporary measure to allow him to produce material on a tight schedule with an inexperienced animation staff.
During the 1970s, there was a surge of growth in the popularity of
manga—which were often later animated—especially those of Osamu Tezuka, who has been called a "legend" [cite web| url = http://www.asahi.com/english/Herald-asahi/TKY200605110157.html| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20060520053910/http://www.asahi.com/english/Herald-asahi/TKY200605110157.html| archivedate=2006-05-20| title = 5 missing manga pieces by Osamu Tezuka found in U.S.| accessdate = 2006-08-29| last = Ohara| first = Atsushi| authorlink = | coauthors = Asahi Shimbun| date = May 11, 2006| publisher = Asahi.com] and the "god of manga". [cite web| url = http://www.abcb.com/ency/t/tezuka_osamu.htm| title = Dr. Osamu Tezuka| accessdate = 2006-08-29| date = 2000-03-14| work = The Anime Encyclopedia| publisher = The Anime Café] [cite web| url = http://www.paulgravett.com/articles/006_tezuka/006_tezuka.htm| title = Osamu Tezuka: The God of Manga| accessdate = 2006-08-29| last = Gravett| first = Paul|year = 2003] His work and that of other pioneers in the field, inspired characteristics and genres that are fundamental elements of anime today. The giant robotgenre (known as " Mecha" outside Japan), for instance, took shape under Tezuka, developed into the Super Robotgenre under Go Nagaiand others, and was revolutionized at the end of the decade by Yoshiyuki Tominowho developed the Real Robotgenre. Robot anime like the " Gundam" and "Macross" series became instant classics in the 1980s, and the robot genre of anime is still one of the most common in Japan and worldwide today. In the 1980s, anime became more accepted in the mainstream in Japan (although less than manga), and experienced a boom in production. Following a few successful adaptations of anime in overseas markets in the 1980s, anime gained increased acceptance in those markets in the 1990s and even more in the 2000s.
In Japanese, the English term animation is written in
katakanaas アニメーション ("animēshon," pronounced|ɑnimeːɕoɴ). The term, anime (アニメ), emerged in the 1970s. This most likely derived from the French "l'animé". [cite web|url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=anime|title=Etymology Dictionary Reference: Anime|date=|accessdate=2007-09-13|work=Etymonline] Both the original and abbreviated forms are valid and interchangeable in Japanese, but the shorter form is more commonly used.
The pronunciation of "anime" in Japanese, IPA|ɑnime, differs significantly from the
Standard EnglishIPAEng|ˈænɪmeɪ which have different vowels and stress. (In Japanese each mora carries equal stress.) As with a few other Japanese words such as " saké, Pokémon," and " Kobo Abé," "anime" is sometimes spelled "animé" in English (as in French), with an acute accentover the final "e", to cue the reader that the letter is pronounced, not silent as would be expected in English. However, this accent does not appear in any commonly used system of romanized Japanese and is not in frequent enough use to be recognised by the Oxford English Dictionary.
In Japan, the term does not specify an animation's nation of origin or style; instead, it is used as a
blanket termto refer to all forms of animation from around the world. [cite web|url=http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art4260.asp|title=What is Anime?|date=|publisher=Bellaonline|accessdate=2007-10-28|work=Lesley Aeschliman] [
cite web|url=http://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/__data/page/9842/Tezuka_Kit_1.pdf|format=pdf|title=Tezuka: The Marvel of Manga - Education Kit|date=2007|publisher=Art Gallery New South Wales|accessdate=2007-10-28|work=] In English, dictionary sources define "anime" as "a Japanese style of motion-picture animation" or "a style of animation developed in Japan". [cite web|url=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/anime|title=Anime Dictionary Definition|accessdate=2006-10-09|work=Dictionary.com] Non-Japanese works that borrow stylization from anime is commonly referred to as "
anime-influenced animation" but it is not unusual for a viewer who does not know the country of origin of such material to refer to it as simply "anime". Some works are co-productions with non-Japanese companies, such as the Cartoon Network and Production I.Gseries " IGPX" or " Ōban Star-Racers", which may or may not be considered anime by different viewers.
