List of rulers of Estonia

The Rulers of Estonia is a list of the rulers of Estonia throughout the history.Starting with the ancient Counties and Parishes each headed by "Seniores" and "Meliores" (Elders) as noted by Henry of Livonia. The highest political institutions in Estonia during ancient times were Councils of Elders. The administrative jurisdiction of the parish and county elders were limited, the counties themselves remained autonomous [cite book |last=Raun |first=Toivo |title=Estonia and the Estonians |location=Stanford |publisher=Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University |year=2001 |pages=p. 12 |isbn=0817928529] until the German and Danish conquest in the 13th century. Ending with the states and the rulers of states (starting from the time of the first successful Danish conquest in 1219) who either ruled or laid claims of sovereignty over some parts of the territory of present day Estonia, as well as the leaders of the independent Republic of Estonia since 1918.

Ancient Counties and Parishes


= Sakala =

Title: Elder (- 1223)
* before 1211–21 September 1217 Lembitu
* 21 September 1217 - ? Unnepeve
* Meeme

Alempois

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Harria ("Harju")

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Jerwia ("Järva")

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Rotalia ("Läänemaa")

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Nurmekund

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Ugandi

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Vaiga

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Virumaa

Title: Elder (- 1224)
* Kyriavanus
* Tabelinus

Revelia ("Revala")

Title: Elder (- 1224)

Osilia ("Saaremaa")

Title: Elder - It is probable that these men, whose names appear on a treaty with the Order of the Brethern of the Sword in 1251, were the chiefs of administrative units on Saaremaa, Muhu, and Sõrve. Their "signatures" were, in all likelihood, phonetically "Latinized" by the authors of the document.

*Ylle
*Culle
*Enu
*Muntelene
*Tappete
*Yalde
*Melete
*Cake

= Bishoprics =

Bishopric of Dorpat

Title: Bishop and Lord, Rulers over Ugenois with Waigel, Sobolitz, Saccala with Moicke, Alumbus and Nurmegunde (1224 – 1558)

*1224 - 1247 Hermann I
*1247 - 1251 Vacant
*1263 - 1268 Alexander
*1268 - 1288 Friedrich
*1289 - 1302 Bernhard
*1302 - 1312 Dietrich Vyshusen
*1313 - 1323 Nikolaus
*1323 - 1341 Engelbert von Dolen
*1342 - 1344 Wescelus
*1346 - 1373 Johannes Viffhusen
*1373 - 1378 Heinrich Velde
*1378 - 1400 Dietrich III Damerow
*1400 - 1410 Heinrich Wrangel
*1410 - 1413 Bernhard Bülow
*1413 - 1441 Dietrich IV Resler
*1441 - 1459 Bartholomäus Savijerwe
*1459 - 1468 Helmich von Mallinkrodt
*1468 - 1473 Andreas Pepler
*1473 - 1485 Johannes Bertkow
*1485 - 1498 Dietrich Hake
*1499 - 1505 Johannes III von der Rope
*1505 - 1513 Gerhard Schrove
*1513 - 1514 Johannes Duesborg
*1514 - 1518 Christian Bomhower
*1518 - 1527 Johann Blankenfeld
*1528 - 1543 Johannes VII Bey
*1543 - 1551 Jodokus von der Recke
*1554 - 1558 Hermann II Wesel
*1552 - 1558 Hermann II Wesel

Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek

Title: Bishop, Rulers over Osilia and Rotalia (1 October 1228 – 1559)

* 1228-1229 Gottfried
* "Vacant"
* 1234-1260? Heinrich I
* 1262-1285? Hermann I
* 1290?-1294 Heinrich II
* "Vacant"
* 1297?-1307? Konrad I
* "Vacant"
* 1310-1321 Hartung
* 1322-1337 Jakob
* 1338-1362 Hermann II Osenbrügge
* 1363-1374 Konrad II
* 1374-1381 Heinrich III
* "Vacant"
* 1385-1419 Winrich von Kniprode
* 1420-1423 Kaspar Schuwenflug
* 1423-1432 Christian Kuband
* 1432-1438 Johann I Schutte
* 1439-1458 Ludolf Grove (in Saaremaa (Ösel) and Hiiumaa (Dagö) 1449-1457 with Johann II Creul)
* 1449-1457 Johann II Creul (in Läänemaa (Wiek))
* "Vacant"
* 1460-1471 Jodokus Hoenstein
* 1471-1491 Peter Wetberch
* 1491-1515 Johann III Orgas
* 1515-1527 Johann IV Kyvel
* 1527-1530 Georg von Tiesenhausen
* 1532-1541 Reinhold Buxhoewden
* 1542-1560 Johann V von Münchhausen 1542-1560
* 1560-1572 Magnus, Duke of Holstein (Protestant bishop)

