State of Ohio Flag Seal Nickname(s): The Buckeye State; The Mother of Presidents;
Birthplace of Aviation; The Heart of It All
Motto(s): With God, all things are possible Official language(s) None. (English, de facto) Demonym Ohioan; Buckeye (colloq.) Capital
(and largest city)
Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland or
Area Ranked 34th in the U.S. - Total 44,825 sq mi
- Width 220 miles (355 km) - Length 220 miles (355 km) - % water 8.7 - Latitude 38° 24′ N to 41° 59′ N - Longitude 80° 31′ W to 84° 49′ W Population Ranked 7th in the U.S. - Total 11,536,504 (2010 census) - Density 256.2/sq mi (98.9/km2)
Ranked 9th in the U.S.
Elevation - Highest point Campbell Hill
1,549 ft (472 m)
- Mean 850 ft (260 m) - Lowest point Ohio River at Indiana border
455 ft (139 m)
Before statehood Northwest Territory Admission to Union March 1, 1803 (17th,
declared retroactively on
August 7, 1953)
Governor John Kasich (R) Lieutenant Governor Mary Taylor (R) Legislature General Assembly - Upper house Senate - Lower house House of Representatives U.S. Senators Sherrod Brown (D)
Rob Portman (R)
U.S. House delegation 13 Republicans, 5 Democrats (list) Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4 Abbreviations OH US-OH Website ohio.gov
Ohio i// is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S., it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more. The state's capital is Columbus. The Anglicized name "Ohio" comes from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning "great river". The state, originally partitioned from the Northwest Territory, was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance) on March 1, 1803. Although there are conflicting narratives regarding the origin of the nickname, Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" (relating to the Ohio buckeye tree) and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, which is led by the Supreme Court. Currently, Ohio occupies 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Major cities
- 3 History
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Law and government
- 8 Education
- 9 Sports
- 10 State symbols
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline, which allows for numerous seaports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1793 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid.
Note that Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which, at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.
Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.
The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)
Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and then the Mississippi.
The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km2), was the largest artificial lake in the world. It should be noted that Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.
The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa) throughout most of the state except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt.
Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna does reach well into Ohio. For instance, a number of trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the State. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.
Although few have registered as noticeable to the average citizen, more than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.
The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.
Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.
The most recent earthquake in Ohio of any appreciable magnitude occurred on January 8, 2008, at 8:34:46 pm local time. It had a magnitude of 3.1, and its epicenter was under Lake Erie, northeast of Cleveland, approximately 9.7 km (6 mi) west of Mentor-on-the-Lake.
The Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.
Rank City 2010 Population 2010 Metro Population 1 Columbus 787,033 1,836,540 2 Cleveland 396,815 2,077,240 3 Cincinnati 296,943 2,130,151 4 Toledo 287,208 651,429 5 Akron 199,110 703,200 6 Dayton 141,527 841,502 7 Parma 81,601 1 8 Canton 73,007 404,422 9 Youngstown 66,982 565,773 10 Lorain 64,097 1 11 Hamilton 62,477 2 12 Springfield 60,608 133,333 13 Kettering 56,163 4 14 Elyria 54,533 1 15 Lakewood 52,131 1 16 Cuyahoga Falls 49,652 5 17 Euclid 48,920 1 18 Middletown 48,694 2 19 Mansfield 47,821 124,475 20 Newark 47,573 3 1Cleveland Metro, 2Cincinnati Metro, 3Columbus Metro, 4Dayton Metro, 5Akron Metro
Other Ohio cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan areas include:
- Akron (home of University of Akron and Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company)
- Canton (home of Pro Football Hall of Fame, Malone University, and The Timken Company)
- Cincinnati (home of University of Cincinnati, Xavier University, Cincinnati Museum Center, Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Procter & Gamble, Kroger, Macy's Inc., Chiquita Brands International, and Fifth Third Bank)
- Cleveland (home of Cleveland State University, Playhouse Square Center, The Cleveland Museum of Art, The Cleveland Orchestra, Case Western Reserve University, The Cleveland Clinic, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Forest City Enterprises, and University Hospitals)
- Dayton (home of University of Dayton, Dayton Ballet, Wright State University, Premier Health Partners, and National Museum of the United States Air Force)
- Lima (home of University of Northwestern Ohio)
- Mansfield (home of North Central State College and Mansfield Motorsports Park)
- Sandusky (home of Cedar Point, and Kalahari Resort and Convention Center)
- Springfield (home of Wittenberg University)
- Steubenville (home of Franciscan University of Steubenville)
- Toledo (home of The University of Toledo, The Toledo Museum of Art, and Owens-Illinois)
- Youngstown (home of Youngstown State University and Butler Institute of American Art).
Note: The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.