In English, "anime" can be used as a common
noun("Do you watch anime?") or as a suppletive adjective("The anime "" is different from the movie "Guyver"). It may also be used as a mass noun, as in "How much anime have you collected?" and therefore is not pluralized as "animes".
Anime is occasionally referred to as Japanimation, but this term has fallen into disuse. [cite web|url=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/encyclopedia/lexicon.php?id=46|title=ANN: Japanimation|date=|publisher=Anime News Network|accessdate=2007-11-11|work=] "Japanimation" saw the most usage during the 1970s and 1980s, but was supplanted by "anime" in the mid-1990s as the material became more widely known in English-speaking countries.cite book|last=Patten|first=Fred|title=Watching Anime, Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews|publisher=Stone Bridge Press|date=2004|isbn=1880656922] In general, the term now only appears in nostalgic contexts. Although the term was coined outside Japan to refer to animation imported from Japan, it is now used primarily "in" Japan, to refer to domestic animation; since "anime" does not identify the country of origin in Japanese usage, "Japanimation" is used to distinguish Japanese work from that of the rest of the world.
In Japan, manga can additionally refer to both animation and comics (although the use of manga to refer to animation is mostly restricted to non-fans).Fact|date=February 2008 Among English speakers, manga usually has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics".Fact|date=February 2008 An alternate explanation is that it is due to the prominence of
Manga Entertainment, a distributor of anime to the US and UK markets. Because Manga Entertainment originated in the UK the use of the term is common outside of Japan.Fact|date=February 2008 The term " animanga" has been used to collectively refer to anime and manga, though it is also a term used to describe comics produced from animation cels.
Anime is commonly referred as an art form. [cite web|url=http://www.animenation.net/news/askjohn.php?id=1292|title=Ask John: Do Japanese Viewers Treat Anime Shows as Fads?|date=2006-04-07|publisher=AnimeNation|accessdate=2008-01-23|work=Ask John] As a visual medium, it naturally places a large emphasis on visual styles. The styles can vary from artist to artist or by studio to studio. Some titles make extensive use of common stylization: "
FLCL", for example, is known for its wild, exaggerated stylization. In contrast, titles such as "Only Yesterday" or " Jin-Roh" take much more realistic approaches, featuring few stylistic exaggerations.
While different titles and different artists have their own artistic styles, many stylistic elements have become so common such that they are described as being definitive of anime in general. However, this does not mean that all modern anime share one strict, common art style. Many anime have a very different art style from what would commonly be called "anime style", yet fans still use the word "anime" to refer to these titles. Generally, the most common form of anime drawings are "exaggerated physical features such as large eyes, big hair and elongated limbs... and dramatically shaped speech bubbles, speed lines and onomatopoeic, exclamatory typography." [ [http://search.japantimes.co.jp/print/fl20060528x1.html Japan Times] ; accessed February 6, 2008.] The influences of
Japanese calligraphyand Japanese paintingalso characterize linear qualities of the anime style. The round Ink brushtraditionally used for writing Kanjiand for painting produces a stroke of widely varying thickness.
Anime also tends to borrow many elements from
mangaincluding text in the background, and borrowing panel layouts from the manga as well. For example, an opening may employ manga panels to tell the story, or to dramatize a point for humorous effect. This is best demonstrated in the anime " Kare Kano".
Body proportions emulated in anime come from proportions of the human body. The height of the head is considered as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary as long as the remainder of the body remains proportional. Most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall, and extreme heights are set around nine heads tall.cite web|url=http://animeworld.com/howtodraw/bodies1.html|title=Body Proportion|accessdate=2007-08-16|work=Akemi's Anime World]
Variations to proportion can be modded.
Super deformedcharacters feature a non-proportionally small body compared to the head. Sometimes specific body parts, like legs, are shortened or elongated for added emphasis. Mostly super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. Some anime works like " Crayon Shin-chan" completely disregard these proportions. It is enough such that it resembles a Western cartoon. For exaggeration, certain body features are increased in proportion.