= States =

Kievan Rus'

Title: Grand Prince Rulers over parts of Ugaunia (1030 - 1061)

* 1030–1054 Jaroslav Tark
* 1054–1061 Izjaslav I


= Kingdom of Denmark =

Title: King (1219–1346) Rulers over Harria and Vironia

*1219-1241 : Valdemar II Võitja
*1241-1250 : Erik IV Plovpenning
*1250-1252 : Abel
*1252-1259 : Christoffer I
*1259-1286 : Erik V Glipping
*1286-1320 : Erik VI Menved
*1320-1326 : Christoffer II
*1326-1329 : Valdemar III
*1329-1332 : Christoffer II
*1332-1340 : interregnum
*1340-1346 : Valdemar IV Atterdag

Livonian Order

Title: Grand Master of Livonia (1237–1561) Rulers over Saccala or Sackalia (fiefdom of the Bishopric of Dorpat and Jervia

* 1237-1238 Hermann Balk "(Balke)"
* 1238-1241 Dietrich von Grüningen
* 1241-1244 Andreas von Velven "(Felben)"
* 1244-1245 Heinrich von Heimburg
* 1245-1247 Dietrich von Grüningen
* 1247-1253 Andreas von Stirland
* 1253-1254 Eberhard von Seine "(Seyn)"
* 1254-1257 Anno von Sangershausen
* 1257-1261 Burchard von Hornhausen
* 1261 ....... Georg von Eichstadt
* 1261-1263 Werner von Breithausen
* 1263-1266 Konrad von Mandern "(Manstadt)"
* 1266-1270 Otto von Lutterberg
* 1271 ....... Andreas von Westphalen
* 1271-1273 Walther von Nordeck "(Nortecken)"
* 1273-1279 Ernst von Ratzeburg "(Rassburg)"
* 1279-1280 Gerhard von Katzenelnbogen
* 1280-1282 Konrad von Feuchtwangen
* 1282 ....... Mangold von Sternberg "(Manhold von Sternberg)"
* 1282-1288 Wilhelm von Nindorf "(Wilken von Endorp, Willekin von Endorp)"
* 1288-1290 Konrad von Hazzigenstein "(Konrad von Hattstein, Konrad von Herzogenstein)"
* 1290-1293 Halt von Hohembach "(Balthasar Holte)"
* 1294-1295 Heinrich von Dinkelaghe "(Heinrich II von Dumpshagen)"
* 1296-1298 Bruno
* 1298-1305 Gottfried von Rogge
* 1305-1306 Wennemar I
* 1307-1322 Gerhard von Jork "(Gerhard II von Jocke, Conrad von Jocke or Conrad von Jorke)"
* 1322-1324 Konrad Kesselhut "(Konrad Ketelhoed, Johannes Ungenade)"
* 1324-1328 Reimar Hane
* 1328-1340 Eberhard von Monheim
* 1340-1345 Burchard von Dreileben
* 1345-1359 Goswin von Herike
* 1359-1364 Arnold von Vietinghof
* 1364-1385 Wilhelm von Friemersheim "(Vrymersheim, Vrimersheim)"
* 1385-1388 Robin von Eltz
* 1388-1389 Johann von Ohle
* 1389-1401 Wennemar von Bruggenei "(Wennemar Hasenkamp von Brüggeneye, Wolmer von Brüggeney)"
* 1401-1413 Konrad von Vietinghof
* 1413-1415 Dietrich Tork
* 1415-1424 Siegfried Lander von Spanheim
* 1424-1433 Cysse von Rutenberg "(Zisse, Cisse von dem Rutenberg)"
* 1433-1435 Frank von Kersdorf
* 1435-1437 Heinrich von Bockenvorde "(Schüngel)"
* 1438-1450 Heinrich Vincke von Oberbergen "(Overberg)"
* 1450-1469 Johann von Mengeden "(Osthoff)"
* 1470-1471 Johann Wolthus von Herse
* 1471-1483 Bernhard von der Borch
* 1483-1494 Johann Freitag von Loringhoven
* 1494-1535 Wolter von Plettenberg
* 1535-1549 Hermann von Bruggenei "(Hermann Hasenkamp von Brüggeneye)"
* 1549-1551 Johann von der Recke
* 1551-1557 Heinrich von Galen
* 1557-1559 Johann Wilhelm von Fürstenberg
* 1559-1561 Gotthard Kettler

