Osman I
Osman
سلطان عثمان غازى
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Reign 1299–1324
Coronation 1281 and 1299
Full name Osman Gazi
Born 1258
Birthplace Söğüt, Anatolia
Died 1326 (aged 68)
Place of death Söğüt, Anatolia
Predecessor New creation
Successor Orhan I
Royal House House of Osman
Father Ertuğrul

Osman I or Othman I or El-Gazi[citation needed] (1258[1] – 1326) Ottoman Turkish: سلطان عثمان غازى Sultan Osman Ghazi, Turkish: Osman Gazi or Osman Bey or I. Osman, Osman Gazi Han), nicknamed "Kara" for his courage, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks, and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. The Empire, named after him, would prevail as a world empire [2] for over six centuries.

Osman announced the independence of his own small kingdom from the Seljuk Turks in 1299. The westward drive of the Mongol invasions had pushed scores of Muslims toward Osman's Anatolian principality, a power base that Osman was quick to consolidate. As the Byzantine Empire declined, the Ottoman Empire rose to take its place.

Contents

Origins of empire

Ertuğrul, Osman's father, led the Turkic Kayi tribe west into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught. His mother was named Khaima. He pledged allegiance to Sultan Kayqubad I of the Seljuk principality of Rum, who gave him permission to establish an emirate and expand it if he could, at the expense of the neighboring Byzantine provinces.

Area of the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Osman I

This location was auspicious, as the wealthy Byzantine Empire was weakening to his West, while in the east, Muslim forces under the Seljuk Turks were splintered and distracted in the face of relentless Mongol aggression and internal bickering. Baghdad had been sacked by Hulagu Khan in 1258, the very year Osman I was born. In 1231, Ertuğrul conquered the Nicean (Byzantine) town of Thebasion, which was renamed to Söğüt and became the initial capital of his territory.

Osman became chief, or Bey, upon his father’s death in 1281. By this time, mercenaries were streaming into his realm from all over the Islamic world to fight against and hopefully plunder the weakening Orthodox empire. In addition, the Turkic population of Osman's emirate were constantly reinforced by a flood of refugees, fleeing from the Mongols. Of these, many were Ghazi warriors, or fighters for Islam, border fighters who believed they were fighting for the expansion or defense of Islam. Under the strong and able leadership of Osman, these warriors quickly proved a formidable force, and the foundations of the Empire were quickly laid.

23 years of age at his accession, Osman had already proven his skill as a leader and warrior. His early fortunes and exploits are favorite subjects of Ottoman writers, especially in love stories of his wooing and winning the fair Mal Hatun. These legends have been romanticized by the poetical pens which recorded them in later years. The Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire.

Ottoman historians often dwell on the prophetic significance of his name, which means "bone-breaker", signifying the powerful energy with which he and his followers appeared to show in the following centuries of conquest. The name Osman is the Turkish variation of the Muslim name Othman, or Uthman.

After the last prince of the family of Alaeddin, to whom Osman's empire was indebted for its foundation in Asia Minor, died, there was no one to compete with Osman for the headship of the Turks of the region and dominion over the whole peninsula, save the Emir of Karamanids. A long and fierce struggle between the descendants of Osman and Karamanogullari princes for ascendancy commenced in Osman’s lifetime, extending through the reigns of many of his successors. Osman himself had gained some advantages over his Karamanli rival; but the weak and wealthy possessions of the Byzantine Emperor in northwest Asia Minor were more tempting marks for his ambition than the Karamanoglu plains, and it was over the cities and armies of the ailing Byzantine Empire that the triumphs of the last 26 years of Osman’s life were achieved.

Osman I left his mark on the history of the region. He is remembered as the founder of a powerful empire and one of the symbols of the Ghazi tradition. A considerable portion of the Turkish people called themselves Osmanlı (Ottoman) until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.

Osman's Dream

Osman Gazi appreciated the opinions of Edebali (the famous Ahi Sheik) and he respected him. He often went to Edebali’s house where a dervish group meets in Eskisehir Sultanonu and been his guest.