A common approach is the large
eyes style drawn on many anime and mangacharacters. Osamu Tezukawas inspired by the exaggerated features of American cartoon characters such as Betty Boop, Mickey Mouse, and Disney's " Bambi".cite book |last=Schodt |first=Frederik L. | title=Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga |publisher=Stone Bridge Press |date=1996 |location=Berkeley, California |isbn=1-8806562-3-X ] Tezuka found that large eyes style allowed his characters to show emotions distinctly. When Tezuka began drawing "Ribbon no Kishi", the first manga specifically targeted at young girls, Tezuka further exaggerated the size of the characters' eyes. Indeed, through "Ribbon no Kishi", Tezuka set a stylistic template that later "shōjo" artists tended to follow.
Coloring is added to give eyes, particularly the cornea, and some depth. The depth is accomplished by applying variable color shading. Generally, a mixture of a light shade, the tone color, and a dark shade is used. [cite web|url=http://www.biorust.com/tutorials/detail/141/en/|title=Basic Anime Eye Tutorial|accessdate=2007-08-22|work=Centi, Biorust.com] [cite web|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VyJ9yfYl_Fc|title=How to color anime eye (YouTube)|date=2007-06-06|accessdate=2007-08-22|work=Carlus] Cultural anthropologist
Matt Thornargues that Japanese animators and audiences do not perceive such stylized eyes as inherently more or less foreign.cite web|title=Do Manga Characters Look White"?|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060517194357sh_re_/www.matt-thorn.com/mangagaku/faceoftheother.html | accessmonthday = December 11 | accessyear = 2005 ]
However, not all anime have large eyes. For example
Hayao Miyazakiis known for not having large eyes and having realistic hair colors on his characters.cite book |last=Poitras |first=Gilles | title=Anime Companion |publisher=Stone Bridge Press |date=1998 |location =Berkeley, California |isbn=ISBN 1-880656-32-9 ] In addition many other productions also have been known to use smaller eyes. This design tends to have more resemblance to traditional Japanese art. Some characters have even smaller eyes, where simple black dots are used.
A wide variety of facial expressions are used by characters to denote moods and thoughts. [cite web|url=http://www.mangatutorials.com/tut/expressions.htm|title=Manga Tutorials: Emotional Expressions|accessdate=2008-08-22|work=Rio] Anime uses a different set of facial expressions in comparison to western animation.
Other stylistic elements are common as well; often in comedic anime, characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "
face fault", in which they display an extremely exaggerated expression. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stressmark" effect, where lines representing bulging veins will appear on their forehead. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and strike someone with it, leading to the concept of Hammerspaceand cartoon physics. Male characters will develop a bloody nosearound their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal, based on an old wives' tale).The concept of a bloody nose is supposedly due to blood rushing to the face in an exaggerated blush. Sometimes the character will even be propelled up into the air by a fountain of blood.] Embarrassed characters either produce a massive sweat-drop (which has become one of the most widely recognized stereotype motifs of anime) or produce a visibly red blush beneath the eyes, especially as a manifestation of repressed romantic feelings. While common, the use of face faults is optional. Some anime, usually with political plots and other more serious subject matters, have abandoned the use of face faults such as " Gundam Wing" and " Teknoman".
animation, the production processes of storyboarding, voice acting, character design, cel production and so on still apply. With improvements in computer technology, computer animationincreased the efficiency of the whole production process.
Anime is often considered a form of
limited animation. That means that stylistically, even in bigger productions the conventions of limited animation are used to fool the eye into thinking there is more movement than there is. Many of the techniques used a comprised with cost-cutting measures while working under a set budget.