Ohio cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan areas include:
- Ashland (home of Ashland University)
- Athens (home of Ohio University)
- Chillicothe (home of Ohio University-Chillicothe)
- Defiance (home of Defiance College)
- East Liverpool-Salem
- Findlay (home of The University of Findlay)
- Marion (home of Marion Popcorn Festival)
- Mount Vernon (home of Mount Vernon Nazarene University)
- New Philadelphia-Dover
- Norwalk (home of the NHRA venue Summit Motorsports Park, headquarters of the International Hot Rod Association, and pioneer automobile company Fisher Body)
- Oxford (home of Miami University)
- Portsmouth (home of Shawnee State University)
- Tiffin (home of Heidelberg College and Tiffin University)
- Urbana (home of Urbana University)
- Van Wert
- Wapakoneta (birthplace of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong)
- Washington Court House
- Wilmington (home of Wilmington College)
- Wooster (home of The College of Wooster)
- Zanesville (home of Zane State College).
Archeological evidence suggests that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC. These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC, "but their material culture provided a base for those who followed them". Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged. As Ohio historian George W. Knepper notes, this sophisticated culture was "so named because evidences of their culture were excavated in 1902 on the grounds of Adena, Thomas Worthington's estate located near Chillicothe". The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, which included squash, sunflowers, and perhaps corn. Cultivation of these in addition to hunting and gathering supported more settled, complex villages. The most spectacular remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.
Around 100 BC, the Adena were joined in Ohio Country by the Hopewell people, who were named for the farm owned by Captain M. C. Hopewell, where evidence of their unique culture was discovered. Like the Adena, the Hopewell people participated in a mound-building culture. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville. The Hopewell, however, disappeared from the Ohio Valley in about 600 AD. Little is known about the people who replaced them. Researchers have identified two additional, distinct prehistoric cultures: the Fort Ancient people and the Whittlesey Focus people. Both cultures apparently disappeared in the 17th century, perhaps decimated by infectious diseases spread in epidemics from early European contact. The Native Americans had no immunity to common European diseases. Some scholars believe that the Fort Ancient people "were ancestors of the historic Shawnee people, or that, at the very least, the historic Shawnees absorbed remnants of these older peoples."
American Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York. After the so-called Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian-speaking descendants of its ancient inhabitants, that is, descendants of the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian cultures. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade.
The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Miamis (a large confederation); Wyandots (made up of refugees, especially from the fractured Huron confederacy); Delawares (pushed west from their historic homeland in New Jersey); Shawnees (also pushed west, although they may have been descended from the Fort Ancient people of Ohio); Ottawas (more commonly associated with the upper Great Lakes region); Mingos (like the Wyandot, a group recently formed of refugees from Iroquois); and Eries (gradually absorbed into the new, multi-ethnic "republics," namely the Wyandot). Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre.
Colonial and Revolutionary eras
During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. In 1754, France and Great Britain fought a war that was known in North America as the French and Indian War and in Europe as the Seven Years War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain.
Pontiac's Rebellion in the 1760s, however, posed a challenge to British military control. This came to an end with the colonists' victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.
Northwest Territory: 1787–1803
The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio.
The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula.
Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state.
On February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed an act that officially declared March 1, 1803 the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.
Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state.
Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties. Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service. Ohio historian Andrew R. L. Cayton writes that almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, "and some thirty thousand carried battle scars with them for the rest of their lives." By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan–were all from Ohio.
In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. It introduced the initiative and the referendum. In addition, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.
Eight U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "Mother of Presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia (also termed "Modern Mother of Presidents," in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history). Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding.
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1800 45,365 — 1810 230,760 408.7% 1820 581,434 152.0% 1830 937,903 61.3% 1840 1,519,467 62.0% 1850 1,980,329 30.3% 1860 2,339,511 18.1% 1870 2,665,260 13.9% 1880 3,198,062 20.0% 1890 3,672,329 14.8% 1900 4,157,545 13.2% 1910 4,767,121 14.7% 1920 5,759,394 20.8% 1930 6,646,697 15.4% 1940 6,907,612 3.9% 1950 7,946,627 15.0% 1960 9,706,397 22.1% 1970 10,652,017 9.7% 1980 10,797,630 1.4% 1990 10,847,115 0.5% 2000 11,353,140 4.7% 2010 11,536,504 1.6% Source: 1910–2010 Demographics of Ohio (csv) By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI* 2000 (total population) 86.83% 12.18% 0.67% 1.41% 0.06% 2000 (Hispanic only) 1.70% 0.19% 0.05% 0.02% 0.01% 2005 (total population) 86.27% 12.66% 0.66% 1.68% 0.07% 2005 (Hispanic only) 2.05% 0.20% 0.05% 0.03% 0.01% Growth 2000–05 (total population) 0.32% 4.98% -1.57% 20.32% 9.32% Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) -0.11% 4.97% -1.96% 20.48% 11.15% Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 22.11% 5.70% 3.04% 10.81% -0.26% * AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew at rates of over 10% per decade until the census of 1970, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans. Growth then slowed for the next three decades, and approximately 11.35 million people resided in Ohio in 2000. As of July 1, 2008, the state's population was estimated at 11,485,910 by the United States Census Bureau. Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the United States average. As of 2000[update], Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County, in the county seat of Mount Gilead. This is approximately 6,346 feet (1,934 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.
