Mono language (Congo)

Mono language (Congo)
Spoken in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Region Northwestern corner of Congo (DRC)
Native speakers 65,000  (1984)
Language family
Language codes
ISO 639-3 mnh

Mono is a language spoken by about 65,000 people[1] in the northwestern corner of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is one of the Banda languages, a subbranch of the Ubangian branch of the Niger–Congo languages. It has five dialects: Bili, Bubanda, Mpaka, Galaba, and Kaga.

Mono has 33 consonant phonemes, including three labial-velar stops (/k͡p/, /ɡ͡b/, and prenasalized /ᵑ͡ᵐɡ͡b/), an asymmetrical eight-vowel system, and a labiodental flap ([ⱱ]) that contrasts with both /v/ and /w/. It is a tonal language.


  1. ^ Ethnologue report for Mono
  • Kamanda-Kola, Roger. 2003. Phonologie et morpho-syntaxe du mono: Langue oubanguienne du Congo R.D. (LINCOM Studies in African Linguistics 60). Munich: LINCOM EUROPA.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. 2004. 'Mono'. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34(2). 233–238.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. 2005. The phonology of Mono (SIL International and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 140). Dallas: SIL & UTA.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. & Brian E. Schrag. 2000. 'An overview of Mono phonology'. In H. Ekkehard Wolff & Orin Gensler (eds.), Proceedings from the 2nd World Congress of African Linguistics, Leipzig 1997, 393–409. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.

External links

  • SIL article on new phonetic symbol for labiodental flap

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