Anime scenes place emphasis on achieving three-dimensional views. Backgrounds depict the scenes' atmosphere. For example, anime often puts emphasis on changing seasons, as can be seen in numerous anime, such as
Tenchi Muyo. Sometimes actual settings have been duplicated into an anime. The backgrounds for the "Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya" are based on various locations within the suburb of Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan. [citeweb|url=http://www.rinku.zaq.ne.jp/p_v/haruhi.html|title=Reference pictures to actual places|accessdate=2007-01-25]
Camera angles, camera movement, and lighting play an important role in scenes. Directors often have the discretion of determining viewing angles for scenes, particularly regarding backgrounds. In addition, camera angles show perspective.citeweb|url=http://www.huitula.com/productionIG2_page2.htm|title=Anime production process - feature film|date=2000|accessdate=2007-08-27|work=PRODUCTION I.G] Directors can also choose camera effects within
cinematography, such as panning, zooming, facial closeup, and panoramic. [citeweb|url=http://www.understandinganime.com/cinematography.php|title=Cinematography: Looping and Animetion Techniques |date=1999|accessdate=2007-08-29|work=Understanding Anime]
The large majority of anime is
traditional animation, which better allows for the division of labour, pose to pose approach and checking of drawings before they are shot favoured by the industry.cite book
last = Jouvanceau
first = Pierre
authorlink = Pierre Jouvanceau
coauthors = Clare Kitson (translator)
title = The Silhouette Film
date = 2004
location = Genoa
pages = 103,
url = http://www.heeza.fr/description.php?lang=2&path=64&sort=Article&page=0&id=296
isbn = 88-8012-299-1] Other mediums are mostly limited to independently-made short films,cite web
last = Sharp
first = Jasper
authorlink = Jasper Sharp
title = Beyond Anime: A Brief Guide to Experimental Japanese Animation
work = Midnight Eye
date = 2003
url = http://www.midnighteye.com/features/beyond_anime.shtml
accessdate = 2008-07-21] examples of which are the silhouette and other
cutout animationof Noburo Ofuji,cite web
title = Tribute to Noburo Ofuji
work = To the Source of Anime: Japanese Animation
publisher = Cinémathèque québécoise
date = 2008
url = http://www.cinematheque.qc.ca/animation_japonaise.pdf
accessdate = 2008-07-21] the
stop motionpuppet animation of Tadahito Mochinaga, Kihachirō Kawamotocite web
last = Sharp
first = Jasper
authorlink = Jasper Sharp
title = Interview with Kihachirō Kawamoto
work = Midnight Eye
date = 2004
url = http://www.midnighteye.com/interviews/kihachiro_kawamoto.shtml
accessdate = 2008-07-21] and
Tomoyasu Murata[cite web
last = Hotes
first = Catherine
authorlink = Catherine Munroe Hotes
title = Tomoyasu Murata and Company
work = Midnight Eye
date = 2008
url = http://www.midnighteye.com/features/tomoyasu-murata-and-company.shtml
accessdate = 2008-07-21] and the
computer animationof Satoshi Tomioka[cite book
last = Walters
first = Helen
authorlink = Helen Walters
title = Animation Unlimited: Innovative Short Films Since 1940
publisher = Laurence King
date = 2004
location = London
url = http://lib.leeds.ac.uk/record=b2662684
isbn = 18-5669-346-5] (most famously "
Usavich"). [cite web
title = Works
work = KANABAN-Web
publisher = Kanaban Graphics
date = 2008
url = http://www.kanaban.com/html/Kanaban_E.html
accessdate = 2008-07-21]
While anime had entered markets beyond Japan in the 1960s, it grew as a major cultural export during its market expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. The anime market for the United States alone is "worth approximately $4.35 billion, according to the
Japan External Trade Organization". [citeweb|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118851157811713921.html?mod=googlenews_wsj|title=Manga Mania|date=2007-08-31|accessdate=2007-08-31|work=Bianca Bosker (Wall Street Journal)] Anime has also been a commercial success in Asia, Europe and Latin America, where anime has become even more mainstream than in the United States. For example, the " Saint Seiya" video game was released in Europe due to the popularity of the show even years after the series has been off-air.
Anime distribution companies handled the licensing and distribution of anime beyond Japan. Licensed anime is modified by distributors through dubbing into the language of the country and adding language subtitles to the Japanese language track. Using a similar global distribution pattern as
Hollywood, the world is divided into five regions.