As of 2007[update], 6.5% of Ohio's population is under 5 years of age, compared to a national rate of 6.9%. Also, 13.4% of Ohio's population is over 65 years of age, compared to a United States rate of 12.6%. Females comprise 51.3% of Ohio's population, compared to a national rate of 50.8%.
Race and ancestry
Ohio's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2007, are:
The state's racial makeup in 2006 was:
- 82.8% White (non-Hispanic);
- 11.8% Black (non-Hispanic);
- 2.3% Hispanic, a category that includes people of many races;
- 1.5% Asian/Pacific Islander
- 1.3% mixed race
- 0.2% Native American/Alaskan Native
- 0.1% other races.
According to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian. Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant, 22% identified as Mainline Protestant, and 21% identified as Roman Catholic. In addition, 17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body. There are also small minorities of Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), Jews (1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus (<0.5%), Buddhists (<0.5%), Mormons (<0.5%), and practitioners of other faiths (1-1.5%).
According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 55%, feel that religion is "very important," while 30% say that it is "somewhat important," and 15% responded that religion is "not too important/not important at all." Also, 36% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, while 35% attend these services occasionally, and 27% seldom or never participate in these services.
In 2010, Ohio was ranked No. 2 in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database. The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments. As of 2010[update], Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $478 billion. This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia.
The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. 10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. 6 at 1.9%. Ohio was ranked No. 11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009. The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. 13 overall for best business climate, including No. 7 for best litigation climate. Forbes ranked the state No. 8 for best regulatory environment in 2009. Ohio has 5 of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings, and was ranked No. 8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.
Ohio's unemployment rate stood at 10.7 in May 2010, adding 17,000 new jobs that month. Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874. Moody's is predicting a 1.3% increase in personal income in 2009 for Ohio, compared to the 2007 rate of 4.7%. As of 2007[update], Ohio's median household income is $46,645, and 13.1% of the population is below the poverty line, slightly above the national rate of 13%. Ohio's employment base is expected to grow 5% from 2006 to 2016, a net gain of 290,700 jobs.
The manufacturing and financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP. Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances. 5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.
By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%). Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%). Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product. Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, AK Steel, Timken, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's.
Many major east-west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Wooster, Lima, and Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Highway 30.
Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (Ohio 32) running from West Virginia to Cincinnati. Major north-south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta down into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio.
Ohio has 5 international airports, 4 commercial and 2 military. The 5 international includes Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, which is a major hub for Continental Airlines, Port Columbus International Airport, and Dayton International Airport, Ohio's third largest airport. Akron Fulton International Airport handles cargo and for private use. Rickenbacker International Airport is one of military which is also home to the 7th largest fed ex building in America. The other military airport is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Other major airports are located in Toledo and Akron.
Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport is in Kentucky and therefore is not listed above.
- List of Ohio state highways
- List of Ohio train stations
- List of Ohio railroads
- List of Ohio rivers
- Historic Ohio Canals
Law and government
The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Ohio. The current governor is John Kasich, a Republican elected in 2010. A lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office, and performs any duties assigned by the governor. The current lieutenant governor is Mary Taylor. The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state (Jon A. Husted), auditor (Dave Yost), treasurer (Josh Mandel), and attorney general (Mike DeWine).
There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally-mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters." The intermediate-level court system is the district court system. Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area. A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.
The highest-ranking court, the Ohio Supreme Court, is Ohio's "court of last resort." A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.
The Ohio General Assembly is a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator. Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents. The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members.
Presidential elections results Year Republican Democratic 2008 46.80% 2,677,820 51.38% 2,940,044 2004 50.81% 2,859,768 48.71% 2,741,167 2000 49.97% 2,351,209 46.46% 2,186,190 1996 41.02% 1,859,883 47.38% 2,148,222 1992 38.35% 1,894,310 40.18% 1,984,942 1988 55.00% 2,416,549 44.15% 1,939,629 1984 58.90% 2,678,560 40.14% 1,825,440 1980 51.51% 2,206,545 40.91% 1,752,414 1976 48.65% 2,000,505 48.92% 2,011,621 1972 59.63% 2,441,827 38.07% 1,558,889 1968 45.23% 1,791,014 42.95% 1,700,586 1964 37.06% 1,470,865 62.94% 2,498,331 1960 53.28% 2,217,611 46.72% 1,944,248
Ohio, nicknamed the "Mother of Presidents," has sent seven of its native sons (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding) to the White House. All seven were Republicans. Virginia native William Henry Harrison, a Whig, resided in Ohio. Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia 'had a state made such a mark on national political affairs.' The Economist notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American — part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb,"
As of 2008[update], Ohio's voter demographic leans towards the Democratic Party. An estimated 2,408,178 Ohioans are registered to vote as Democrats, while 1,471,465 Ohioans are registered to vote as Republicans. These are changes from 2004 of 72% and 32%, respectively, and Democrats have registered over 1,000,000 new Ohioans since 2004. Unaffiliated voters have an attrition of 15% since 2004, losing an estimated 718,000 of their kind. The total now rests at 4,057,518 Ohioans. In total, there are 7,937,161 Ohioans registered to vote. In the United States presidential election of 2008, then-Senator Barack Obama of Illinois won 51.50% of Ohio's popular vote, 4.59% more than his nearest rival, Senator John McCain of Arizona. However, Obama won only 22 of Ohio's 88 counties.
