- Han unification
Han unification is an effort by the authors of
Unicodeand the Universal Character Setto map multiple character sets of the so-called CJKlanguages into a single set of unified characters. Han characters are a common feature of written Chinese ( hanzi), Japanese ( kanji), Korean ( hanja), and Cantonese in Hong Kong, and — at least historically — other East and Southeast Asian languages. (See Vietnamese Hán Tựand Chữ Nôm.)
Modern Chinese, Korean, and Japanese
typefaces typically use regional or historical variants of a given Han character. In the formulation of Unicode, an attempt was made to unify these variants by considering them different glyphsrepresenting the same " grapheme", or orthographic unit, hence, "Han unification", with the resulting character repertoire sometimes contracted to Unihan.
Unihan can also refer to the Unihan Database maintained by the Unicode Consortium, which provides information about all of the unified Han characters encoded in the Unicode standard, including mappings to various national and industry standards, indices into standard dictionaries, encoded variants, pronunciations in various languages, and an English definition. The database is available to the public as [http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/Unihan.zip a text file] and via an [http://www.unicode.org/charts/unihan.html interactive Web site] . The latter also includes representative glyphs and definitions for compound words drawn from the free Japanese
EDICTand Chinese CEDICTdictionary projects (which are provided for convenience and are not a formal part of the Unicode standard).
Rationale and controversy
Rules for Han unification are given in the East Asian Scripts chapter of the various versions of the Unicode Standard (Chapter 11 in Unicode 4.0). [ [http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.0/ch11.pdf The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0-online edition ] ] The
Ideographic Rapporteur Group(IRG), [http://www.info.gov.hk/digital21/eng/structure/irg.html] made up of experts from the Chinese-speaking countries, North and South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and other countries, is responsible for the process.
One possible rationale is the desire to limit the size of the full Unicode character set, where CJK characters as represented by discrete
ideogramsmay approach or exceed 100,000, (while those required for ordinary literacy in any language are probably under 3,000). [http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/library/u-secret.html "The secret life of Unicode"] article located on IBM DeveloperWorks attempts to illustrate part of the motivation for Han unification:
In fact, the three ideographs for "one" are encoded separately in Unicode, as they are not considered national variants. The first and second are used on financial instruments to prevent tampering, (they may be considered variants), while the third is the common form in all three countries.
However, Han unification has also caused considerable controversy, particularly among the Japanese public, who, with the nation's literati, have a history of protesting the culling of historically and culturally significant variants. (See
Kanji#Orthographic reform and lists of kanji. Today, the list of characters officially recognized for use in proper names continues to expand at a modest pace.) Since the Unihan standard encodes "graphemes", not "glyphs", the graphical artifacts produced by Unicode have been considered temporary technical hurdles, and at most, cosmetic. However, again, particularly in Japan, due in part to the way in which Chinese characters were incorporated into Japanese writing systems historically, the inability to specify a particular variant is considered a significant obstacle to the use of Unicode in scholarly work. For example, the unification of "grass" (explained above), means that a historical text cannot be encoded so as to preserve its peculiar orthography. Instead, for example, the scholar would be required to locate the desired glyph in a specific typeface in order to convey the text as written, defeating the purpose of a unified character set.
Small differences in graphical representation are also problematic when they affect legibility or the wrong cultural tradition. Besides making some Unicode fonts unusable for texts involving multiple "Unihan languages", names or other orthographically sensitive terminology might be displayed incorrectly. (Proper names tend to be especially orthographically conservative--compare this to changing the spelling of one's name to suit a language reform in the U.S. or U.K.) While this may be considered primarily a graphical representation or rendering problem to be overcome by more artful fonts, the widespread use of Unicode would make it difficult to preserve such distinctions. The problem of one character representing semantically different concepts is also present in the Latin part of Unicode. The Unicode character for an apostrophe is the same as the character for a right single quote: ’. On the other hand, it is sometimes pointed out that the capital Latin letter "A" is not unified with the Greek letter "Α" (Alpha). This is, of course, desirable for reasons of compatibility, and deals with a much smaller alphabetic character set.