One night, when he was a guest in Sheik Edebali’s dergah, he had a dream. As the sun shined, he went to Edebali and told him: “My Sheik, I saw you in my dream. A moon appeared in your breast. It rose, rose and then descended into my breast. From my navel there sprang a tree. It grew up and turned green. It branched out and got complicated. The shadow of its branches covered the whole world. What does my dream mean ?”

After a little silence, Seyh told him :

“ I have got good news Osman! God gave you sovereignty and to your son. All the world will be under the protection of your son and my daughter will be the wife to you.”

Military victories

Illustration of Osman rallying Gazi warriors into battle.
Manuscript of Osman I

In 1302, after soundly defeating a Byzantine force near Nicaea, Osman began settling his forces closer to Byzantine controlled areas.[3] Large numbers of Ghazi warriors, Islamic scholars and dervishes began settling in Osman-controlled areas, and migrants composed the bulk of his army. The influx of Ghazi warriors and adventurers of differing backgrounds into these lands spurred subsequent Ottoman rulers to title themselves "Sultan of Ghazis".[3]

Alarmed by Osman's growing influence, the Byzantines gradually fled the Anatolian countryside and dedicated their resources to the Navy instead. Byzantine leadership was determined to prevent Osman from crossing into Europe and attempted to contain Ottoman expansion westward. Osman however continued to press westward and captured the Byzantine city of Ephesus near the Aegean Sea.[3] Further strengthened by the influx of migrants into his territory, Osman also moved eastward and seized Byzantine domains in the Black Sea region of Anatolia.

Osman's last campaign, before dying of old age, was against the Byzantines in the city of Bursa.[4] Although Osman did not physically participate in the battle, the victory at Bursa proved to be extremely vital for the Ottomans as the city served as a staging ground against the Byzantines in Constantinople, and as a newly adorned capital for Osman's son, Orhan.

Last testament

In directing his son to continue the administrative policies set forth by Sheik Edebali, Osman stated:

Son! Be careful about the religious issues before all other duties. The religious precepts build a strong state. Do not give religious duties to careless, faithless and sinful men or to dissipated, indifferent or inexperienced people. And also do not leave the state administrations to such people. Because the one without fear of God the Creator, has no fear of the created. One who commits a great sin and continues to sin can not be loyal. Scholars, virtuous men, artists and literary men are the power of the state structure. Treat them with kindness and honour. Build close relationship when you hear about a virtuous man and give wealth and grant him...Put order the political and religious duties. Take lesson from me so I came to these places as a weak leader and I reached to the help of God although I did not deserve. You follow my way and protect Din-i-Muhammadi and the believers and also your followers. Respect the right of God and his servants. Do not hesitate to advise your successors in this way. Depend on God's help in the esteem of justice and fairness, to remove the cruelty, attempts in every duty. Protect your public from enemy's invasion and from the cruelty. Do not behave any person in an unsuitable way with unfairness. Gratify the public and save all of their sake.[5]

The Sword of Osman

The Sword of Osman (Turkish: Taklide-Seif)[6] was an important sword of state used during the coronation ceremony of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire.[7] The practice started when Osman was girt with the sword of Islam by his mentor and father-in-law Sheik Edebali.[8] The girding of the sword of Osman was a vital ceremony which took place within two weeks of a sultan's accession to the throne. It was held at the tomb complex at Eyüp, on the Golden Horn waterway in the capital Constantinople. The fact that the emblem by which a sultan was enthroned consisted of a sword was highly symbolic: it showed that the office with which he was invested was first and foremost that of a warrior. The Sword of Osman was girded on to the new sultan by the Sharif of Konya, a Mevlevi dervish, who was summoned to Constantinople for that purpose. Such a privilege was reserved to devout religious leaders from the time Osman had established his residence in Konya in 1299, before the capital was moved to Bursa and later to Constantinople.[9]

Marriages and Children/Personal Life

Türbe (tomb) of Osman Gazi in Bursa

He married in 1280 Valide Sultan (1324) Malhun Hatun, daughter of Abdulaziz Bey. He also married a daughter of Sheikh Edebali.