Following the 2000 census, Ohio lost one congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, which leaves Ohio with 18 districts, and consequently, 18 representatives. The state is expected to lose two more seats following the 2010 Census. The 2008 elections, Democrats gained three seats in Ohio's delegation to the House of Representatives. This leaves eight Republican-controlled seats in the Ohio delegation. Ohio's U.S. Senators in the 112th Congress are Republican Rob Portman and Democrat Sherrod Brown. Marcia Kaptur (D-9) is the dean, or most senior member, of the Ohio delegation to the United States House of Representatives.
Ohio's system of public education is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of over 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.
Colleges and universities
- 13 state universities
- The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio
- Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio
- Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio
- University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
- Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio
- Kent State University, Kent, Ohio
- Miami University, Oxford, Ohio
- Ohio University, Athens, Ohio
- The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
- Shawnee State University, Portsmouth, Ohio
- University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio
- Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio (Fairborn, Ohio)
- Youngstown State University, Youngstown, Ohio
- 24 state university branch and regional campuses
- 46 private colleges and universities a b
- 6 free-standing state-assisted medical schools
- University of Toledo College of Medicine (formerly Medical University of Ohio)
- Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine
- The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health
- Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine
- University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
- Boonshoft School of Medicine (formerly known as The Wright State University School of Medicine)
- 15 community colleges
- 8 technical colleges
- 24 independent non-profit colleges
- a Included among these is the University of Dayton, which is the largest private university in Ohio.
- b Two of these institutions are ranked among the top 40 in the nation by US News & World Report: Case Western Reserve University (private national university), and Oberlin College (private liberal arts college).
Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranking public libraries. The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison. For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.
- 500,000 or more
The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.
Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials in other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers access to books and other media that might not otherwise be available.
Ohio is home to major professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, football, hockey, and soccer. The state's major professional sporting teams include: Cincinnati Reds (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cincinnati Bengals (National Football League), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association), Columbus Blue Jackets (National Hockey League), and the Columbus Crew (Major League Soccer). Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio.
On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball, arena football, indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer. The minor league baseball teams include: Akron Aeros (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Chillicothe Paints (independent), Columbus Clippers (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Dayton Dragons (affiliated with the Cincinnati Reds), Lake County Captains (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Mahoning Valley Scrappers (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), and Toledo Mud Hens (affiliated with the Detroit Tigers).
Ohio's minor professional football teams include: Canton Legends (American Indoor Football Association), Cincinnati Marshals (National Indoor Football League), Cincinnati Sizzle (National Women's Football Association), Cleveland Fusion (National Women's Football Association), Cleveland Gladiators (Arena Football League), Columbus Comets (National Women's Football Association), Columbus Destroyers (Arena Football League), Mahoning Valley Thunder (af2), Marion Mayhem (Continental Indoor Football League), and Miami Valley Silverbacks (Continental Indoor Football League).
Ohio's alternative professional hockey teams include: Cincinnati Cyclones (ECHL), Dayton Bombers (ECHL), Lake Erie Monsters (American Hockey League), Dayton Gems (Central Hockey League), Mahoning Valley Phantoms (North American Hockey League), Toledo Walleye (ECHL), and Youngstown Steelhounds (Central Hockey League).
In lower division professional soccer, Ohio accommodates the Cincinnati Kings and Cleveland City Stars, both of the United Soccer League and the Dayton Dutch Lions of the USL Premier Development League.
Former major league teams:
- Akron Pros (NFL) (1920–1925)
- Canton Bulldogs (NFL) (1920–1923 and 1925–1926)
- Portsmouth Spartans (NFL) (1930–1933)
- Cincinnati Red Stockings (NL)(1876–1880)
- Cleveland Blues (NL) (1879–1884)
- Cleveland Spiders (AA-NL) (1887–1899)
- Cleveland Rams (NFL) (1936–1945)
- Cleveland Rebels (BAA) (1946–1947)
- Cincinnati Royals (NBA) (1957–1972)
- Cleveland Barons (NHL) (1976–1978)
- Cleveland Crusaders (WHA)(1972–1976)
- Cincinnati Stingers (WHA) (1975–1979).
- Dayton Triangles (NFL) (1920–1929)
- Cleveland Rockers (WNBA) (1997–2003)
Ohio has eight NCAA Division I-A college football teams, divided among three different conferences. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions.
In Division I-A, representing the Big Ten, the Ohio State Buckeyes football team ranks 5th among all-time winningest programs, with seven national championships and seven Heisman Trophy winners. Their rivals are the Michigan Wolverines. They typically play each other in their last game of the regular season. As of December 2010 the Buckeyes have won the last seven matchups.