While the unification aspect of Unicode is controversial in some quarters for the reasons given above, Unicode itself does now encode a vast number of seldom-used characters of a more-or-less antiquarian nature.
Some of the controversy stems from the fact that the very decision of performing Han unification was made by the initial Unicode Consortium, which at the time was a consortium of North American companies and organizations (most of them in California), [ [http://www.unicode.org/history/tenyears.html Ten Years ] ] but included no East Asia government representatives. The initial design goal was to create a 16-bit standard, and Han unification was therefore a critical step for avoiding tens of thousands of character duplications. [http://www.unicode.org/history/unicode88.pdf] This 16-bit requirement was later abandoned, making the size of the character set less an issue today.
The controversy later extended to the internationally representative ISO: the initial CJK-JRG group favored a proposal (DIS 10646) for a non-unified character set, "which was thrown out in favor of unification with the Unicode Consortium's unified character set by the votes of American and European ISO members" (even though the Japanese position was unclear). [ [http://www.jbrowse.com/text/unij.html Character Set List ] ] Endorsing the Unicode Han unification was a necessary step for the heated ISO 10646/Unicode merger.
Much of the controversy surrounding Han unification is based on the distinction between
glyphs, as defined in Unicode, and the related but distinct idea of graphemes. Unicode defines abstract characters, as opposed to glyphs, which are a particular visual representations of a character in a specific typeface, or a grapheme, the "basic unit of writing" in a given language. One character may be represented by many distinct glyphs, for example a "g" or an "a", both of which may have one loop or two. In Dutch, "ij" is a sometimes considered a single letter ( ĳ), and thus arguably a grapheme (a digraph). For example, the first letter in "IJsselmeer" is capitalized. Similarly for "ch" in some Spanish-speaking countries, and "lj" in Croatian. Graphemes present in national character code standards have been added to Unicode, as required by Unicode's Source Separation rule, even where they can be composed of characters already available. The national character code standards existing in CJK languages are considerably more involved, given the technological limitations under which they evolved, and so the official CJK participants in Han unification may well have been amenable to reform.
Unlike European versions, CJK Unicode fonts, due to Han unification, have large but irregular patterns of overlap, requiring language-specific fonts. Unfortunately, language-specific fonts also make it difficult to access to a variant which, as with the "grass" example, happens to appear more typically in another language style. (That is to say, it would be difficult to access "grass" with the four-stroke radical more typical of Traditional Chinese in a Japanese environment, which fonts would typically depict the three-stroke radical.) Unihan proponents tend to favor markup languages for defining language strings, but this would not ensure the use of a specific variant in the case given, only the language-specific font more likely to depict a character as that variant. (At this point, merely stylistic differences do enter in, as a selection of Japanese and Chinese fonts are not likely to be visually compatible.)
Chinese users seem to have fewer objections to Han unification, largely because Unicode did not attempt to unify
Simplified Chinese characters, (an invention of the People's Republic of China, and in use among Chinese speakers in the PRC, Singapore, and Malaysia), with Traditional Chinese characters, as used in Hong Kong, Taiwan ( Big5), and, with some differences, more familiar to Korean and Japanese users. Unicode is seen as neutral with regards to this politically charged issue, and has encoded Simplified and Traditional Chinese glyphs separately, (e.g. the ideograph for "discard" is 丟 U+4E1F for Traditional Chinese Big5 #A5E1 and 丢 U+4E22 for Simplified Chinese GB #2210). It is also noted that Traditional and Simplified characters should be encoded separately according to Unicode Han Unification rules, because they are distinguished in pre-existing PRC character sets. Furthermore, as with other variants, Traditional to Simplified characters is not a one-to-one relationship.
