Philip Mazzei

Philip Mazzei (pronounced: maht-say'; IPA: IPA|mat-sei) but sometimes erroneously cited with the name of "Philip Mazzie") (December 25, 1730March 19, 1816) was an Italian physician and a promoter of liberty. He was a close friend of Thomas Jefferson and acted as an agent to purchase arms for Virginia during the American Revolutionary War.

Biography

Mazzei was born Filippo Mazzei in Poggio a Caiano in what is now Italy. He studied medicine in Florence and practiced it in Italy and the Middle East for several years before moving to London in 1755 to take up a mercantile career as an importer. While in London he met the Americans Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Adams of Virginia. They convinced him to undertake his next venture.

In 1773 he led a group of Italians who came to Virginia to introduce the cultivation of vineyards, olives, and other Mediterranean fruits. Mazzei became a neighbor and friend of Thomas Jefferson. Mazzei and Jefferson started what became the first commercial vineyard in the Commonwealth of Virginia. They shared an interest in politics and libertarian values, and maintained an active correspondence for the rest Mazzei's life. In 1779 Mazzei returned to Italy as a secret agent for the state of Virginia. He purchased and shipped arms to them until 1783.

After briefly visiting the United States again in 1785, Mazzei travelled throughout Europe promoting Republican ideals. He wrote a political history of the American Revolution, "Recherches historiques et politiques sur les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique septentrionale", and published it in Paris in 1788. After its publication Mazzei became an unofficial roving ambassador in Europe for American ideas and institutions.

While in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth he became attached as a Privy Councilor at the court of King Stanislaus II. There he became acquainted with Polish liberal and constitutional thought, like the works of Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki and ideas of Golden Freedoms and Great Sejm. Poniatowski appointed him as Polish representative in Paris, where he again met Jefferson. [http://www.atlasusa.org/V2/files/pdfs/2004_IR-winter.pdf]

After Poland was partitioned between Russia and Prussia in 1795 Mazzei, along with the rest of the court, was given a pension by the Russian crown. He later spent more time in France and became active in the politics of the French Revolution under the Directorate. When Napoleon overthrew that government Mazzei returned to Pisa, Italy. He died there in 1816.

After his death the remainder of his family returned to the United States at the urging of Thomas Jefferson. They settled in Massachusetts and Virginia. Mazzei's daughter married the nephew of John Adams.

A tribute of a President

This contribution was acknowledged by John F. Kennedy in his book "A Nation of Immigrants", in which he states that: [ John F. Kennedy, "A Nation of Immigrants" pp. 15-16]

cquote|"The great doctrine 'All men are created equal' [Philip Mazzei, The Virginia Gazette, 1774. Translated by a friend and neighbor, Thomas Jefferson:

Kennedy did not cite his source. Some biographers of Jefferson and experts on the Declaration do not credit Mazzei for the phrase. [ There is no mention of Mazzei in Pauline Maier, "American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence" (1998). See [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0679779086/ref=sib_dp_srch_bod?v=search-inside&keywords=mazzei] . Garry Wills, "Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence" (2002) mentions Mazzei only after the Declaration was written, when Jefferson sent him a copy. see [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0618257764/ref=sib_dp_srch_pop?v=search-inside&keywords=mazzei] . ]

References

ee also

* Abolitionism
* American Revolution
* Thomas Adams
* Benjamin Franklin
* Patrick Henry
* Thomas Jefferson
* George Mason
* James Monroe
* William Paca
* Francesco Vigo
* John Page
* Stanisław August Poniatowski
* Founding Fathers of the United States
* Italian American
* United States Declaration of Independence
* List of important people in the era of the American Revolution

Mazzei's writings

In French

* Filippo Mazzei: "Recherches Historiques et Politiques sur les Etats-Unis de l'Amérique Septentrionale" (Historical and Political Enquiries Concerning the United States of North America). Four Volumes.
* Filippo Mazzei, Stanisław August Poniatowski, "Lettres de Philippe Mazzei et du roi Stanislas-Auguste de Pologne.", Roma : Istituto storico italiano per l'età moderna e contemporanea, 1982