Ohio has six teams represented in the MAC conference: the University of Akron, Bowling Green, Kent State, Miami University, Ohio University and the University of Toledo. The MAC Conference headquarters are based in Cleveland.
Division III Mount Union College boasts a record-setting ten National Championships and also hold the record for 110 consecutive game winning streak from 1994 until 2005. They have won two of the last three D-III National Championship games.
Ohio's state symbols:
- State animal: White-tailed Deer (1987)
- State beverage: Tomato juice (1965)
- State bird: Cardinal (1933)
- State capital: Columbus (1816)
- State flower: Red carnation (1904)
- State fossil: Isotelus maximus, a trilobite (1985)
- State herb capital: Gahanna (1972)
- State insect: Ladybug (1975)
- State motto: "With God all things are possible." (1959)
- State reptile: Black racer snake (1995)
- State rock song: "Hang On Sloopy" (1985)
- State song: "Beautiful Ohio" (1969)
- State stone: Ohio Flint (1965)
- State tree: Buckeye (1953)
- State wildflower: Large white trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) (1986)
- Outline of Ohio
- Index of Ohio-related articles
- List of National Register of Historic Places in Ohio
- List of people from Ohio
- ^ a b "Why is Ohio known as the Buckeye State and why are Ohioans known as Buckeyes?" (PDF). http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Portals/18/education/pdf/buckeyestate.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- ^ "Ohio Quick Facts". Ohio Historical Society. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ohio_quick_facts.php. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ a b "City of Columbus: Fun Facts". City of Columbus, Ohio. 2006. http://home.columbus.gov/GenInfo/index.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ According to the U.S. Census July 2007 Annual Estimate, Greater Cleveland is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSMA) that is entirely within Ohio, with a population of 2,096,471; and Greater Cincinnati is the largest MSMA that is at least partially within Ohio, with a a population of 2,133,678, approximately 25% of which is in Indiana or Kentucky. Which MSMA is the largest in Ohio depends on the context.
- ^ "Resident Population – JULY 2005". United States Census Bureau. 2009-07. http://www.census.gov/statab/ranks/rank01.html. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ "2010 Census Data". United States Census Bureau. http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
- ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
- ^ a b Stockwell, Mary (2006). "ohio"+"march+17+1803"#PPA88,M1 The Ohio Adventure. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith. p. 88. ISBN 1-58685-361-9. http://books.google.com/?id=VJKroULBUpgC&printsec=copyright&dq="ohio"+"march+17+1803"#PPA88,M1.
- ^ "Creation of the Board of Elections". Mahoning County Board of Elections. http://www.mahoningcountyoh.gov/DepartmentsAgencies/Departments/BoardofElections/CreationofBOE/tabid/821/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ a b "The Governors of Ohio". Ohio Historical Society. January 8, 2007. http://www.ohiohistory.org/onlinedoc/ohgovernment/governors/. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ Hershey, William (November 8, 2006). "Strickland becomes first Dem governor since '91". Middletown Journal. http://www.middletownjournal.com/hp/content/oh/story/news/local/2006/11/08/ddn110806gov.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "About Lee". Office of the Governor. 2009. http://www.governor.ohio.gov/AboutUs/AboutLee/tabid/57/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Democrats Jennifer Brunner, Lee Fisher to run for U.S. Senate". Associated Press. February 17, 2009. http://www.cantonrep.com/archive/x1802686467/Democrats-Jennifer-Brunner-Lee-Fisher-to-run-for-U-S-Senate. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ a b "Sherrod Brown". Washington Post. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/congress/members/b000944/. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ "Official USPS Abbreviations". United States Postal Service. 1998. http://www.usps.com/ncsc/lookups/usps_abbreviations.html. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ "Census Regions of the United States" (PDF). http://www.census.gov/const/regionmap.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-14.
- ^ "U.S. States: Area and Ranking". Enchanted Learning. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/usa/states/area.shtml. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Resident Population". United States Census Bureau. December 22, 2005. http://www.census.gov/statab/ranks/rank01.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Quick Facts About the State of Ohio". Ohio History Central. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ohio_quick_facts.php. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- ^ Mithun (1999), p. 312
- ^ "Native Ohio". American Indian Studies. Ohio State University. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070202230727/http://americanindianstudies.osu.edu/ohio.cfm. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- ^ "About". Salamanca Cigarette Outlet. http://salamancaoutlet.com/?page=shop/about. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- ^ Harvey, Christopher. "Seneca". Languagegeek. http://www.languagegeek.com/rotinonhsonni/seneca.html. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
- ^ Davidson, William M. (1902). A History of the United States. Chicago, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company. p. 265. ISBN 1429752394. http://books.google.com/?id=G24AAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA265&lpg=PA265&dq=ohio+admitted+to+the+union.
- ^ Berg-Andersson, Richard E. (2000). "The Math Behind the 2000 Census Apportionment of Representatives". The Green Papers. http://www.thegreenpapers.com/Census00/ApportionMath.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ a b Pollard, Kelvin (2008). "Swing, Bellwether, and Red and Blue States". Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/Articles/2008/electiondemographics.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Transportation delivers for Ohio", Ohio Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 22, 2005.