Some editing of cultural references may occur to better follow the references of the non-Japanese culture. [cite web|url=http://w3.salemstate.edu/~poehlkers/Emerson/Pokemon.html|title=Pokemon Case Study ] Certain companies may remove any objectionable content, complying with domestic law. This editing process was far more prevalent in the past (e.g. "
Robotech"), but its use has declined because of the demand for anime in its original form. This "light touch" approach to localization has favored viewers formerly unfamiliar with anime. The use of such methods is evident by the success of " Naruto" and Cartoon Network's Adult Swimprogramming block, both of which employ minor edits.Fact|date=August 2007
With the advent of
DVD, it was possible to include multiple language tracks into a simple product. This was not the case with VHS cassette, in which separate VHS media were used and with each VHS cassette priced the same as a single DVD. The "light touch" approach also applies to DVD releases as they often include both the dubbed audio and the original Japanese audio with subtitles, typically unedited. Anime edited for television is usually released on DVD"uncut," with all scenes intact.
TV networks regularly broadcast anime programming. In Japan, major national TV networks, such as
TV Tokyobroadcast anime regularly. Smaller regional stations broadcast anime under the UHF. In the United States, Cable TV channels such as Cartoon Network, Disney, Sci-Fi, and others dedicate some of their time slots for anime. Then the Anime Networkspecifically shows anime. Sonybased Animaxand Disney's Jetixchannel broadcast anime within many countries in the world. AnimeCentralsolely broadcast's Anime in the UK.
Although it is a violation of
copyrightlaws in many countries, some fans add subtitles to anime on their own. These are distributed as fansubs. The ethical implications of producing, distributing, or watching fansubs are topics of much controversy even when fansub groups do not profit from their activities. Once the series has been licensed outside of Japan, fansub groups often cease distribution of their work. In one case, Media Factory Incorporated requested that no fansubs of their material be made, which was respected by the fansub community. [cite web|title=Anxious times in the cartoon underground|work=CNet|url=http://www.news.com/Anxious-times-in-the-cartoon-underground/2100-1026_3-5557177.html | accessdate=2007-09-06|date=2005-02-01] In another instance, Bandai specifically thanked fansubbers for their role in helping to make " The Melancholy of Haruhi Suzumiya" popular in the English speaking world. [cite web | title=Adventures of the ASOS Brigade Episode 00: Made by Fans for Fans | work= | url=http://asosbrigade.com/ | accessdate=2006-12-23]
Internethad played a significant role in the exposure of anime beyond Japan. Prior to the 1990s, anime has had limited exposure beyond Japan's borders. Coincidentally, as the popularity of the Internet grew, so did interest in anime. Much of the fandom of anime grew through the Internet. The combination of internet communities and increasing amounts of anime material, from video to images, helped spur the growth of fandom.cite web|url=http://comipress.com/article/2006/07/20/489|title=100 Questions About Anime & Manga Overseas|date=2006-07-20|accessdate=2007-08-23|work=Comipress] As the Internet gained more widespread use, Internet advertising revenues grew from 1.6 billion yen to over 180 billion yen between 1995 and 2005. [cite web|url=http://en.j-cast.com/2005/12/21000171.html|title=Free Anime: Providers Bear Losses to Build Business|date=2005-12-21|accessdate=2007-08-27|work=J-Cast Business News]
Influence on Western culture
Anime has become commercially profitable in western countries as early commercially successful western adaptations of anime, such as "Astro Boy", have revealed.cite web | title = Progress Against the Law: Fan Distribution, Copyright, and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation | url = http://www.swiss.ai.mit.edu/6805/student-papers/fall03-papers/Progress_Against_the_Law.html | accessmonthday = May 1 | accessyear = 2006 ] The phenomenal success of
