Agricultural education

Agricultural education is instruction about crop production, livestock management, soil and water conservation, and various other aspects of agriculture. Agricultural education includes instruction in food education, such as nutrition. Agricultural and food education improves the quality of life for all people by helping farmers increase production, conserve resources, and provide nutritious foods.

There are four major fields of agricultural education:
* Elementary agriculture education
* Secondary agricultural education
* College agricultural education
* General education in agricultureElementary agriculture is taught in public schools and private schools, and deals with such subjects as how plants and animals grow and how soil is farmed and conserved. Vocational agricultural trains people for jobs in such areas as production, marketing, and conservation. College agriculture involves training of people to teach, conduct research, or provide information to advance the field of agriculture and food science in other ways. General education agriculture informs the public about food and agriculture.

In the United States

The chief sources of agriculture education in the United States are:
*High Schools
*Community Colleges
*Universities and colleges
*Youth organization
* 10x15

High schools

"High Schools" in every state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands provide vocational agriculture training for over half a million students yearly (2007). Most high school agriculture courses offer both classroom instruction and practical experience. For example, a student might raise a crop or an animal, work on a farm, or work for an agriculture business, such as a machinery dealer. Many schools offer adult education courses to help people improve their production, management, and computer skills.

Colleges and universities

"Colleges and Universities" award about 21,000 bachelor's degrees in agriculture each year (1988). About 6,000 other students receive a master's or doctor's degree (1988).

Land-grant universities

Land-grant universities award more than three-quarters of all agricultural degrees (1988). These state schools receive federal aid under legislation that followed the Morrill Act of 1862, which granted public lands to support agricultural or mechanical education. Land-grant universities have three chief functions:
*Teaching.
*Research.
*Extension service.

Teaching

Colleges of agriculture prepare students for careers in all aspects of the food and agricultural system. Some career choices include food science and veterinary science, farming, ranching, teaching, marketing, management, and social services.

The Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), the largest national education association dedicated to the advancement of education that prepares youth and adults for careers, provides [http://www.acteonline.org/members/techniques/articlesbyagri.cfm resources for agricultural education] .

Research

Each land-grant university has an agricultural experiment station equipped with laboratories and experimental farms. There, agricultural scientists work to develop better farming methods, solve the special problems of local farmers, and provide new technology. Research published in scholarly journals about agricultural safety is available from the NIOSH-supported National Agricultural Safety Database. The American Dairy Science Association provides research and education scholarships focused on the dairy farm and processing industries.

cholarly Journals

* [http://www.nactateachers.org/nacjournal.htm North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture Journal]
* [http://jds.fass.org Journal of Dairy Science]

Extension Service

The Cooperative Extension System is a partnership of the federal, state, and county governments. This service distributes information gathered by the land-grant universities and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to farmers, families, and young people. County extension agents, located in most countries (1988), train and support about 3 million (1988) volunteer leaders. Agents and volunteers carry out extension programs through meetings, workshops, newsletters, radio, television, and visits.

Youth organizations

"Youth organizations" involved in agricultural education include 4-H and National FFA Organization (FFA). Members of 4-H carry out group and individual projects dealing with conservation, food and agriculture, health and safety, and other subjects. The 4-H program in the United States is part of the Cooperative Extension Service and has about 6 million members (2006). More than just a club, the FFA is an integral part of the program of agricultural education in many high schools as a result of Public Law 740 in 1950 (Currently revised as Publication 105-225 of the 105th Congress of the United States), with 500,823 FFA members (2007-2008). Local chapters participate in Career Development Events (individually and as a team), each student has a Supervised Agricultural Experience program (SAE), and participates in many conferences and conventions to develop leadership, citizenship, patriotism and excellence in agriculture. The National FFA Organization is structured from the local chapter up, including local districts, areas, regions, state associations, and the national level. The FFA Mission is to make a positive difference in the lives of students by developing their potential for premier leadership, personal growth, and career success through agricultural education.