- ^ "Ohio Coastal Counties", Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- ^ Ohio v. Kentucky, 444 U.S. 335 (1980)
- ^ "History of the Appalachian Regional Commission", Appalachian Regional Commission. Retrieved January 3, 2006.
- ^ "Counties in Appalachia", Appalachian Regional Commission. Retrieved January 3, 2006.
- ^ "GCT-T1 Ohio County Population Estimates—2005", The United States Census Bureau, retrieved January 3, 2006. True summation of Ohio Appalachia counties population (1,476,384) obtained by adding the 29 individual county populations together (July 1, 2005 data). Percentage obtained by dividing that number into that table's estimate of Ohio population as of July 1, 2005 (11,464,042)
- ^ "The History of the MCD: The Conservancy Act". Miami Conservancy District. http://www.miamiconservancy.org/about/conservancy.asp. Retrieved 2007-01-13.
- ^ "All-Time Temperature Maximums By State (2003)" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pub/data/special/maxtemps.pdf. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- ^ "All-Time Temperature Minimums By State (2003)" (PDF). National Climatic Data Center. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/pub/data/special/mintemps.pdf. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
- ^ ODNR Updates Ohio Earthquake Map to Reflect Statewide Seismic Activity Since 2002 (news release), Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey (September 18, 2007)
- ^ Ohio Seismic Network, What was the biggest earthquake in Ohio?
- ^ Historic Earthquakes: Western Ohio, U.S. Geological Survey.
- ^ Historic United States Earthquakes: Ohio, U.S. Geological Survey.
- ^ Historic Earthquakes: Near Lima, Ohio, U.S. Geological Survey.
- ^ Historic Earthquakes: Near Portsmouth, Ohio, U.S. Geological Survey.
- ^ Historic Earthquakes: Northeast Ohio, U.S. Geological Survey.
- ^ "January 1986 Northeastern Ohio Earthquake". The Ohio Seismic Network (Ohio Department of Natural Resources). Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- ^ Small earthquake beneath Central Lake Erie, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey.
- ^ The Ohio Seismic Network
- ^ Catalog of Ohio Earthquakes, at the Ohio Department of Natural Resources web site
- ^ "American FactFinder2 Custom Tables:Table 1". http://2010.census.gov/news/releases/operations/cb11-cn72.html. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- ^ "American FactFinder2". http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- ^ a b Knepper (1989), p. 9.
- ^ a b c Knepper (1989), p. 10.
- ^ a b Knepper (1989), p. 11.
- ^ a b c Knepper (1989), p. 13.
- ^ Knepper (1989), p. 14.
- ^ Roseboom (1967), p. 20.
- ^ Knepper (1989), pp. 14–17.
- ^ Knepper (1989), pp. 43–44.
- ^ "Pontiac's Rebellion", Ohio History Central, July 1, 2005.
- ^ Cayton (2002), p. 3.
- ^ "The Date of Ohio Statehood", Frederick J. Blue, PhD, Ohio Academy of History Newsletter, Volume 23, Autumn 2002
- ^ Clearing up the Confusion surrounding OHIO's Admission to Statehood
- ^ Knepper (1989), pp. 233–234.
- ^ Roseboom and Weisenburger (1967), p. 188.
- ^ Cayton (2002), p. 129.
- ^ Morris (1992), pp. 10–11.
- ^ Cayton (2002), pp. 128–129.
- ^ "State Nicknames – Nicknames of U.S. States". Geography.about.com. http://geography.about.com/od/specificplacesofinterest/a/statenicknames.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- ^ http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/apportionment-pop-text.php
- ^ "Census of Population: 1970, Part 37 – Ohio, Section 1" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 1970. http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1970a_oh1-01.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ Balistreri, Kelly (2001-02). "Ohio Population News: Why did Ohio lose a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives?" (PDF). Center for Family and Demographic Research at Bowling Green State University. http://www.bgsu.edu/downloads/cas/file36222.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ "Cumulative Estimates of Resident Population Change for Counties of Ohio and County Rankings: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. July 1, 2008. http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/tables/CO-EST2008-02-39.csv. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ a b "2000 Population and Geographic Centers of Ohio" (PDF). Ohio Department of Development, Office of Strategic Research. 2001-03. http://www.odod.state.oh.us/research/FILES/G101.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- ^ a b c "Ohio ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005–2007". United States Census Bureau. 2007. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3307&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US39&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ a b c "United States ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2005-200". United States Census Bureau. 2007. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ a b "Percent of People Who Are Foreign Born: 2007". United States Census Bureau. 2007. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ThematicMapFramesetServlet?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-tm_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_M00615&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_&-_MapEvent=displayBy&-_dBy=040#?426,247. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ "Ohio Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2007". United States Census Bureau. 2007. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US39&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_DP2&-context=adp&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-tree_id=306&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ "Ohio American Community Survey Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006". United States Census Bureau. 2006. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_DP5&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-tree_id=306&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US39&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ a b c d e f "Religious Composition of Ohio". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2008. http://pewforum.org/religion08/state.php?StateID=10. Retrieved 2009-03-27. [dead link]
- ^ "Site Selection Rankings". Greyhill Advisors. http://greyhill.com/site-selection-rankings/. Retrieved October 17, 2011.