In Italian

* Filippo Mazzei: "Memorie della vita e delle peregrinazioni del fiorentino Filippo Mazzei". a cura di Gino Capponi, Lugano, Tip. della Svizzera Italiana, 1845 - 1846, 2 volumes
* Filippo Mazzei:"Del commercio della seta fatto in Inghilterra dalla Compagnia delle Indie Orientali (manoscritto inedito di Filippo Mazzei – 1769)" a cura di Silvano Gelli, Poggio a Caiano, Comune di Poggio a Caiano, 2001.

Further reading

Book by Margherita Marchione or "ed. by"

In English

* Philip Mazzei: "My Life and Wanderings, ed. Margherita Marchione" American Institute of Italian Studies, Morristown, NJ, 1980, 437pp. Translation in English of Mazzei's autobography
* Philip Mazzei: "Selected Writings and Correspondence"::* Vol. I - "Virginia's Agent during the American Revolution", XLVIII, 585pp.; :* Vol. II - "Agent for the King of Poland during the French Revolution", 802pp.; :* Vol. III - "World Citizen", 623pp. :Cassa di Risparmi e Depositi, Prato, 1983.
* Marchione Margherita: "Philip Mazzei: Jefferson's "Zealous Whig"," American Institute of Italian Studies, Morristown, NJ, 1975, 352pp.
* Marchione Margherita: The Adventurous Life of Philip Mazzei - La vita avventurosa di Filippo Mazzei (bilingue inglese - italiano), University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1995, 235pp.
* Marchione Margherita:"The Constitutional Society of 1784", Center for Mazzei Studies, Morristown, NJ, 1984, 49pp.
* Marchione Margherita, "Philip Mazzei: World Citizen (Jefferson's "Zealous Whig")", University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1994, 158pp.

In Italian

* Filippo Mazzei: "Scelta di scritti e lettere:":*Vol.I: 1765-1788. "Agente di Virginia durante la rivoluzione americana"; pp.XLVII-582:*Vol.II:1788-1791. "Agente del Re di Polonia durante la Rivoluzione Francese"; pp. XVI-703,XVII-633:*Vol.III: 1792-1816. "Cittadino del Mondo"; pp.XVII-633:Prato, 1984, Ediz.del Palazzo per Cassa di Risparmi e Depositi di Prato.
* Marchione Margherita: "Istruzioni per essere liberi ed eguali", Cisalpino-Gogliardica, Milan, 1984, 160pp
* Marchione Margherita: "The Adventurous Life of Philip Mazzei - La vita avventurosa di Filippo Mazzei" (bilingue inglese - italiano), University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1995, 235pp.

