Alexander Kerensky

Alexander Kerensky

Infobox Officeholder
name = Alexander Kerensky
Алекса́ндр Ке́ренский


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nationality = Russian
order = 2nd Minister-Chairman of the Russian Provisional Government
term_start = July 21, 1917
term_end = November 8, 1917
predecessor = Georgy Lvov
successor = Vladimir Lenin smaller|(as Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars)
order2 = Prime Minister of Russia
term_start2 = July 21, 1917
term_end2 = November 8, 1917
predecessor2 = Georgy Lvov
successor2 = "position dissolved"
birth_date = May 4, 1881
birth_place = Simbirsk, Russian Empire
death_date = June 11, 1970 (aged 89)
death_place = New York City, United States
profession = Politician
party = Socialist Revolutionary

Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky ( _ru. Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский, "Aleksandr Fjëdorovich Kerenskij") (OldStyleDate|May 4|1881|April 22ndash June 11, 1970) served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until Vladimir Lenin was elected by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets following the October Revolution.

Early life and activism

Kerensky, a son of a headmaster, was born in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk), the same town as Lenin (then Ulyanov). At one point Kerensky's father, Fyodor, had taught the young Vladimir Ulyanov at Kazan University. Kerensky graduated with a degree in Law from St. Petersburg University in 1904. He showed his political allegiances early on, with his frequent defense of anti-Tsarist revolutionaries. He was elected to the Fourth Duma in 1912 as a member of the Trudoviks, a moderate labour party who were associated with the Socialist Revolutionary Party. A brilliant orator and skilled parliamentary leader, he became a member of the Provisional Committee of the Duma as a Socialist Revolutionary and a leader of the socialist opposition to the regime of the ruling Tsar, Nicholas II.

February Revolution of 1917

When the February Revolution broke out in 1917, Kerensky was one of its most prominent leaders, and was elected vice-chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. He simultaneously became the first Minister of Justice in the newly-formed Provisional Government. When the Soviet passed a resolution prohibiting its leaders from joining the government, Kerensky delivered a stirring speech at a Soviet meeting. Although the decision was never formalized, he was granted a "de facto" exemption and continued acting in both capacities. The New York banker Jacob Schiff made large loans to Kerensky's government.

After the first government crisis over Pavel Milyukov's secret note re-committing Russia to its original war aims on May 2-4, Kerensky became the Minister of War and the dominant figure in the newly formed socialist-liberal coalition government. Under Allied pressure to continue the war, he launched what became known as the Kerensky Offensive against the Austro-Hungarian/German South Army on June 17, Old Style. At first successful, the offensive was soon stopped and then thrown back by a strong counter-attack. The Russian Army suffered heavy losses and it was clear - from many incidents of desertion, sabotage, and mutiny - that the Russian Army was no longer willing to attack.

Kerensky was heavily criticised by the military for his liberal policies, which included stripping officers of their mandate (handing overriding control to revolutionary inclined "soldier committees" instead), the abolition of the death penalty, and the presence of various revolutionary agitators at the front. Many officers jokingly referred to commander in chief Kerensky as "persuader in chief". Kerensky was also described as having "the heart of a lion and the brains of a sheep"Fact|date=September 2008.

On July 2, 1917, the first coalition collapsed over the question of Ukraine's autonomy. Following widespread unrest in Petrograd and suppression of the Bolsheviks, Kerensky succeeded Prince Lvov as Russia's Prime Minister. Following the Kornilov Affair at the end of August and the resignation of the other ministers, he appointed himself Supreme Commander-in-Chief as well. He retained his other posts in the short-lived Directory in September and the final coalition government in October 1917 until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks.

Kerensky's major challenge was that Russia was exhausted after three years of war, while the provisional government did not offer much motivation for a victory outside of continuing Russia's obligations towards its allies. Furthermore, Lenin and his Bolshevik party were promising "peace, land, and bread" under a communist system. The army was disintegrating due to a lack of discipline, which fostered desertion in large numbers.

Kerensky and the other political leaders continued their obligation to Russia's allies by continuing involvement in World War I - fearing that the economy, already under huge stress from the war effort, might become increasingly unstable if vital supplies from France and the United Kingdom were to be cut off. Some also feared that Germany would demand enormous territorial concessions as the price for peace (which indeed happened in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk). The dilemma of whether to withdraw was a great one, and Kerensky's inconsistent and impractical policies further destabilized the army and the country at large.