Specialist character sets developed to address, or regarded by some as not suffering from, these perceived deficiencies include:
ISO/IEC 2022(based on sequence codes to switch between Chinese, Japanese, Korean character sets - hence without unification)
CNS character set
CCCII character set
*UTF-2000First proposed in 1998. However,
as of 2005, adoption of this proposed counter-standard is nearly non-existent. There has been little definitive standardization process or documents on UTF-2000 except for some conference presentations in 2000 and 2001.]
*GCCS and its successor
However, none of these alternative standards has been as widely adopted as
Unicode, which is now the base character set for many new standards and protocols, and is built into the architecture of operating systems ( Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, and many versions of Unix), programming languages ( Perl, Python, C#, Java, Common LISP, APL), and libraries (IBM International Components for Unicode(ICU) along with the Pango, Graphite, Scribe, Uniscribe, and ATSUI rendering engines), font formats ( TrueTypeand OpenType) and so on.
Examples of language dependent characters
In each row of the following table, the same character is repeated in all five columns. However, each column is marked (via the HTML lang attribute) as being in a different language: Chinese (3 varieties: unmarked "Chinese", simplified characters, and traditional characters), Japanese, or Korean. The browser should select, for each character, a
glyph(from a font) suitable to the specified language. (Besides actual character variation--look for differences in stroke order, number, or direction--the typefaces may also reflect different typographical styles, as with serif and non-serif alphabets.) This only works for fallback glyph selection if you have CJK fonts installed on your system and the font selected to display this article does not include glyphs for these characters. Note also that Unicode includes non-graphical language tag characters in the range U+E0000 – U+E007F for plain text language tagging.
Examples of some non-unified Han ideographs
For some glyphs, Unicode has encoded variant characters, making it unnecessary to switch between fonts or language tags. In the following table, the separate rows in each group contains the Unicode equivalent character using different code points. Note that for characters such as 入 (U+5165), the only way to display the two variants is to change font (or language tag) as described in the previous table. However, for 內 (U+5167), there is an alternate character 内 (U+5185) as illustrated below. For some characters, like 兌/兑 (U+514C/U+5151), either method can be used to display the different glyphs.
Ideographic characters assigned by Unicode appear in the following blocks:
*CJK Unified Ideographs (4E00–9FFF) ()
*CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A (3400–4DBF) ()
*CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B (20000–2A6DF)
Unicode includes support of CJKV radicals, strokes, punctuation, marks and symbols in the following blocks:
CJK Radicals Supplement(2E80–2EFF)
*CJK Symbols and Punctuation (3000–303F) ()
*Ideographic Description Characters (2FF0–2FFF)
Additional compatibility (discouraged use) characters appear in these blocks:
*Enclosed CJK Letters and Months (3200–32FF) ()
*CJK Compatibility (3300–33FF) ()
*CJK Compatibility Ideographs (F900–FAFF) ()
*CJK Compatibility Ideographs (2F800–2FA1F)
*CJK Compatibility Forms (FE30–FE4F) ()
These compatibility characters are included for compatibility with legacy text handling system and other legacy character sets. They include forms of characters for vertical text layout and rich text characters that Unicode recommends handling through other means.
Unihan database files
The Unihan project always made large effort to let available their build database.
An Unihan.zip file [ [http://unicode.org/charts/unihan.html See unicode.org/charts/unihan.html] ] is provided on unicode.org, it provide all datas the unihan team have collected.
A project libUnihan (0.5.1) [ [http://libunihan.sourceforge.net/index.html See libunihan.sourceforge.net] ] provide a normalized SQLite Unihan database and corresponding C library. All tables in this database are in fifth normal form.
This 69Mo libUnihan is released as
LGPL, while its database, UnihanDb, is released as MIT License.