Nintendo's multi-billion dollar " Pokémon" franchise [cite news | title = Pokemon (sic) Franchise Approaches 150 Million Games Sold | url = http://sev.prnewswire.com/entertainment/20051004/LATU06404102005-1.html | publisher = PR Newswire | date = 2005-10-04|accessdate = 2006-09-16 ] was helped greatly by the spin-off anime series that, first broadcast in the late 1990s, is still running worldwide to this day. In doing so, anime has made significant impacts upon Western culture. Since the 19th century, many Westerners have expressed a particular interest towards Japan. Anime dramatically exposed more Westerners to the culture of Japan. Aside from anime, other facets of Japanese culture increased in popularity . [cite news | last = Faiola| first = Anthony| title = Japan's Empire of Cool| work = The Washington Post| pages = A1| publisher = Washington Post Company|date=2003-12-27| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A33261-2003Dec26?language=printer| accessdate = 2007-08-17 ] Worldwide, the number of people studying Japanese increased. In 1984, the Japanese Language Profiency test was devised to meet increasing demand. [cite web|url=http://momo.jpf.go.jp/jlpt/e/about_e.html|title=JLPT Communication Square|accessdate=2007-08-17|work=Japan Foundation] Anime-influenced animationrefers to non-Japanese works of animation that emulate the visual style of anime.cite web|url=http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/editorial/2002-07-26|title=What is anime?|date=2002-07-26|accessdate=2007-08-18|work=ANN] Most of these works are created by studios in the United States, Europe, and non-Japanese Asia; and they generally incorporate stylizations, methods, and gags described in anime physics, as in the case of "". Often, production crews either are fans of anime or are required to view anime. [cite web|url=http://www.scifi.com/sfw/anime/sfw12366.html|title=SciFi Channel Anime Review|accessdate=2006-10-16|work=SciFi] Some creators cite anime as a source of inspiration with their own series. [cite web|url=http://www.ugo.com/ugo/html/article/?id=17924|title=Aaron McGruder - The Boondocks Interview|date=|accessdate=2007-10-14|work=Troy Rogers|publisher=UnderGroundOnline] [ [http://www.g4tv.com/screensavers/features/49962/Ten_Minutes_with_Megas_XLR.html] , "Ten Minutes with "Megas XLR", October 13, 2004] Furthermore, a French production team for " Ōban Star-Racers" moved to Tokyoto collaborate with a Japanese production team from Hal Film Maker.cite web|url=http://www.savtheworld.com/eng/company.php|title="STW company background summary"] Critics and the general anime fanbase do not consider them as anime. [cite web|url=http://www.animenation.net/blog/2006/05/15/ask-john-how-should-the-word-anime-be-defined/|title=How should the word "Anime" be defined?|date=2006-05-15|accessdate=2008-09-26|work=AnimeNation]
Some American animated television series have singled out anime styling with satirical intent, for example "
South Park" (with " Chinpokomon" and " Good Times With Weapons"). "South Park" has a notable drawing style, which was itself parodied in " Brittle Bullet", the fifth episode of the anime " FLCL", released several months after "Chinpokomon" aired. This intent on satirizing anime is the springboard for the basic premise of " Kappa Mikey", a Nicktoons Network original cartoon. Even cliches normally found in anime are parodied in " Perfect Hair Forever". Also, in the episode " The Son Also Draws" of " Family Guy" parodies anime with an appearance by Speed Racerand his trainer. The two speak in poorly-dubbed English, with every phrase punctuated by a "Ha-HA!". Anime conventions began to appear in the early 1990s, during the Anime boom, starting with Anime Expo, Animethon, Otakon, and JACON. Currently anime conventions are held annually in various cities across the Americas, Asia, and Europe. [cite web|url=http://www.animecons.com/events/|title=Convention Schedule|accessdate=2007-09-06|work=AnimeCons] Many attendees participate in cosplay, where they dress up as anime characters. Also, guests from Japan ranging from artists, directors, and music groups are invited. In addition to anime conventions, anime clubs have become prevalent in colleges, high schools, and community centers as a was to publicly exhibit anime as well as broadening Japanese cultural understanding. [cite web|url=http://daily.stanford.edu/article/2002/5/21/animeAchievesGrowingPopularityAmongStanfordStudents|title=Anime achieves growing popularity among Stanford students ]
Original video animation
List of anime companies
List of anime conventions
List of anime series by episode count(for long-running series)
List of anime theatrically released in America
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