Others books about Mazzei

In English

* Biaggi, Mario: "An Appreciation of Philip Mazzei - an Unsung American Patriot", in CONGRESSIONAL RECORD Washington, D.C., September 12, 1984
* Conover Hunt-Jones: "Dolley and the "great little Madison" Washington, D.C., 1977
* Di Grazia, Marco: "Philip Mazzei, a hero of American independence. Illustrations and cover Marcello Mangiantini, translation Miranda MacPhail" Tuscan Regional Government, Poggio a Caiano. nessuna data, circa 1990, 52p
* Gaines, William H.: "Virginia History in Documents 1621-1788", Virginia State Library, Richmond, 1974
* Garlick, Richard Jr: "Philip Mazzei, Friend of Jefferson: His Life and letters", Baltimore-London-Paris, The John Hopkins Press-Humphrey Nilfort Oxford University Press – Société d’Editions Les Belles Lettres, 1933
* Garlick, Richard Jr: "Italy and the Italians in Washington's time", New York Arno Press, 1975,1933
* Guzzetta, Charles: "Mazzei in America", in DREAM STREETS - THE BIG BOOK OF ITALIAN AMERICAN CULTURE, Lawrence DiStasi editor, Harper & Row, New York, 1989
* Kennedy, John F.: "A Nation of Immigrants", Harper & Row, New York, 1964
* Lippucci, Mary Theresa: "The correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Philip Mazzei, 1779-1815."
* Malone, Dumas (editor): "Dictionary of American Biography, VOL. VI", Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1933
* Marraro, Howard R.: "An Unpublished Jefferson Letter to Mazzei", Italica, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Jun., 1958), pp. 83-87
* Marraro, Howard R.: "Jefferson Letters Concerning the Settlement of Mazzei's Virginia Estate", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 2 (Sep., 1943), pp. 235-242
* Marraro, Howard R.: "Philip Mazzei - Virginia's Agent in Europe", New York Public Library, 1935
* Marraro, Howard Rosario: "Philip Mazzei and his Polish friends" sn,1944?
* Sammartino, Peter: "The Contributions of Italians to the United States before the Civil War : a conference to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the birth of Philip Mazzei, Washington, D.C., April 18-20, 1980", Washington, D.C., National Italian American Foundation, 1980.
* Schiavo, Giovanni Ermenegildo: "Philip Mazzei : one of America's founding fathers", New York : Vigo Press, 1951

In Italian

* AA.VV., "Dalla Toscana all’America: il contributo di Filippo Mazzei", Poggio a Caiano, Comune di Poggio a Caiano, 2004.
* Becattini Massimo, "Filippo Mazzei mercante italiano a Londra (1756-1772)", Poggio a Caiano, Comune di Poggio a Caiano, 1997.
* Bolognesi Andrea, Corsetti Luigi, Di Stadio Luigi: "Filippo Mazzei mostra di cimeli e scritti", catalogo della mostra a cura di, Poggio a Caiano, palazzo Comunale, 3-25 luglio 1996, Comune di Poggio a Caiano, 1996.
* Camajani Guelfo Guelfi,"Filippo Mazzei : un illustre toscano del Settecento : medico, agricoltore, scrittore, giornalista, diplomatico", Firenze, Associazione Internazionale Toscani nel Mondo, 1976.
* Ciampini Raffaele, "Lettere di Filippo Mazzei alla corte di Polonia (1788-1792)", Bologna : N. Zanichelli, 1937
* Corsetti Luigi, Gradi Renzo: "Bibliografia su Filippo Mazzei Avventuriero della Libertà" a cura di, con scritti di Margherita Marchione e Edoardo Tortarolo, Poggio a Caiano, C.I.C Filippo Mazzei - Associazione Culturale "Ardengo Soffici", 1993.
* Di Stadio Luigi, "Filippo Mazzei tra pubblico e privato. Raccolta di documenti inediti", a cura di, Poggio a Caiano, Biblioteca Comunale di Poggio a Caiano, 1996.
* Gerosa Guido, "Il fiorentino che fece l'America. Vita e avventure di Filippo Mazzei 1730-1916", Milano, SugarCo Edizioni, 1990.
* Gradi Renzo, "Un bastimento carico di Roba bestie e uomini in un manoscritto inedito di Filippo Mazzei", Poggio a Caiano, Comune di Poggio a Caiano, 1991.
* Gradi Renzo, "Parigi: luglio 1789. Scritti e memorie del fiorentino Filippo Mazzei", a cura di, Comune di Poggio a Caiano, 1989.
* Gullace Giovanni, "Figure dimenticate dell'indipendenza americana, Filippo Mazzei e Francesco Vigo", Roma : Il Veltro, 1977.
* Masini Giancarlo, Gori Iacopo, "L'America fu concepita a Firenze", Firenze : Bonechi, 1998
* Tognetti Burigana Sara, "Tra riformismo illuminato e dispotismo napoleonico; esperienze del "cittadino americano" Filippo Mazzei", Roma, Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1965.
* Tortarolo Edoardo, "Illuminismo e Rivoluzioni. Biografia politica di Filippo Mazzei", Milano, Angeli, 1986.
* Witold Łukaszewicz, "Filippo Mazzei, Giuseppe Mazzini; saggi sui rapporti italo-polacchi.", Wroclaw, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1970.