Kingdom of Poland

Title: King (1561 – 1569)

Jagiellon Dynasty

* 1561-1569 Sigismund II Augustus

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Title: King (1569 – 1572)

Jagiellon Dynasty

* 1569-1572 Sigismund II Augustus

Title: Electoral King (1572 - 1586)

* 1572-1573 Henryk II Walezy

* 1576-1586 Stefan I Batory

Title: King (1587 – 1660)

House of Vasa

* 1587–1632 Sigismund III; known also as Sigismund of Sweden
* 1632-1648 Władysław IV Waza
* 1648-1660 Jan II Kazimierz

Swedish Governors

*1561 - 1562 Lars Ivarsson Fleming
*1562 - 1562 Henrik Klasson Horn
*1562 - 1564 Swante Stenson Sture
*1564 - 1565 Hermann Pederson Fleming
*1565 - 1568 Henrik Klasson Horn
*1568 - 1570 Gabriel Kistiernsson
*1570 - 1572 Hans Björnson
*1572 - 1574 Claes Åkeson Tott
*1574 - 1575 Pontus de la Gardie
*1576 - 1578 Karl Henriksson Horn
*1576 - 1577 Nilsson Hans Erikson Finne
*1577 - 1580 Göran Boije af Gennäs
*1580 - 1581 Swante Erikson Stolarn
*1582 - 1583 Göran Boije
*1583 - 1585 Pontus De la Gardie
*1585 - 1588 Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna
*1588 - 1588 Hans Wachtmeister
*1588 - 1590 Gustaf Axelson Banér
*1590 - 1592 Erik Gabrielsson Oxenstierna
*1592 - 1600 Göran Boije
*1600 - 1601 Karl Henriksson Horn
*1601 - 1602 Moritz Stensson Leijonhufvud
*1605 - 1608 Axel Nilsson Ryning
*1611 - 1617 Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna
*1617 - 1619 Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud
*1619 - 1622 Jacob de la Gardie
*1622 - 1626 Per Gustafsson Banér
*1626 - 1628 Johan Pontusson
*1628 - 1642 Philipp Scheiding
*1642 - 1646 Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna
*1646 - 1653 Erik Axelson Oxenstierna
*1653 - 1655 Heinrich von Thurn-Valsassina
*1655 - 1656 Wilhelm Ulrich
*1656 - 1674 Bengt Klasson Horn
*1674 - 1681 Andreas Lennartson Torstensson
*1681 - 1687 Robert Johannson Lichton
*1687 - 1704 Axel Julius De la Gardie
*1704 - 1706 Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach
*1706 - 1709 Niels Jonsson Stromberg af Clastorp
*1709 - 1710 Carl Gustaf von Nieroth

