Anglo-Frisian languages

Anglo-Frisian languages

Infobox Language family
altname=Insular Germanic
region=Originally, the British Isles and the North Sea coast from Friesland to Jutland; today worldwide
fam3=West Germanic


The Anglo-Frisian languages (sometimes Insular Germanic) are a group of Ingvaeonic West Germanic languages consisting of Old English, Old Frisian, and their descendants. The Anglo-Frisian family tree is:

**Anglic group (Insular Anglo-Frisian)
***Yola (extinct)
**Frisian group (Continental Anglo-Frisian)
***West Frisian
***Saterland Frisian (East Frisian)
***North Frisian

The Anglo-Frisian languages are distinguished from other West Germanic languages partially by the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, Anglo-Frisian brightening and by the palatalization of Proto-Germanic PIE|*k to a coronal affricate before front vowels: cf. English "cheese" and West Frisian "tsiis" to Dutch "kaas" and German "Käse", or English "church" and West Frisian "tsjerke" to Dutch "kerk" and German "Kirche". Early Anglo-Frisian formed a "Sprachbund" with Old Saxon, which is counted among the Low Saxon-Low Franconian languages.

The German linguist Friedrich Maurer rejected Anglo-Frisian as a historical subdivision of the Germanic languages. Instead, he proposed North Sea Germanic or Ingvaeonic, a common ancestor of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon. This view has gained wide acceptance in historical linguistics.fact|date=April 2008


Compare the words for the numbers one to ten in the Anglo-Frisian languages.

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