  • Alaeddin Pasha, died in 1332
  • Orhan I - son of Kamariya Sultana Mal

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Sultans: Osman Gazi". TheOttomans.org. http://www.theottomans.org/english/family/osman.asp. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  2. ^ The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922, Donald Quataert, page 4, 2005
  3. ^ a b c The Fall of Constantinople 1453 by Steven Runciman, pg 32
  4. ^ The Fall of Constantinople 1453 by Steven Runciman, pg. 33
  5. ^ His testament
  6. ^ M'Gregor, J. (July 1854). "The Race, Religions, and Government of the Ottoman Empire". The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art (New York: Leavitt, Trow, & Co.) 32: p. 376. OCLC 6298914. http://books.google.com/?id=1MYRAAAAYAAJ&printsec=toc#PPA376,M1. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  7. ^ Hasluck 2007, pp. 604–622
  8. ^ Bagley 1969, p. 2
  9. ^ "Girding on the Sword of Osman" (PDF). The New York Times: 2. 1876-09-18. ISSN 0362-4331. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9C02E3DA133FE23ABC4052DFBF66838D669FDE. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 

Ottoman Empire - Sultan Osman Gazi ottomanempire.org.uk Retrieved September 13, 2011

  • Incorporates text from History of Ottoman Turks (1878)

External links

Osman I
Born: 1258 Died: 1324
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ertuğrul
Leader of the Kayı Turks
1281–1299
Became Sultan
New title
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
1299–1324
Succeeded by
Orhan I

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  • Osman — ist ein türkischer männlicher Vorname[1] arabischer Herkunft[2], der auch als Familienname auftritt. Osman war der Name des Begründers des Osmanischen Reiches. Der Name Osman kommt auch in weiteren Ländern, u. a. auf dem Balkan vor. Eine häufige… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Osman I. — Osman I., osmanische Miniatur (1579/80) Osman I., Gazi (türkisch ‏عثمان غازى‎ Osman Gazi, İA ʿOsmân Ġâzî; * Söğüt; † 1326 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Osman II — (15 novembre 1603 20 mai 1622) (aussi appelè Genç Osman, Osman le jeune), fut sultan de l Empire ottoman à l âge de quatorze ans et régna de 1618 à 1622. Biographie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Osman — is a name of differing origins; an English origin[1] surname (IPA: /ɒzˈmən/), and an Arabic origin given name (IPA: [ˈosmaːn]), it may refer to: Contents 1 People 1.1 English origin surname …   Wikipedia

  • Osman II — Osman II. Osman II (3 de noviembre de 1604 – 20 de mayo de 1622) rigió como Sultán del Imperio otomano desde 1618 hasta su muerte. Osman era el hijo de Ahmed I. Subió al trono a la temprana edad de los 14 años como resultado de un golpe de estado …   Wikipedia Español

  • Osman II — (3 de noviembre de 1604 – 20 de mayo de 1622) rigió como Sultán del Imperio Otomano desde 1618 hasta su muerte. Osman era el hijo de Ahmed I. Subió al trono a la temprana edad de los 14 años como resultado de un golpe de estado contra su tío… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Osman II. — Osman II. Osman II. (* 3. November 1604; † 20. Mai 1622) war Sultan des Osmanischen Reiches ab 1618. Er war der Sohn von Ahmed I. Leben Osman II. bestieg mit 14 Jahren den Thron als Ergebnis eines Staatsstreiches gegen seinen Onkel Mustafa I …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Osman — hace referencia a: Osman II, sultán del Imperio otomano. Austin Osman Spare, pintor y escritor británico. Ertugrul Osman V, actual jefe la Casa imperial Osmanlí Otomana, la cual gobernó el Imperio otomano desde 1281 hasta 1923 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Osman —   [ ɔsman, türkisch ɔs maːn], dialektal Ottoman, osmanischer Herrscher:    1) Osman I. Ghasi [ z ], Fürst (seit etwa 1300), * 1258, ✝ Söğüt 1326; Begründer der nach ihm benannten Dynastie der osmanischen Sultane, Sohn des ogusischen Hordenfürsten …   Universal-Lexikon

  • osman — OSMÁN, Ă, osmani, e, s.m. şi f., adj. (înv.) 1. s.m. şi f. Turc. 2. adj. Turcesc.* Limba osmană = limba turcă. – Din osmanlâu (derivat regresiv). Trimis de oprocopiuc, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  OSMÁN …   Dicționar Român

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