- Science (journal)
title = Science
abbreviation = None
language = English
link1 = http://www.sciencemag.org/
link1-name = Content URL
link2 = http://www.sciencemag.org/about/authors/index.dtl
link2-name = Informational URL
publisher = AAAS
country = USA
history = 1880 to present (3 series of volumes)
ISSN = 0036-8075
JSTOR = 00368075
"Science" is the
academic journalof the American Association for the Advancement of Scienceand is considered one of the world's most prestigious scientific journals. [ [http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2007/0705spain_award.shtml AAAS - AAAS News Release ] ] [ [http://www.aaas.org/publications/annual_report/2000/science.html AAAS Annual Report-Science ] ] The peer-reviewedjournal, first published in 1880is circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is one million people. [AAAS, " [http://www.aaas.org/aboutaaas/ What is AAAS?] "]
The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific
researchand research reviews, but "Science" also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policyand other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of scienceand technology. Although most scientific journals focus on a specific field, "Science" and its rival "Nature" cover the full range of scientific disciplines. "Science" places special emphasis on biologyand the life sciencesbecause of the expansion of biotechnologyand geneticsover the past few decadesFact|date=December 2007. "Science"'s impact factorfor 2006 was 30.028 (as measured by Thomson ISI).
Although it is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in "Science". Papers are accepted from authors around the world. Competition to publish in "Science" is very intense, as an article published in such a highly-cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 10% of articles submitted to the editors are accepted for publication and all research articles are subject to
peer reviewbefore they appear in the magazine.
In 2007 Science (together with Nature) received the prestigious
Prince of Asturias Awardfor Communications and Humanity [ [http://www.fundacionprincipedeasturias.org/ing/04/premiados/trayectorias/trayectoria820.html Journal Science] ]
"Science" is based in
Washington, D.C., USA, with a second office in Cambridge, England.
"Science" was founded by New York journalist John Michaels in 1880 with financial support from
Thomas Edisonand later from Alexander Graham Bell. However, the magazine never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Entomologist Samuel H. Scudder resurrected the journal one year later and had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. [AAAS, " [http://archives.aaas.org/exhibit/origins4.php 150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS Origins: 1848-1899] ", 2004] However, by 1894, "Science" was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattellfor $500.
In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, "Science" became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900. [AAAS, " [http://archives.aaas.org/exhibit/science2.php 150 Years of Advancing Science: A History of AAAS AAAS and Science: 1900–1940] ", 2004] During the early part of the 20th century important articles published in "Science" included papers on fruit fly
geneticsby Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble. [cite web | url=http://archives.aaas.org/exhibit/science5.php | title=AAAS and Science: 1900-1940 | publisher = American Association for the Advancement of Science| accessdate=2006-08-27] After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. [cite web | url=http://archives.aaas.org/exhibit/ | title=AAAS - History and Archives | publisher = American Association for the Advancement of Science| accessdate=2006-08-27]
After Cattell's death, the magazine lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. Physicist and Nobel laureate, Philip Abelson, the co-discoverer of
neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the peer reviewprocess was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date. [cite web | url=http://archives.aaas.org/exhibit/maturing3.php | title= AAAS and the Maturing of American Science: 1941-1970 | publisher = American Association for the Advancement of Science| accessdate=2006-08-27] During this time, papers on the Project Apollomissions and some of the earliest reports on AIDSwere published.cite web | url=http://archives.aaas.org/exhibit/change3.php | title= Change and Continuity: 1971 to the Present | publisher = American Association for the Advancement of Science| accessdate=2006-08-27]
Biochemist Daniel Koshland served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist
Floyd Bloomheld that position.
Donald Kennedybecame the editor of "Science" in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Albertstook his place in March 2008. [cite web | url=http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2007/1217alberts.shtml | title= Bruce Alberts Named New Editor-in-Chief of Science | publisher = American Association for the Advancement of Science| accessdate=2007-12-18]
In February 2001, draft results of the
human genomewere simultaneously published by "Nature" and "Science" with Science publishing the Celera Genomicspaper and "Nature" publishing the publicly funded Human Genome Project.
In 2002, "Science" withdrew eight papers authored by
Jan Hendrik Schönafter it was shown that Schön had fabricated much of his data.
An article published in "Science" in 2002 on the neurotoxicity of the drug MDMA ("ecstasy") caused some controversy when a mix-up of vials caused the paper to be retracted in 2003 (see
Neurotoxicity of MDMA controversy).
"Science" encountered another controversy in 2006 when papers by
Hwang Woo-Sukon cloninghuman embryos from stem cellresearch were withdrawn by Seoul National Universitydue to apparent scientific fraud. A committee set up by "Science" to study the matter found that the journal's procedures had been followed, and the journal could do little in the face of deliberate fraud. The committee recommended that papers received should henceforth be classified as non-controversial or controversial; controversial papers should be looked at more thoroughly. "Science" also suggested that "Nature" may want to take up the same standards it was adopting.cite news | title = Handle with care | date = 2006-11-30| url = http://www.economist.com/research/articlesBySubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=526354&story_id=8348799 | publisher = "The Economist" | accessdate = 2007-08-05 ]
Kennedy defended the peer review system, pointing out that catching fraud would require "costly and offensive oversight on the vast majority of scientists in order to catch the occasional cheater". [cite journal | last=Kennedy | first=Donald | title=Good News-and Bad | journal=Science | date=13 January 2006 | volume=311 | issue=5758 | pages=145 | doi = 10.1126/science.1124498 | pmid=16410489]
Online versions of full-text archive articles are not generally made available to the public. Full text is available online to AAAS members from the main journal website. Individual and institutional subscriptions are also available for a fee (though it is significantly less expensive to simply join the AAAS and receive the magazine for free). The [http://www.sciencemag.org/ "Science" website] also gives free access to some articles (principally original research articles and editorials) as well as the complete table of contents of the current and past issues, a year after their publication. Access to all articles on the Science website is free if the request comes from an IP address of a subscribing institution. Articles older than 5 to 6 years are available via
JSTORand recent articles older than 12 months are available via ProQuest. In addition, AAAS membership includes full access to the "Science" archives at the [http://www.sciencemag.org/ "Science" website] , where it is called [http://www.sciencemag.org/classic/ "Science" Classic] . Institutions can opt to add "Science" Classic to their subscriptions for an additional fee.
The [http://www.sciencemag.org/ "Science" website] also gives access to the Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (
SAGE KE). Knowledge Environments are an attempt to utilize internet-based technologies to enhance access to scientific information and improve the effectiveness of information transfer. The former Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment (STKE) is now known as "Science Signaling" [ [http://stke.sciencemag.org/about/ AAAS | Science Signaling | About Science Signaling ] ] .
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Breakthrough of the Year
*"Nature", another notable scientific publication and long-term competitor
Retracted article on neurotoxicity of ecstasy
* [http://www.sciencemag.org/ "Science" official website]
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