- ^ "Columbus Chamber Announces Ohio Ranked on 'Top 10 Business Climates' List for 2009", Earth Times. Retrieved November 19, 2009.
- ^ "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. http://greyhill.com/gdp-by-state. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Economic Overview" (PDF). Ohio Department of Development. 2009-02. http://www.odod.state.oh.us/research/FILES/E000.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ "Business Tax Index 2009", SMALL BUSINESS & ENTREPRENEURSHIP COUNCIL. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- ^ "SMALL BUSINESS SURVIVAL INDEX 2009", SMALL BUSINESS & ENTREPRENEURSHIP COUNCIL. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- ^ "The Best States for Business", Directorship. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- ^ "The Best States For Business", Forbes. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- ^ "Best Colleges 2010", U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- ^ "Best High Schools: State by State Statistics", U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
- ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics
- ^ "Jobless rates fall again in southeastern Ohio", Zanesville Times-Recorder. 23 june 2010. Retrieved 25 june 2010.
- ^ "Strickland: Mature leader needed, rival Kasich is too radical", Dayton Daily News. 22 june 2010. Retrieved 25 june 2010.
- ^ "ERS/USDA Data". Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. December 15, 2008. http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/Unemployment/RDList2.asp?ST=OH. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ a b "Ohio QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. February 20, 2009. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/39000.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ "Economic Overview", Ohio Department of Development, p. 1. Retrieved November 19, 2009.
- ^ "Fortune 500 2008". . May 5, 2008. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2008/states/OH.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ "Lottery Results" (SHTML). Office of Citizen Services and Communications, General Services Administration. http://www.usa.gov/Topics/Lottery_Results.shtml. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ "About the Ohio Lottery". Ohio Lottery Commission. 2008. http://www.ohiolottery.com/about/about_us.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ Kissell, Margo R. (March 24, 2009). "Englewood Man Wins $250,000 in Lottery". Englewood, O.H.: Dayton Daily News. http://www.daytondailynews.com/n/content/oh/story/news/local/2009/03/24/ddn032409lotteryweb.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31.
- ^ a b c "Constitution Online". Ohio General Assembly. http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=3&Section=01. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Constitution Online". Ohio General Assembly. http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=4&Section=01. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Constitution Online". Ohio General Assembly. http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=2&Section=01. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Constitution Online". Ohio General Assembly. http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=3&Section=15. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Constitution Online". Ohio General Assembly. http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=3&Section=01b. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ a b c "Constitution Online". Ohio General Assembly. http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=4&Section=04. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Ohio District Courts of Appeal". Ohio Judiciary System. http://www.supremecourt.ohio.gov/JudSystem/districtCourts/. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "The Supreme Court of Ohio Jurisdiction & Authority". The Ohio Judicial System. http://www.supremecourt.ohio.gov/SCO/jurisdiction/default.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ "Constitution Online". Ohio General Assembly. 2009. http://www.legislature.state.oh.us/constitution.cfm?Part=4&Section=02. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ Akron & Summit County History:Police
- ^ "Ohio General Assembly". Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=2126. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ a b "How the Senate Works". Ohio Senate. http://www.senate.state.oh.us/how/. Retrieved 2009-03-25. [dead link]
- ^ "Government". Congressman Michael Turner. http://turner.house.gov/District/Government.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Ohio". US Election Atlas. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2008&fips=39&f=1&off=0&elect=0&type=state. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- ^ a b Heinrichs, Ann (2003). Ohio. Minneapolis, M.N.: Compass Point Books. p. 42. ISBN 0-7565-0316-7. http://books.google.com/?id=VTnyaU2WkmUC&pg=PT43&lpg=PT43&dq=ohio+seven+presidents.
- ^ Holli (1999), p. 162.
- ^ " A grain of sand for your thoughts", The Economist, December 20, 2005. Retrieved December 23, 2005.
