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Schindler House

Schindler House

Infobox nrhp
name = Schindler House



caption = Schindler House exterior from Kings Road
location = 835 North Kings Road, West Hollywood, California
built = 1922
architect = Rudolf Schindler
architecture = Modern
added = July 14, 1971
refnum = 71000150

The Schindler House, also known as the Kings Road House or Schindler Chace house, is a house in West Hollywood, California designed by architect Rudolf Schindler. The Schindler House is considered to be the first modern house built in the world. cite book
last = Smith | first = Kathryn | authorlink = Kathryn Smith
coauthors= Grant Mudford
title = Schindler House
publisher = Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
pages = 7-40
year = 2001 | isbn = 0-8109-2985-6
]

ite and Brief

After completing the Hollyhock House, Schindler and his wife Pauline vacationed in Yosemite in October 1921. Inspired by the trip, Schindler returned to create a design for multiple families to share a modern living area, much like the camp site.

The Schindler House was such a departure from existing residential architecture because of what it did not have; there is no living room, dining room or bedrooms in the house. The residence was meant to be a cooperative live/work space for two young families. The concrete walls and sliding glass panels made novel use of industrial materials, while the open floor plan integrated the external environment into the residence, setting a precedent for California architecture in particular.

Architecture

The Schindler House is laid out as two interlinking "L" shaped apartments (referred to as the Schindler and Chase apartments) using the basic design of the camp site that he had seen a year before. Each apartment was designed for a separate family, consisting of 2 studios, connected by a utility room. The utility room was meant to serve the functions of a kitchen, laundry, sewing room, and storage. The four studios were originally designated for the four members of the household (Rudolf & Pauline Schindler and Clyde & Marian Chace). The house also has a guest studio with its own kitchen and bathroom. The house, at just under convert|2500|sqft|m2, sits on a convert|20000|sqft|m2|sing=on lot.

Instead of bedrooms, there are 2 rooftop sleeping baskets. The baskets were redwood four post canopies with beams at mitered corners, protected from the rain by canvas sides.

Construction

When Schindler first submitted plans to the local planning authorities, they were denied, citing this radical, at the time, new method of construction. After many trips to the local planning office and extensive talks to convince them of its merit, the Building department granted him a temporary permit, meaning that they reserved the right to halt construction at any stage.cite book | last =McCoy | first =Esther | authorlink =Esther McCoy | title =Five California Architects | publisher =Reinhold Publishing Corporation | year =1960 | location =New York | pages = | id =ASIN B000I3Z52W]

The house is built on a flat concrete slab, which is both the foundation and the final floor. The walls are concrete tilt up slabs, poured into forms on top of the foundation. The tilt up slabs are separated by convert|3|in|mm, filled with concrete, clear glass or frosted glass. The tilt up panels act as the hard sheltering wall at the back of the house, and a softer permeable screen at the front. Schindler had long been fascinated by the construction method of tilt up concrete slabs, having done extensive research on them in his early days working for Ottenheimer, Stern, and Reichert. He was now intent on using this method for the new home he was designing, along with friend, Clyde Chace.

With Schindler as architect and Chace as builder to save costs, construction began in November 1921. Construction was complete by May 1922, with a total cost of $12,550. The landscaping, furniture and sleeping baskets remained to be completed. The Chaces and Schindlers shared the house from the summer of 1922 until July 1924 when the Chaces moved to Florida.

History

Schindler's friend, partner and rival, Richard Neutra along with his wife Dione and son Frank lived in the Chace apartment from March 1925 until the summer of 1930.

Pauline Schindler left the house and her husband in August 1927, Rudolph remained at the house until his death in 1953. The Chace apartment had a variety of famous and creative people live in it, including; art dealer & collector Galka Scheyer [Scheyer was the American representative of the Blue Four (painters Vasily Kandinsky, Alexei Jawlensky, Paul Klee & Lyonel Feininger).] , dancer John Bovingdon, novelist Theodore Dreiser, photographer Edward Weston and composer John Cage. Pauline Schindler returned to live in the Chace Studios part of the house, separate from her former husband, in the late 1930s and stayed until her death in May 1977.

Pauline Schinder died in May 1977, leaving the house in the Schindler family until the Friends of the Schindler House (FOSH) purchased the property in June 1980 for $160,000.cite book
last = Noever | first = Peter | authorlink = Peter Noever (editor)
title = Schindler by MAK: Prestel Museum Guide
publisher = Prestal Verlag
year = 2005 | isbn = 3-7913-2837-9
] The house was restored by FOSH in the mid-1980s. Some aspects of the restoration were criticized, as they erased changes Schindler had made to the structure over time. [Citation
last = Giovannini
first = Joseph
title = A Modernist Architect's Home Is Restored in Los Angeles
newspaper = New York Times
date = December 3, 1987
url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE6DA143FF930A35751C1A961948260
]

In August 1994, the Friends of the Schindler House signed an agreement with the MAK (Austrian Museum of Applied Arts / Contemporary Art, Vienna) to create the 'MAK Center at the Schindler House'. The agreement allowed FOSH to retain full ownership of the property, with MAK being responsible for financial obligations and programming. The programing at the MAK Center at the Schindler House investigate the relationship between art and architecture. The MAK Center also sponsors six month residencies for four art and four architecture students annually. The residents live in Schindler's Mackey Apartments in Los Angeles, owned by the MAK Center. The Schindler House is open to the public for tours.

In recent years, the Schindler House has had to contend with the rising density of the surrounding neighborhood. The surrounding neighborhood is currently dominated by 4 story condominium and apartment buildings, vastly different than the original expansive lots for single family residences. Citation
last =Hawthorne | first =Christopher | author-link =Christopher Hawthorne
title =Habitat 825 is so close and yet so far
newspaper =Los Angeles Times
pages =E1 & E10 | year =2007 | date =September 5, 2007
url =http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/la-et-kings5sep05,1,5605207.story?ctrack=1&cset=true
]


References

External links

* [http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/schindlerstudio/ King's Road House history and visitor information]
* [http://www.makcenter.org/ MAK Center Los Angeles]
* [http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Kings_Road_House.html Kings Road House - Rudolf M. Schindler - Great Buildings Online]
* [http://www.pbase.com/themarmot/schindler Photos of Schindler House]
* [http://www.nr.nps.gov/Red%20Books/71000150.red.pdf NRHP listing]


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