Chinese character encoding
List of Unicode characters/CJK Unified Ideographs
* [http://www.unicode.org/charts/unihan.html Unihan Database]
** [http://www.unicode.org/cgi-bin/GetUnihanData.pl?codepoint=4E2D Example of data for the han character "中"]
* [http://www.unicode.org/standard/standard.html Unicode standard]
* [http://www.info.gov.hk/digital21/eng/structure/irg.html IRG Page]
* [http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~irg/ IRG working documents] – many big size pdfs, some of them with details of CJK extensions
* [http://tclab.kaist.ac.kr/~otfried/Mule/unihan.html Han Unification in Unicode] by Otfried Cheong
* [http://www.hastingsresearch.com/net/04-unicode-limitations.shtml Why Unicode Won't Work on the Internet: Linguistic, Political, and Technical Limitations]
* [http://slashdot.org/features/01/06/06/0132203.shtml Why Unicode Will Work On The Internet]
* [http://people.debian.org/~kubota/unicode-unihan.html Per-character summary of differences in characters]
* [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/u-secret.html The secret life of Unicode]
* [http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=fc02e2e3-14bb-46c1-afee-3732d6249647&DisplayLang=en GB18030 Support Package for Windows 2000/XP, including Chinese, Tibetan, Yi, Mongolian and Thai font by Microsoft]
* [http://www.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n2326.pdf Proposal to encode additional grass radicals in the UCS] – A humorous proposal to encode all possible variants of the grass radical, made as an
April Fool's Dayjoke
* [http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn26/ Unicode Technical Note 26: On the Encoding of Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Han]
* [http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/unicoderevisited.html "Unicode Revisited"] – the strong point of view of some people working on the competing TRON proposal
* [http://www.jbrowse.com/text/unij.html "Unicode in Japan, guide to a technical and psychological struggle"] – A more balanced take on the arguments for and against Unicode for Japanese.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Han Unification — Beispiel für Han Vereinheitlichung: das Ideogramm 次 in Kurzzeichen, Langzeichen, Kanji und Hanja (von links nach rechts) Mit dem Begriff Han Vereinheitlichung (engl. Han unification) wird in der Informatik die Vereinheitlichung der chinesischen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Han unification — Beispiel für Han Vereinheitlichung: das Ideogramm 次 in Kurzzeichen, Langzeichen, Kanji und Hanja (von links nach rechts) Mit dem Begriff Han Vereinheitlichung (engl. Han unification) wird in der Informatik die Vereinheitlichung der chinesischen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Han — may refer to: China * Chinese (漢), an abbreviation or adjectival modifier for things Chinese. * Han Chinese (漢族 Hanzu , 漢人 Hanren ), the dominant majority ethnic group of China and overseas Chinese. * Chinese language (漢語 Hanyu ) or Chinese… … Wikipedia
Han-Vereinheitlichung — Beispiel für Han Vereinheitlichung: das Ideogramm 次 in Kurzzeichen, Langzeichen, Kanji und Hanja (von links nach rechts) Mit dem Begriff Han Vereinheitlichung (englisch Han unification) wird in der Informatik die Vereinheitlichung der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Unification Church — Hangul 통일교회 Hanja 統一敎會 Revised Romanization … Wikipedia
Han Fei — Zi Han Fei Zi (韩非), philosophe et penseur politique chinois (mort en 233 av. J. C.) du courant légiste, ayant vécu à la fin de la période des Royaumes combattants. Selon lui, l ordre et la prospérité ne peuvent être apportés que par un État fort … Wikipédia en Français
Han Fei Zi — (韓非), philosophe et penseur politique chinois (mort en 233 av. J. C.) du courant légiste, ayant vécu à la fin de la période des Royaumes combattants. Selon lui, l ordre et la prospérité ne peuvent être apportés que par un État fort, qui repose… … Wikipédia en Français
Han River (Korea) — Han (한강/漢江) River The Han River in Seoul … Wikipedia
Han (Etat) — Han (État) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Han. Histoire de la Chine … Wikipédia en Français
Han (groupe ethnique) — Han (ethnie) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hans. Hans (en sinogrammes simplifiés 汉 ; en sinogrammes traditionnels 漢 ; en pinyin hàn) … Wikipédia en Français