Motion (physics)

Motion (physics)
Motion involves change in position, such as in this perspective of rapidly leaving Yongsan Station

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Change in action is the result of an unbalanced force. Motion is typically described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement and time .[1] An object's velocity cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described by Newton's first law. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in a closed system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum.

A body which does not move is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant) position.

Motion is always observed and measured relative to a frame of reference. As there is no absolute frame of reference, absolute motion cannot be determined; this is emphasised by the term relative motion.[2] A body which is motionless relative to a given reference frame, is still moving relative to infinitely many other frames. Thus, everything in the universe is moving.[3]

More generally, the term motion signifies any temporal change in a physical system. For example, one can talk about motion of a wave or a quantum particle (or any other field) where the concept location does not apply.

Contents

Laws of Motion

In physics, motion in the universe is described through two sets of apparently contradictory laws of mechanics. Motions of all large scale and familiar objects in the universe (such as projectiles, planets, cells, and humans) are described by classical mechanics. Whereas the motion of very small atomic and sub-atomic objects is described by quantum mechanics.

Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. It produces very accurate results within these domains, and is one of the oldest and largest subjects in science, engineering and technology.

Classical mechanics is fundamentally based on Newton's Laws of Motion. These laws describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and the motion of that body. They were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published on July 5, 1687. His three laws are:

  1. In the absence of a net external force, a body either is at rest or moves with constant velocity.
  2. The net external force on a body is equal to the mass of that body times its acceleration; F = ma. Alternatively, force is proportional to the time derivative of momentum.
  3. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body, the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.[4]

Newton's three laws of motion, along with his law of universal gravitation, explain Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which were the first to accurately provide a mathematical model or understanding orbiting bodies in outer space. This explanation unified the motion of celestial bodies and motion of objects on earth.

Classical mechanics was later further enhanced by Albert Einstein's special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity explains the motion of objects with a high velocity, approaching the speed of light; general relativity is employed to handle gravitation motion at a deeper level.

Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics is a set of principles describing physical reality at the atomic level of matter (molecules and atoms) and the subatomic (electrons, protons, and even smaller particles). These descriptions include the simultaneous wave-like and particle-like behavior of both matter and radiation energy, this described in the wave–particle duality.

In contrast to classical mechanics, where accurate measurements and predictions can be calculated about location and velocity, in the quantum mechanics of a subatomic particle, one can never specify its state, such as its simultaneous location and velocity, with complete certainty (this is called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle).

In addition to describing the motion of atomic level phenomena, quantum mechanics is useful in understanding some large scale phenomenon such as superfluidity, superconductivity, and biological systems, including the function of smell receptors and the structures of proteins.

Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics devoted to the study of motion, but not the cause of the motion. As such it is concerned with the various types of motions.

Two classes of motion covered by kinematics are uniform motion and non-uniform motion. A body is said to be in uniform motion when it travels l distances in equal intervals of time (i.e. at a constant speed). For example, a body travels 5 km in 1 hour and another 5 km in the next hour, and so on continuously. Uniform motion is closely associated with inertia as described in Newton's first law of motion. However, most familiar types of motion would be non-uniform motion, as most bodies are constantly being acted upon by many different force simultaneously, as such they do not travel equal distances in equal intervals of time. For example, a body travels 2 km in 25 minutes but takes 30 minutes to travel the next 2 km.

List of "imperceptible" human motions

Humans, like all things in the universe are in constant motion,[5] however, aside from obvious movements of the various external body parts and locomotion, humans are in motion in a variety of ways which are more difficult to perceive. Many of these "imperceptible motions" are only perceivable with the help of special tools and careful observation. The larger scales of "imperceptible motions" are difficult for humans to perceive for two reasons: 1) Newton's laws of motion (particularly Inertia) which prevent humans from feeling motions of a mass to which they are connected, and 2) the lack of an obvious frame of reference which would allow individuals to easily see that they are moving.[6] The smaller scales of these motions are too small for humans to sense.

