- Tank ship
A tank ship or tankship, often referred to as a tanker is a
shipdesigned to transport liquidsin bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, and the liquefied natural gas carrier.
Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, which includes vessels for servicing small harbours and coastal settlements, to several hundred thousand tons, for long-range haulage. Beside ocean- or seagoing tankers there are also specialized inland-waterway tankers which operate on rivers and canals with an average cargo capacity up to some thousand tons. A wide range of products are carried by tankers, including:
Tankers are a relatively new concept, dating from the later years of the 19th century. Before this, technology had simply not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was also not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds and traded outside fixed routes. Liquids were usually loaded in casks - hence the term "
tonnage", which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of the amount of tuns of wine (casks) that could be carried. Even potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems:
*The holds: on timber ships the holds were not sufficiently water oil or air-tight to prevent a liquid cargo from spoiling or leaking. The development of
ironand steelhulls solved this problem.
*Loading and Discharging: Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems. Dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity. Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, and the awkward nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always relatively small - therefore keeping the market more stable.
Free Surface Effect: Describes the effect a large surface area of liquid in a ship will have on the stability of that ship. See Naval Architecture. Liquids in casks posed no problem, but one tank across the beam of a ship could pose a stability problem. Extensive sub-division of tanks solved this problem.
In the end, the tanker had its beginnings in the
oilindustry, as oil companies sought cheaper ways to transport their refinery product to their customers. The Oil Tanker was born. Today most liquids are cheaper to transport in bulk and dedicated terminals exist for each product. Large storage tanks ashore are used to store the product until it can be subdivided into smaller volumes for delivery to smaller customers.
Guinnessbrewery company in Dublinhad a tanker fleet to export the famous stout to the UK.
Different products require different handling and transport. Thus special types of tankers have been built, such as "
chemical tankers" and " oil tankers". " LNG carriers", as they are typically known, are a relatively rare tanker designed to carry liquefied natural gas.
Among oil tankers,
supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africafrom the Middle East. The floating storage and offloading unit(FSO) " Knock Nevis," formerly the ULCC "Jahre Viking", is the largest vessel in the world. The supertanker is 458 metres (1504 feet) in length and 69 m (226 ft) wide.
Supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with
pipeline transportand rail. However such tankers can create environmental disasters from oil spills especially if an accident causes the ship to sink. See " Exxon Valdez", " Braer", " Prestige oil spill", " Torrey Canyon", and "Erika" for examples of coastal accidents.
Tankers used for liquid fuels are classified according to their capacity.
Shell Oildeveloped the average freight rate assessment(AFRA) system which classifies tankers of different sizes. To make it an independent instrument, Shell consulted the " London Tanker Brokers’ Panel(LTBP)". At first, they divided the groups as "General Purpose" for tankers under . The ships became larger during the 1970s, and the list was extended, where the tons are long tons: [cite journal | last=Evangelista | first=Joe, Ed. | title=Scaling the Tanker Market | journal=Surveyor | volume= | issue=4 | pages=5–11 | publisher=American Bureau of Shipping | month=Winter | year=2002 | url=http://www.eagle.org/NEWS/pubs/pdfs/SurveyorWinter02.pdf | accessdate=2008-02-27|format=PDF]
*10,000–DWT|24,999: General Purpose tanker
*25,000–DWT|44,999: Medium Range tanker
*45,000–DWT|79,999: Large Range 1 (LR1)
*80,000–DWT|159,999: Large Range 2 (LR2)
*160,000–DWT|319,999: Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC)
*320,000–DWT|549,999: Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC)
At nearly 380 vessels in the size range DWT|279,000|metric to DWT|320,000|metric, these are by far the most popular size range among the larger VLCCs. Only seven vessels are larger than this, and approximately 90 between DWT|220,000|metric and DWT|279,000|metric. [cite web | author=Auke Visser | title=Tanker list, status 01-01-2007 | url=http://supertankers.topcities.com/id295.htm | work=International Super Tankers | date=22 February 2007 | accessdate=2008-02-27]
Fleets of the world
;Flag statesAs of 2005, the United States Maritime Administration's statistics count 4,024 tankers of DWT|10,000|long or greater worldwide.cite paper | url= http://www.marad.dot.gov/MARAD_statistics/2005%20STATISTICS/World%20Merchant%20Fleet%202005.pdf | author=Office of Data and Economic Analysis | title=World Merchant Fleet 2001–2005 | pages=3, 5, 6 | date=July 2006 | format=.PDF | publisher=United States Maritime Administration | accessdate=2008-02-27] 2,582 of these are double-hulled. ;Largest fleetsGreece, Japan, and the United States are the top three owners of tankers, with 733, 394, and 311 vessels respectively. These three nations account for 1,438 vessels or over 36% of the world's fleet. ee also * Notes References *cite encyclopedia | author=Encyclopædia Britannica | authorlink=Encyclopædia Britannica | editor=Chisholm, Hugh | encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica | title=Petroleum | url=http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=User:Tim_Starling/ScanSet_TIFF_demo&vol=21&page=ED1A336 | accessdate=2008-02-22 | edition=Eleventh Edition | year=1911 | volume=21 | publisher=Cambridge University Press | location=Cambridge | oclc =70608430 | pages=316-322 External links * [http://olympicvessels.com] Shipbroker
*cite encyclopedia | author=Encyclopædia Britannica | authorlink=Encyclopædia Britannica | editor=Chisholm, Hugh | encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica | title=Ship | url=http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=User:Tim_Starling/ScanSet_TIFF_demo&vol=24&page=ED4A915 | accessdate=2008-02-22 | edition=Eleventh Edition | year=1911 | publisher=Cambridge University Press | location=Cambridge | volume=24 | oclc =70608430 | pages=881-889
* [http://shipphoto.exblog.jp] Shipphoto
* [http://www.ship-photos.de/ ship-photos.de] : Categorized ship photos.
* [http://www.poten.com/list_attach.asp?table=tmarket&type_id=1] Poten & Partners: A collection of articles relating to tankers
* [http://www.shipspotting.com/modules/myalbum/viewcat.php?cid=64] Pictures of wine tankers
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/peter-spyra/458868059/] Picture of Navigator A
* [http://olympicvessels.com] Shipbroker
;Largest fleetsGreece, Japan, and the United States are the top three owners of tankers, with 733, 394, and 311 vessels respectively. These three nations account for 1,438 vessels or over 36% of the world's fleet.
*cite encyclopedia | author=Encyclopædia Britannica | authorlink=Encyclopædia Britannica | editor=Chisholm, Hugh | encyclopedia=Encyclopædia Britannica | title=Petroleum | url=http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=User:Tim_Starling/ScanSet_TIFF_demo&vol=21&page=ED1A336 | accessdate=2008-02-22 | edition=Eleventh Edition | year=1911 | volume=21 | publisher=Cambridge University Press | location=Cambridge | oclc =70608430 | pages=316-322
* [http://olympicvessels.com] Shipbroker
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