History

The rapid growth of agricultural education began during the late 1800s. In 1862, the United States Congress created the Department of Agriculture to gather and distribute agricultural information. The Morrill Act, which provided the land-grant schools, became law that same year. The Hatch Act of 1887 gave federal funds to establish agricultural experiment stations. The first dairy school in the U.S. was created at the University of Wisconsin in 1890. [cite web |url=http://www.wisc.edu/dysci/images/DairyScienceHistoryPoster.pdf |title=A Century of Excellence in Education and Discovery |accessdate=2008-08-27 |author=L.H. Schultz |coauthors=D.A. Wieckert; C.C. Olson; W.T. Howard; D.P. Dickson |publisher=UW-Wisconsin |quote=Stephen Babcock established the first 'Dairy School' in the nation in 1890.]
*Government support for agricultural education has increased during the 1900s. For example, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 created what is now the Cooperative Extension System (1988). The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 and the George-Barden Act of 1946 financed high-school instruction in farming. The Vocational Education Act of 1963 funded training in other fields of agriculture.
*Agricultural science and education expanded after 1900 in response to a need for more technical knowledge and skill. This development led to the use of modern farming methods that required fewer farmworkers. Another major result of this change was the creation of larger farms and ranches. This development increased the need for more agriculture science and education.

In other countries

The history of agricultural education predates USA activities and derives from, the development of Scottish, Italian and German colleges. The land grant approach of the USA owes much to the Scottish system in particular. Changes in higher agricultural education around the world today are highlighting implicit approaches that have hampered development and exceptional advances that have fed the world. the process has been described in one text (below) which takes a global perspective.

Agricultural education in other countries resembles that in the United States. Canada has its own 4-H program. Agriculture Canada distributes information on new farming methods and maintains experimental farms, research stations, and research institutions throughout the country. In Australia, each state has several agricultural research stations and an extension service. Great Britain has a program of youth clubs called Young Farmer's Clubs that resemble 4-H. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations works to train people throughout the world in modern farming methods. The United States gives technical assistance to farmers in developing nations through its Agency for International Development (AID).

10x15

"By 2015 there will be in operation 10,000 quality agricultural science education programs serving students through an integrated model of classroom/laboratory instruction, experiential learning, and leadership and personal skill development. Further, all students will be members of the FFA and have a supervised agricultural experience that supports classroom and laboratory instruction." -Team Ag Ed

The Case for Growth and Quality in Agricultural Education

Of the critical issues facing the nation, few are more compelling than improving the academic performance of public schools and ensuring a stable, safe and affordable food supply. Today agricultural education is positioned to contribute substantially in these arenas through a major national initiative. Under the direction of The National Council for Agricultural Education, the “10x15 Long Range Goal for Agricultural Education” employs a comprehensive strategy engaging eight high-priority initiatives. The focus of the unprecedented effort is two-fold: create new programs in communities not yet served by agricultural education and FFA, and ensure the quality and high performance of current programs providing personal, academic and career education in agriculture. While the goal of “10x15” is to grow the number of agricultural education programs from 7,200 to 10,000 by the year 2015, the clear emphasis is on quality.

Several factors make this effort timely and essential. First, the public’s expectations for higher student achievement are leading to dramatic increases in accountability, standards, rigor and relevance throughout education. Especially critical is the need to raise math and science proficiency. Second, the industry of agriculture, already concerned about meeting growing domestic and global demands for food and fiber, is eager to identify the future managers, leaders and workers who will ensure the future security and productivity of agriculture. A forecasted shortage of well-educated workers is adding urgency to the issue. Also, concerns about food safety, security and independence are registering at the highest levels of agribusiness and government. Lastly, local communities are intent on cultivating leadership and securing effective participation from their citizens. Through the intra-curricular programs of agricultural education and the FFA, a half-million students are developing skills in leadership, communication, team building and civic engagement. They will be prepared to provide for the social, economic and cultural well-being of small communities and large urban centers alike.