External links

* [http://www.philipmazzei.us www.philipmazzei.us Official site]
* [http://www.monticello.org/reports/people/mazzei.html Monticello the home of Thomas Jefferson]
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9051645?query=uni-&ct= Mazzei, Philip "Encyclopædia Britannica"]
* [http://www.rccr.cremona.it/ais/Chianti/fonterutolistoria.htm A branch o Mazzei's Family Today]
* [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/madison_papers/titleP1.html Philip Mazzei at the library of Congress]
* [http://www.clevelandmemory.org/italians/partii.html Another Site about P.Mazzei and other famous Italian American]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Philip Mazzei — Filippo Mazzei Demande de traduction Filippo Mazzei → …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mazzei, Philip — ▪ Italian physician, merchant, and author born December 25, 1730, Poggio a Caiano, Tuscany [Italy] died March 19, 1816, Pisa, Italy       Italian physician, merchant, and author, ardent supporter of the American Revolution, and correspondent of… …   Universalium

  • Filippo Mazzei — (amerikanisiert: Philip Mazzei, * 25. Dezember 1730 in Poggio a Caiano (Italien); † 19. März 1816 in Pisa) war ein italo amerikanischer Diplomat. Leben Mazzei wurde 1730 in Poggio a Caiano geboren. Bis 1755 war er als Arzt im Osmanischen Reich… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Filippo Mazzei — Demande de traduction Filippo Mazzei → Fili …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Мазай Ф. — Филип Мазай, англ. Philip Mazzei, урождённый Филиппо Маццеи, итал. Philippo Mazzei (25 декабря 1730, Поджо а Кайяно, Тоскана, Италия  19 марта 1816, Пиза, Италия)  национальный герой США, друг Томаса Джефферсона. Содержание 1 Биография 2 …   Википедия

  • Мазай Филип — Филип Мазай, англ. Philip Mazzei, урождённый Филиппо Маццеи, итал. Philippo Mazzei (25 декабря 1730, Поджо а Кайяно, Тоскана, Италия  19 марта 1816, Пиза, Италия)  национальный герой США, друг Томаса Джефферсона. Содержание 1 Биография 2 …   Википедия

  • Маццеи, Фиоиппо — Филип Мазай, англ. Philip Mazzei, урождённый Филиппо Маццеи, итал. Philippo Mazzei (25 декабря 1730, Поджо а Кайяно, Тоскана, Италия  19 марта 1816, Пиза, Италия)  национальный герой США, друг Томаса Джефферсона. Содержание 1 Биография 2 …   Википедия

  • Маццеи Фиоиппо — Филип Мазай, англ. Philip Mazzei, урождённый Филиппо Маццеи, итал. Philippo Mazzei (25 декабря 1730, Поджо а Кайяно, Тоскана, Италия  19 марта 1816, Пиза, Италия)  национальный герой США, друг Томаса Джефферсона. Содержание 1 Биография 2 …   Википедия

  • Филип Мазай — Филип Мазай, англ. Philip Mazzei, урождённый Филиппо Маццеи, итал. Philippo Mazzei (25 декабря 1730, Поджо а Кайяно, Тоскана, Италия  19 марта 1816, Пиза, Италия)  национальный герой США, друг Томаса Джефферсона. Содержание 1 Биография 2 …   Википедия

  • Фиоиппо Маццеи — Филип Мазай, англ. Philip Mazzei, урождённый Филиппо Маццеи, итал. Philippo Mazzei (25 декабря 1730, Поджо а Кайяно, Тоскана, Италия  19 марта 1816, Пиза, Италия)  национальный герой США, друг Томаса Джефферсона. Содержание 1 Биография 2 …   Википедия

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