Universe

  • Spacetime (the fabric of the universe) is actually expanding. Essentially, everything in the universe is stretching like a rubber band. This motion is the most obscure as it is not physical motion as such, but rather a change in the very nature of the universe. The primary source of verification of this expansion was provided by Edwin Hubble who demonstrated that all galaxies and distant astronomical objects were moving away from us ("Hubble's law") as predicted by a universal expansion.[7]

Galaxy

  • The Milky Way Galaxy, is hurtling through space at an incredible speed. It is powered by the force left over from the Big Bang.[citation needed] Many astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 600 km/s relative to the observed locations of other nearby galaxies. Another reference frame is provided by the Cosmic microwave background. This frame of reference indicates that The Milky Way is moving at around 552 km/s.[8]

Solar System

Earth

  • The Earth is rotating or spinning around its axis, this is evidenced by day and night, at the equator the earth has an eastward velocity of 0.4651 km/s (1040 mi/h).[10]
  • The Earth is orbiting around the Sun in an orbital revolution. A complete orbit around the sun takes one year or about 365 days; it averages a speed of about 30 km/s (67,000 mi/h).[11]

Continents

  • The Theory of Plate tectonics tells us that the continents are drifting on convection currents within the mantle causing them to move across the surface of the planet at the slow speed of approximately 1 inch (2.54 cm) per year.[12][13] However, the velocities of plates range widely. The fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the Cocos Plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/yr[14] (3.0 in/yr) and the Pacific Plate moving 52–69 mm/yr (2.1–2.7 in/yr). At the other extreme, the slowest-moving plate is the Eurasian Plate, progressing at a typical rate of about 21 mm/yr (0.8 in/yr).

Internal body

  • The human heart is constantly contracting to move blood throughout the body. Through larger veins and arteries in the body blood has been found to travel at approximately 0.33 m/s.[15] Though considerable variation exists, and peak flows in the venae cavae have been found between 0.1 m/s and 0.45 m/s.[16]
  • The smooth muscles of hollow internal organs are moving. The most familiar would be peristalsis which is where digested food is forced throughout the digestive tract. Though different foods travel through the body at rates, an average speed through the human small intestine is 2.16 m/h (0.036 m/s).[17]
  • Typically some sound is audible at any given moment, when the vibration of these sound waves reaches the ear drum it moves in response and allows the sense of hearing.
  • The human lymphatic system is constantly moving excess fluids, lipids, and immune system related products around the body. The lymph fluid has been found to move through a lymph capillary of the skin at approximately 0.0000097 m/s.[18]

Cells

The cells of the human body have many structures which move throughout them.

  • Cytoplasmic streaming is a way which cells move molecular substances throughout the cytoplasm.[19]
  • Various motor proteins work as molecular motors within a cell and move along the surface of various cellular substrates such as microtubuless. Motor proteins are typically powered by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and convert chemical energy into mechanical work.[20] Vesicles propelled by motor proteins have been found to have a velocity of approximately 0.00000152 m/s.[21]

Particles

  • According to the laws of thermodynamics all particles of matter are in constant random motion as long as the temperature is above absolute zero. Thus the molecules and atoms which make up the human body are vibrating, colliding, and moving. This motion can be detected as temperature; higher temperatures, which represent greater kinetic energy in the particles, feel warm to humans whom sense the thermal energy transferring from the object being touched to their nerves. Similarly, when lower temperature objects are touched, the senses perceive the transfer of heat away from the body as feeling cold.[22]

Subatomic particles

  • Within each atom, electrons exist in an area around the nucleus. This area is called the electron cloud. According to Bohr's model of the atom, electrons have a high velocity, and the larger the nucleus they are orbiting the faster they would need to move. If electrons 'move' about the electron cloud in strict paths the same way planets orbit the sun, then electrons would be required to do so at speeds which far exceed the speed of light. However, there is no reason that one must confine one's self to this strict conceptualization, that electrons move in paths the same way macroscopic objects do. Rather one can conceptualize electrons to be 'particles' that capriciously exist within the bounds of the electron cloud.[23]
  • Inside the atomic nucleus the protons and neutrons are also probably moving around due the electrical repulsion of the protons and the presence of angular momentum of both particles.[24]

Light

Light propagates at 299,792,458 m/s, often approximated as 300,000 kilometres per second or 186,000 miles per second. The speed of light (or c) is the speed of all massless particles and associated fields in a vacuum, and it is believed to be the upper limit on the speed at which energy, matter, and information can travel.