- ^ a b c d e f "Graphic: Donkey Stampede". Columbus Dispatch. August 22, 2008. http://www.dispatchpolitics.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/08/22/demgraphic.html?adsec=politics&sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ "President / Vice President: November 4, 2008" (ASPX). Ohio Secretary of State. November 4, 2008. http://www.sos.state.oh.us/SOS/elections/electResultsMain/2008ElectionResults/pres110408.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ Hallett, Joe; Mark Niquette, Jonathan Riskind (November 6, 2008). "Total-state Approach Aided Obama". Columbus Dispatch. http://www.dispatchpolitics.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/11/06/copy/howwin.ART_ART_11-06-08_A1_4KBQDF8.html?adsec=politics&sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ Riskind, Jonathan (December 24, 2008). "Ohio likely to lose 2 seats in Congress in 2012". Columbus Dispatch. http://www.dispatchpolitics.com/live/content/national_world/stories/2008/12/24/ohcong.ART_ART_12-24-08_A6_0ACB253.html?sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ Brady, Jessica (November 6, 2008). "Democrats Gain in Michigan and Ohio". Roll Call. http://www.rollcall.com/issues/54_54/politics/29901-1.html. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ Nash, James (December 7, 2008). "Kilroy is Headed to Congress". Columbus Dispatch. http://www.columbusdispatch.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/12/07/election.html?sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ "Senators of the 111th Congress". United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm?State=OH. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ "Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-OH) Urges Homeowners to Stay in Foreclosed Homes". Democracy Now. February 3, 2009. http://i1.democracynow.org/2009/2/3/rep_marcy_kaptur_d_oh_urges. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
- ^ a b Thomas J. Hennen's American Public Library Ratings for 2006
- ^ Statewide Library Scoring
- ^ "The Official Site of the Cincinnati Reds". Major League Baseball. http://cincinnati.reds.mlb.com/index.jsp?c_id=cin. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "The Official Site of the Cleveland Indians". Major League Baseball. http://cleveland.indians.mlb.com/index.jsp?c_id=cle. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ a b "NFL Teams". National Football League. http://www.nfl.com/teams. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "NBA.com Team Index". National Basketball Association. http://www.nba.com/teams/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "NHL Teams". National Hockey League. http://www.nhl.com/ice/teams.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "Major League Soccer Teams". Major League Soccer. http://www.mlsnet.com/teams/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. [dead link]
- ^ Griffith, Grant (2007). "Legend of the Cincinnati Red Stockings". Cincinnati Vintage Base Ball Club. http://www.1869reds.com/history/. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "Lake County Captains". Minor League Baseball. http://lakecounty.captains.milb.com/index.jsp?sid=t437. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "Mahoning Valley Scrappers". Minor League Baseball. http://web.minorleaguebaseball.com/index.jsp?sid=t545. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "The Toledo Mud Hens". Toledo Mud Hens. http://www.mudhens.com/. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- ^ "Michigan Wolverines vs. Ohio State Buckeyes – Recap". ESPN. November 27, 2010. http://scores.espn.go.com/ncf/recap?gameId=303310194. Retrieved 2010-12-02.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Ohio's State Symbols". Ohio Governor's Residence and State Garden. http://www.governorsresidence.ohio.gov/children/symbols.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
- ^ "Ohio Attorney General". Ohio Attorney General. http://ohioattorneygeneral.gov/citizen/kids/ohio.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-06.
- ^ "Herb Capital of Ohio". Ohio Historical Society. July 1, 2005. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1871. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ "Ohio's State Motto". Ohio Historical Society. July 1, 2005. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1885. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ "Ohio's State Rock Song". Ohio Historical Society. July 1, 2005. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1878. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- Cayton, Andrew R. L. (2002). Ohio: The History of a People. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0-8142-0899-1
- Knepper, George W. (1989). Ohio and Its People. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-791-0
- Mithun, Marianne (1999). Languages of Native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Morris, Roy, Jr. (1992). Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan. New York: Crown Publishing. ISBN 0-517-58070-5.
- Holli, Melvin G. (1999). The American Mayor. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01876-3
- Roseboom, Eugene H.; Weisenburger, Francis P. (1967). A History of Ohio. Columbus: The Ohio Historical Society.
- Ohio Department of Natural Resources
- Ohio Earthquake Information
- Ohio State Facts
- State of Ohio Official Website
- Ohio Sunshine Wiki
- State of Ohio wiki
- U.S. Census Bureau (Ohio Quick Facts)
- USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Ohio
- Ohio at the Open Directory Project
- OpenStreetMap has geographic data related to Ohio
Michigan • Lake Erie Indiana Pennsylvania Ohio: Outline • Index Kentucky • West Virginia Political divisions of the United States States
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- North Carolina
- North Dakota
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
- West Virginia
Federal district Insular areas Outlying islands United States (Outline) HistoryPre-Columbian era · Colonial era (Thirteen Colonies · Colonial American military history) · American Revolution (War) · Federalist Era · War of 1812 · Territorial acquisitions · Territorial evolution · Mexican–American War · Civil War · Reconstruction era · Indian Wars · Gilded Age · African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954) · Spanish–American War · Imperialism · World War I · Roaring Twenties · Great Depression · World War II (Home front) · Cold War · Korean War · Space Race · African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) · Feminist Movement · Vietnam War · Post-Cold War (1991–present) · War on Terror (War in Afghanistan · Iraq War) · Timeline of modern American conservatismTopics Federal
Politics GeographyCities, towns, and villages · Counties · Extreme points · Islands · Mountains (Peaks · Appalachian · Rocky) · National Park System · Regions (Great Plains · Mid-Atlantic · Midwestern · New England · Northwestern · Southern · Southwestern · Pacific · Western) · Rivers (Colorado · Columbia · Mississippi · Missouri · Ohio · Rio Grande) · States · Territory · Water supply and sanitation Economy SocietyTopicsIssues Book · Category · Portal · WikiProject Preceded by
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on March 1, 1803 (17th)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.