Russian Governors

*1710 - 1711 Rudolph Felix Bauer - General-Governor
*1711 - 1719 Prince Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov - General-Governor
*1719 - 1728 Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin - General-Governor
*1728 - 1736 Friedrich Baron von Löwen
*1736 - 1738 Sebastian Ernst von Manstein
*1738 - 1740 Gustaf Otto Douglas
*1740 - 1743 Woldemar von Löwendahl
*1743 - 1753 Peter August Friedrich von Holstein-Beck (1696-1775)
*1753 - 1758 Prince Vladimir Petrovich Dolgorukiy
*1758 - 1775 Peter August Friedrich von Holstein-Beck - General-Governor
*1775 - 1792 Count George Browne - General-Governor
*1783 - 1786 Georg Friedrich von Grotenhielm
*1786 - 1797 Heinrich Johann Baron von Wrangell
*1797 - 1808 Andreas von Langell
*1808 - 1809 Peter Friedrich Georg von Oldenburg (1784-1812)
*1809 - 1811 Vacant
*1811 - 1816 Grand Duke Paul Friedrich August von Oldenburg (1783-1853)
*1816 - 1819 Berend Baron Üxküll
*1819 - 1832 Gotthard Wilhelm Baron Budberg von Bönninghausen
*1832 - 1833 Otto Wilhelm von Essen
*1833 - 1841 Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff
*1842 - 1859 Johann Christoph Engelbrecht von Grünewaldt
*1859 - 1868 Wilhelm Otto Cornelius Alexander Ulrich
*1868 - 1870 Mikhail Nikolaiyevich Galkin-Vraskoy
*1870 - 1875 Prince Mikhail Valentinovich Shakhovskoiy-Glebov-Strezhnev
*1875 - 1885 Viktor Petrovich Polivanov
*1885 - 1894 Prince Sergey Vladimirovich
*1894 - 1902 Yefstafiy Nikolaiyevich Skalon
*1902 - 1905 Aleksey Valerianovich Bellegarde
*1905 - 1906 Nikolay Georgiyevich von Bünting
*1906 - 1907 Pyotr Petrovich Bashilov
*1907 - 1915 Izmail Vladimirovich Korostovetch
*1915 - 1917 Pyotr Vladimirovich Veryovkin

Russian Provisional Government, 1917

Title: Chairman (1917)

*Georgy Evgenyevich Lvov (15 March (2 March) - 21 July (8 July) 1917)

Title: Prime Minister (1917)

*Aleksandr Kerensky (21 July (8 July) - 7 November (25 October) 1917)


= German State =

Title: Emperor (1917–1918)

Hohenzollern

*Wilhelm II (October 1917 - 9 November 1918)

The October Revolution of 1917 era

(independent "de facto")

Title: Chairman of the Soviet Executive Committee of Estonia ("Eestimaa Nõukogude Täitevkomitee esimees") (1917–1918)

*Jaan Anvelt (5 November (23 October) 1917 - 4 March 1918)

(independent "de jure")

Title: Gouvernement Commissioner ("Kubermangukomissar") (1917 - 1918)

*Jaan Poska (28 November (15 November) 1917 - 24 February 1918)

Soviet Republic of Naissaar

Title: Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars ("Rahvakomissaride Nõukogu esimees") (1917 - 1918)

* Stepan Petrichenko (December 1917 - 26 February 1918)

Republic of Estonia

Title: Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Estonia ("Peaminister") (1918 - 1919)

*Konstantin Päts (24 February 1918 - 9 May 1919)

Title: Prime Minister ("Peaminister") (1919 - 1920)

*Otto August Strandman (9 May - 18 November 1919)
*Jaan Tõnisson (18 November 1919 - 28 July 1920)
*Ado (Aadu) Birk (28 July - 30 July 1920)
*Jaan Tõnisson (30 July - 26 October 1920)
*Ants Piip (26 October - 20 December 1920)

Title: Head of State ("Riigivanem") (1920 - 1934)

*Ants Piip (20 December 1920-25 January 1921)
*Konstantin Päts (25 January 1921-21 November 1922)
*Juhan (Johann) Kukk (21 November 1922-2 August 1923)
*Konstantin Päts (2 August 1923-26 March 1924)
*Friedrich Karl Akel (26 March 1924-16 December 1924)
*Jüri Jaakson (16 December 1924-15 December 1925)
*Jaan Teemant (15 December 1925-9 December 1927)
*Jaan Tõnisson (9 December 1927-4 December 1928)
*August Rei (4 December 1928-9 July 1929)
*Otto August Strandman (9 July 1929-12 February 1931)
*Konstantin Päts (12 February 1931-19 February 1932)
*Jaan Teemant (19 February 1932-19 July 1932)
*Kaarel Eenpalu (19 July 1932-1 November 1932)
*Konstantin Päts (1 November 1932-18 May 1933)
*Jaan Tõnisson (18 May 1933-21 October 1933)
*Konstantin Päts (21 October 1933-24 January 1934)