Furthermore, Kerensky adopted a policy that isolated the right-wing conservatives, both democratic and monarchist-oriented. His philosophy of "no enemies to the left" greatly empowered the Bolsheviks and gave them a free hand, allowing them to take over the military arm or "voyenka" of the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets. His arrest of Kornilov and other officers left him without strong allies against the Bolsheviks, who ended up being Kerensky's strongest and most determined adversaries, as opposed to the right wing, which evolved into the White movement.

October Revolution of 1917

During the Kornilov Affair, Kerensky had distributed arms to the Petrograd workers, and by October most of these armed workers had gone over to the Bolsheviks. On October 25 1917 - October 27 1917 the Bolsheviks launched the second Russian revolution of the year. Kerensky's government in Petrograd had almost no support in the city. Only one small force, the First Petrograd Women's Battalion, was willing to fight for the government against the Bolsheviks, but this force too crossed over to the revolution without firing a single shot. It took less than 20 hours before the Bolsheviks had taken over the government.

Kerensky escaped the Bolsheviks and went to Pskov, where he rallied some loyal troops for an attempt to retake the capital. His troops managed to capture Tsarskoe Selo, but were beaten the next day at Pulkovo. Kerensky narrowly escaped, and spent the next few weeks in hiding before fleeing the country, eventually arriving in France. During the Russian Civil War he supported neither side, as he opposed both the Bolshevik regime and the White Movement.

Life in exile

Kerensky lived in Paris until 1940, engaged in the endless splits and quarrels of the exiled Russian democratic leaders. In 1939, Kerensky married the former Australian journalist Lydia ‘Nell' Tritton. [ [http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A160496b.htm Tritton, Lydia Ellen (1899 - 1946) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online ] ] When the Germans overran France at the start of World War II, they escaped to the United States.Tritton and Kerensky married at Martins Creek, Pennsylvania.In 1945, his wife became terminally ill. He traveled with her to Brisbane, Australia and lived there with her family until her death in February 1946. Thereafter he returned to the United States, where he lived for the rest of his life.

When Adolf Hitler's forces invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, Kerensky offered his support to Stalin, but received no reply. Instead, he made broadcasts in Russian in support of the war effort. After the war he organized a group called the Union for the Liberation of Russia, but this achieved little support.Fact|date=February 2007

Kerensky eventually settled in New York City, but spent much of his time at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University in California, where he both used and contributed to the Institution's huge archive on Russian history, and where he taught graduate courses. He wrote and broadcast extensively on Russian politics and history. His last public speech was delivered at Kalamazoo College, in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Kerensky's major works include "The Prelude to Bolshevism" (1919) ISBN 0-8383-1422-8 , "The Catastrophe" (1927), "The Crucifixion of Liberty" (1934) and "Russia and History's Turning Point" (1965).

Kerensky died at his home in New York City in 1970, one of the last surviving major participants in the turbulent events of 1917. The local Russian Orthodox Churches in New York refused to grant Kerensky burial, seeing him as being a freemason and being largely responsible for Russia falling to the Bolsheviks. A Serbian Orthodox Church also refused. Kerensky's body was then flown to London where he was buried at Putney Vale's non-denominational cemetery.

One of Kerensky's sons was the engineer Oleg Kerensky.

References

* R. Abraham, "Kerensky: First Love of the Revolution", Columbia University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-231-06108-0
* M. Nissenson, "The Lady Upstairs: Dorothy Schiff and the New York Post", St. Martin's Press, 2007. 13-ISBN 978-0312313104

External links

* [http://www.stanfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2001/janfeb/features/kerensky.html An account of Kerensky at Stanford in the 1950s]
*imdb name|id=0449292|name=Alexander Kerensky
* [http://www.kerensky.org.uk/ Alexander Kerensky Museum in London]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/preludetobolshev008537mbp The Prelude To Bolshevism: The Kornilov Rising] (1919)
* [http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/kerensky/1927/catastrophe/index.htm The Catastrophe] (1927)
* [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0312313101/ref=sib_cap_pdp_pg/002-3065255-2668032?ie=UTF8&keywords=Jacob%20Schiff&p=S00O&checkSum=A2PuY2NiwVh6fh%2BX7IcgOQ99Qc1LzMWKaLy2xdtgBv0%3D#reader-page Excerpt from the book "The Lady Upstairs", about contribution from Jacob Schiff]


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