The work of “10x15” is concentrated in eight national taskforces operating over the next several years. Their scope of work includes national program and content standards; teacher recruitment and preparation; alternative program design; data reporting; public advocacy; brand communication strategy; and program funding. Driving the work of “10x15” are more than a hundred top leaders drawn from today’s Team Ag Ed, including teachers, students, university educators, state education leaders, the National FFA Organization, alumni, business and industry, and key stakeholders

Agricultural Educators

* Otto F Hunziker, Purdue University
* Raymond A. Pearson, Cornell University

See also

* Land economy
* Agricultural extension

References

* [http://www.ffa.org/teamaged/10x15/10x15.html 10x15 from the National FFA organization]
*World Book encyclopedia 1988
* by Elmer L. Cooper, Delmar Pubs., 1987
* by Alfred H. Krebs, 5th ed. Interstate, 1984
*Working in Agricultural Industry by Jasper S. Lee, McGraw, 1978
*Methods of Teaching Agriculture by L. H. Newcomb, and others, Interstate, 1986.
*Food Environment Education: Agricultural Education in Natural Resource Management, by Lindsay Falvey, 1966.

External links

* [http://www.acteonline.org/about/division/div-agr.cfm Association of Career and Technical Education Agricultural Division]
* [http://www.foundfamilyfarm.ca Found Family Farm] Learn by taking a tour at a small family farm!
* [http://www.agrowknowledge.org AgrowKnowledge] - The National Center for Agriscience and Technology education
* [http://www.agriculturaleducation.org Illinois Agricultural Education] - Curriculum, Careers, and other resources for Ag Teachers in Illinois.
* [http://ffa.org National FFA Organization (Future Farmers of America)]
* [http://teachagedwiki.wiki-site.com/ Teach Agricultural Education Wiki] - Learn more about teaching agricultural education grades 6-12
* [http://www.sare.org/publications/edguide.htm Sustainable Agriculture Resources and Programs for K-12 Youth.] from the United States Department of Agriculture, Sustainable agriculture research and education (SARE) program.
* [http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/edtr/EDTR2006.shtml "Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture".] 17th ed. 2006. A world-wide directory of academic and organizational programs from the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library.
* [http://chronicle.com/blogs/architecture/1806/should-a-liberal-education-include-an-agricultural-education "Should a Liberal Education Include an Agricultural Education?"] -- an article from the Chronicle of Higher Education.
* [http://www.naae.org National Association of Agricultural Educators] The professional organization for agricultural educators in the United States


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • agricultural education — studying of farming methods …   English contemporary dictionary

  • EDUCATION — Pre State 1880–1914. Education in the small yishuv, which numbered about 25,000 in 1880, largely resembled the traditional types prevailing in Jewish communities elsewhere. The Jews of East European origin maintained the traditional ḥeder, talmud …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • agricultural sciences, the — Introduction  sciences dealing with food and fibre production and processing. They include the technologies of soil cultivation, crop cultivation and harvesting, animal production, and the processing of plant and animal products for human… …   Universalium

  • Agricultural extension — This article is about the general concept of agricultural extension. For agricultural extension in the United States, see Cooperative extension service. Agricultural Extension Meeting in Laos, 2006 Agricultural extension was once known as the… …   Wikipedia

  • Agricultural science — Agronomist An agronomist measures and records corn growth and other processes. Occupation Names agronomist agricultural scientist Activity sectors agriculture, agronomy …   Wikipedia

  • Education in Comoros — Practically all children attend Quranic school for two or three years, starting around age five; there they learn the rudiments of the Islamic faith and some classical Arabic. When rural children attend these schools, they sometimes move away… …   Wikipedia

  • Education in the People's Republic of Poland — was controlled by the communist state, which provided primary schools, secondary schools, vocational education and universities. Education in communist Poland was compulsory from age 7 to 15.Primary and secondary educationPrior to World War II,… …   Wikipedia

  • Education in Siberia — expanded greatly after the Trans Siberian Railway was completed in the 19th century. While Siberia became part of Russia in the 18th century it was not until the 20th century under the Soviet Union that education was transformed Siberia to… …   Wikipedia

  • Education in Slovakia — consists of a free education system based on 10 years of compulsory school attendance. General characteristicsMost schools, especially universities, are owned by the state, though since the 1990s there are also church owned and private schools… …   Wikipedia

  • Education in Sudan — Education is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3 has been changed 1990. The primary language at… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”