Title: Prime Minister acting Head of State ("Peaminister Riigivanema ülesannetes") (1934 - 1937)

*Konstantin Päts (24 January 1934 - 3 September 1937)

Title: President-Regent ("Riigihoidja") (1937 - 1938)

*Konstantin Päts (3 September 1937 - 24 April 1938)

Title: President of the Republic (1938 - 1940)

*Konstantin Päts (24 April 1938 - 21 June 1940)
*Johannes Vares (21 June21 July 1940 (Prime Minister acting as the President of Repuvblic, Soviet-installed collaborant)

Title: Prime Minister acting President ("Peaminister Vabariigi Presidendi ülesandeis") (1940 - 1992)

*Jüri Uluots (21 June 19409 January 1945)
*August Rei (9 January 194529 March 1963)
*Aleksander Varma (Warma) (30 March 196323 December 1970)
*Tõnis Kint (23 December 19701 March 1990)
*Heinrich Mark (1 March 199015 September 1992)

Title: Acting Prime Minister ("Peaministri asetäitja") (since 1944)

*Otto Tief (18 September 1944 - 12 January 1944, since 10 October 1944 Soviet prisoner)
*Johannes Sikkar
*Aleksander Warma
*Tõnis Kint
*Heinrich Mark
*Enno Penno

Title: Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia (in the body of Soviet Union) (1990 - 1991)

*Arnold Rüütel (8 May 1990 - 20 August 1991)

Title: Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia ("Eesti Vabariigi Ülemnõukogu esimees") (1991 - 1992)

*Arnold Rüütel (20 August 1991 - 6 October 1992)

Title: President (since 1992)

*Lennart Georg Meri (6 October 1992 - 8 October 2001)
*Arnold Rüütel (8 October 2001 - 9 October 2006)
*Toomas Hendrik Ilves (since 9 October 2006)

Baltic Duchy

Title: Regent Councillor (1918)

*Adolf Pilar von Pilchau (9 November - 19 November 1918)

Commune of the Working People of Estonia

Title: Chairman of the Council of The Commune of the Working People of Estonia ("Eesti Töörahva Komuuna Nõukogu esimees") (1918 - 1919)

*Jaan Anvelt (29 November 1918 - 5 June 1919)

Estonian SSR

Title: Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Estonian SSR ("Eesti NSV Ülemnõukogu Presiidiumi esimees") (1940 - 1988)

*Johannes Vares-Barbarus (21 July 1940 - 29 November 1946)
*Nigol Andresen (1946 - 1947)
*Eduard Päll (1947 - 1950)
*August Jakobson (1950 - 1958)
*Johan Eichfeld (1958 - 1961)
*Aleksei Müürisepp (1961 - 7 October 1970)
*Aleksander Ansberg (1970)
*Artur Vader (22 December 197025 May 1978)
*Meta Vannas (acting chairman; 1978)
*Johannes Käbin (1978 - 1983)
*Arnold Rüütel (1983 - 16 November 1988)

Title: Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Estonian SSR (independent) (1988 - 1990)

*Arnold Rüütel (16 November 1988 - 8 May 1990)

Soviet Union

Title: Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ("NLKP Keskkomitee peasekretär") (1940 - 1991)

*Joseph Stalin (1940 - 1953)

*Lavrenty Beria (1953)
*Nikita Khrushchev (1953 - 1964)
*Leonid Brezhnev (1964 - 1982)
*Yuri Andropov (1982 - 1984)
*Konstantin Chernenko (1984 - 1985)
*Mikhail Gorbachev (1985 - 1991)


= Great-German State =

("Reichskommissariat Ostland")

Title: "Führer und Reichskanzler" (1941 - 1944)

*Adolf Hitler (7 July 1941 - 24 November 1944)

References

See also

*History of Estonia
*List of Estonian presidents
*List of Swedish monarchs
*List of Russian rulers
*Lists of incumbents


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