Types of motion

References

  1. ^ Nave, R. 2005. Motion. Hyper Physics. Georgia State University
  2. ^ Wåhlin, L. 1997. "THE DEADBEAT UNIVERSE", Chapter 9. Colutron Research Corporation ISBN 0 933407 03 3
  3. ^ De Grasse Tyson, N., Liu, C., & Irion, R. 2000. One Universe: At home in the cosmos. p.20–21. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-06488-0
  4. ^ Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" can be found in the "Principia" on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation.
  5. ^ De Grasse Tyson, N., Liu, C., & Irion, R. 2000. One Universe: At home in the cosmos. p.8–9. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-06488-0
  6. ^ Safkan, Y. 2007 "f the term 'absolute motion' has no meaning, then why do we say that the earth moves around the sun and not vice versa?" Ask the Experts. PhysicsLink
  7. ^ Hubble, Edwin, "A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae" (1929) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp. 168–173 (Full article, PDF)
  8. ^ Kogut, A.; Lineweaver, C.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Banday, A.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; de Amici, G.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson, P. D.; Janssen, M.; Keegstra, P.; Loewenstein, K.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J. C.; Tenorio, L.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D. T.; Wright, E. L. (1993). "Dipole Anisotropy in the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers First-Year Sky Maps". Astrophysical Journal 419: 1. arXiv:astro-ph/9312056. Bibcode 1993ApJ...419....1K. doi:10.1086/173453. 
  9. ^ Imamura, Jim (August 10, 2006). "Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy". University of Oregon. Archived from the original on 2007-03-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20070301055338/http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/123/lecture-2/mass.html. Retrieved 2007-05-10. 
  10. ^ Ask and Astrophysicist. NASA Goodard Space Flight Center.
  11. ^ Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Earth Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/earthfact.html. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  12. ^ Staff. "GPS Time Series". NASA JPL. http://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov/mbh/series.html. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  13. ^ Huang, Zhen Shao. "Speed of the Continental Plates". The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/ZhenHuang.shtml. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  14. ^ Meschede, M.; Udo Barckhausen, U. (November 20, 2000). "Plate Tectonic Evolution of the Cocos-Nazca Spreading Center". Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Texas A&M University. http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/170_SR/chap_07/chap_07.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  15. ^ Penny, P. 2003. Hemodynamic: Blood Velocity
  16. ^ LEWIS WEXLER, DEREK H. BERGEL, IVOR T. GABE, GEOFFREY S. MAKIN, & CHRISTOPHER J. MILLS (1 September 1968GGHKHJ,H,kamnalaa mancha haru khatam). "Velocity of Blood Flow in Normal Human Venae Cavae". Circulation Research. 23 (3): 349. PMID 5676450. http://circres.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/circresaha;23/3/349. Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  17. ^ Bowen, R. 2006. Gastrointestinal Transit: How Long Does It Take? Colorado State University.
  18. ^ M. Fischer, U. K. Franzeck, I. Herrig, U. Costanzo, S. Wen, M. Schiesser, U. Hoffmann and A. Bollinger (1 January 1996). "Flow velocity of single lymphatic capillaries in human skin". Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiology 270 (1): H358–H363. PMID 8769772. http://ajpheart.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/270/1/H358. Retrieved 2007-11-14. 
  19. ^ Cytoplasmic Streaming: Encyclopedia Britannica
  20. ^ Microtubules Motors: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
  21. ^ Hill, David; Holzwarth, George; Bonin, Keith (2002). "Velocity and Drag Forces on motor-protein-driven Vesicles in Cells". American Physical Society, the 69th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern. abstract #EA.002. Bibcode 2002APS..SES.EA002H. 
  22. ^ Temperature and BEC. Physics 2000: Colorado State University Physics Department
  23. ^ Ask a scientist archive. Argonne National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy
  24. ^ Chapter 2, Nuclear Science- A guide to the nuclear science wall chart. Berkley National Laboratory.

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