Audio|Alexanderplatz.ogg|Alexanderplatz is a large open square and public transport hub in the
Berlindistrict of Mittein the city centre, near the river Spreeand the Berliner Dom, at coord|52|31|19|N|13|24|47|E|region:DE_type:landmark|display=inline,title. Berliners often call it simply "Alex", referring to a larger neighborhood stretching from "Mollstraße" in the northeast to "Spandauer Straße" and the City Hall in the southwest.
Originally a cattle market, it was named in honor of a visit of the
Russian Emperor Alexander I to Berlin on 25 October 1805. It gained a prominent role in the late 19th century with the construction of the station of the same name and a nearby public market, becoming a major commercial center. Its heyday was in the 1920s, when together with Potsdamer Platzit was at the heart of Berlin's nightlife, inspiring the 1929 novel" Berlin Alexanderplatz" (see 1920s Berlin) and the two films based thereon, Piel Jutzi's 1931 film and Rainer Werner Fassbinder's 15 1/2 hour second adaptation, released in 1980.
The Alexanderplatz has been subject to redevelopment several times in its history, most recently during the 1960s, when it was enlarged as part of the
German Democratic Republic's redevelopment of the city center. It is surrounded by several notable structures including the Fernsehturm(TV Tower), the second tallest structure in Europe. Because of its high profile, many newcomers to Berlin mistake the nickname"Alex" and apply it to the Fernsehturm instead. The "Alex" also accommodates the Park Inn Berlinand the World Time Clock, a continually rotating installation that shows the time throughout the globe, the 1932 Alexanderhaus and Berolinahaus by Peter Behrens, and Hermann Henselmann's Haus des Lehrers.
German reunificationthe Alexanderplatz has undergone a gradual process of change with many of the surrounding buildings being renovated. Despite the construction of a tramline it has retained its socialist character, including the much- graffitied "Fountain of Friendship between Peoples" (" Brunnen der Völkerfreundschaft"). In 1993 plans for a major redevelopment including the construction of several skyscrapers were published, but due to a lack of demand it is unlikely these will be constructed. However, beginning with the reconstruction of the department store Kaufhofin 2004, and the biggest underground railway station of Berlin, some buildings will be redesigned and new structures built on the square's south-eastern side. The Alexashopping mall, with approximately 180 stores opened in Alexanderplatz during 2007 and a large Saturn electronic store is currently being built in Alexanderplatz due to open in 2008.
Many historic buildings are located in the area around Alexanderplatz. The traditional seat of city government, the
Rotes Rathaus, or "Red City Hall", is located nearby, as is the former East German parliament building, the Palast der Republik, demolition of which began in February 2006 and is expected to be completed sometime in 2008.
Alexanderplatz is also the name of the S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations there. The station features in the opening scenes of the film
* [http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/planen/staedtebau-projekte/alexanderplatz/index_en.shtml Alexanderplatz - Overview of the changes]
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