Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual/group by another group. The most common forms are
religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution, though there is naturally some overlap between these terms.
As part of the
Nuremberg Principles, crimes against humanityare part of international law. Principle IV of the Nuremberg Principlesstates thatquotation|The crimes hereinafter set out are punishable as crimes under international law:...
(c)Crimes against humanity::Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime.
Telford Taylor, who was Counsel for the Prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials wrote " [at] the Nuremberg war crimes trials, the tribunals rebuffed several efforts by the prosecution to bring such 'domestic' atrocities within the scope of international law as 'crimes against humanity'". [Telford Taylor [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04EFDC1439F93BA15750C0A964948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all "When people kill a people"] , " The New York Times", March 28, 1982.]
Several subsequent international treaties incorporate this principle, but some have dropped the restriction "in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime" that is in Nuremberg Principles the for example although only binding on the 60 states that have ratified it, the
Rome Statuteof the International Criminal Court) includes in Article 7 the definition for crimes against humanity, and clause 7.1 states "For the purpose of this Statute, "crime against humanity" means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack: ... (h) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, [ Article 7.3 if the Rome Statute states "For the purpose of this Statute, it is understood that the term 'gender' refers to the two sexes, male and female, within the context of society. The term 'gender' does not indicate any meaning different from the above."] or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; ... ".
Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation.
Not only theorists of
secularization(who presume a decline of religiosityin general) would willingly assume that religious persecution is a thing of the past. However, with the rise of fundamentalismand religiously related terrorism, this assumption has become even more controversial. Indeed, in many countries of the world today, religious persecution is a human rightsproblem.
Persecution of atheists
Atheists have experienced persecution throughout history. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property.
Persecution of Bahá'ís
The persecution of Bahá'ís refers to the
religious persecutionof Bahá'ís in various countries, especially in Iran,cite web | date = 2003-08-01 | title = Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran | author = International Federation for Human Rights | publisher = fdih.org | accessdate = 2006-10-20 | url = http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/ir0108a.pdf] the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world. The Bahá'í Faithoriginated in Iran, and represents the largest religious minority in that country.
Persecution of Christians
The persecution of Christians is
religious persecutionthat Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. In the two thousand years of the Christian faith, about 70 million believers have been killed for their faith, of whom 45.5 million or 65% were in the twentieth century according to "The New Persecuted" ("I Nuovi Perseguitati"). [ [http://www.ewtn.com/vnews/getstory.asp?number=26402 "20th Century Saw 65% of Christian Martyrs", 10 May 2002] -- Zenit News Agency] It should be noted that Christians have partaken in the persecution themselves. Throughout history it is estimated that Christians have killed just as many themselves, due to religious intolerance, as they have lost. [ [http://exchristian.net/exchristian/2002/10/how-many-people-have-been-killed-by.php " How many people have been killed by Christians since Biblical times?", 10 Oct 2002] ] Currently, persecution of Christians is most severe in North Korea. [ cite web
url = http://www.od.org/index.php?supp_page=wwl_top_ten&supp_lang=en
title = WWL: Focus on the Top Ten
accessdate = 2001-11-08
work = World Watch List
publisher = Open Doors International Ministries
quote = For the fifth year in a row, North Korea heads the World Watch List as the worst violator of religious rights for Christians. ] In
India, attacks by Hindu extremistagainst Christians occurs, especially in the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa. [ [http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1608/16080360.htm Another attack in Orissa ] ] According to a report by the [http://www.freedomhouse.org/religion/ Center for Religious Freedom] the attacks include the murder of missionariesand priests, the sexual assault of nuns, the ransacking of churches, convents and other Christianinstitutions.The Rise of Hindu Extremism and the Repression of Christian and Muslim minorities in India, [http://www.freedomhouse.org/religion/publications/pubrep.htm A Report by Center for Religious Freedom, 2003] ] Graham Staines, an Australianmissionary, and his 2 children were burnt to death by a group of Hindu activists led by Dara Singh. In 2007 Orissa Violence, attacks were targeted by Vishwa Hindu Parishadand other Hindutvagroups at Christian community and at least 70 churches and 600 houses were attacked and torched by Hindu extremists. [ [http://www.assistnews.net/Stories/2007/s07120195.htm Fact Finding Teams Tell of Unprecedented Anti-Christian Violence in Orissa] . ASSIST News Service. 30 December 2007] In the West Bankand Gaza Strip, Christian Arabs have been victims of frequent human rights abuses by Muslims and led to emmigration of Christians overseas. [ cite web
url = http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/127592
title = Muslims Continue Pushing Christians Out of Bethlehem
accessdate = 2008-10-13
publisher = Arutz7]
Persecution of Hindus
Persecution of Hindus refers to the
religious persecutioninflicted upon Hindus. Hindus have been historically persecuted during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinentand during Portuguese rule of Goa. In modern times, Hindus in Kashmir, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Ugandaand Fijihave also suffered persecution.
Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses
Throughout the history of
Jehovah's Witnesses, their beliefs, doctrines and practices have engendered controversy and opposition from the local governments, communities, or religious groups.
Persecution of Jews
The persecution of Jews occurred many times in
Persecution of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
extermination orderMormons have the distinct privilege of being the only Religious group to have a state of the United States legalize the extermination of their religion. The Mormons suffered through tarring and feathering, their lands being taken from them, mob attacks, and the US sending an army to Utah to deal with the "Mormon problem" in the Utah War. A government militia slaughtered Mormons in what is now known as the Haun's Mill massacre. The Founder of the Mormons, Joseph Smith was killed in Carthage, Illinois by a mob of about 200 men. Currently Mormons still appear to have ill will towards them. In the 2008 US presidential race Mitt Romney's capability as president was attacked by mainstream Christians based on his membership in the LDS Church.
Persecution of Muslims
Persecution of Muslims is a recurring phenomenon during the
history of Islam. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or incitement to hate Muslims. Persecution can extend beyond those who perceive themselves as Muslims to include those who are perceived by others as Muslims, or to Muslims which are considered by fellow Muslims as non-Muslims. In India, there are events of persecution of Muslims by Hindu activists. In 1992, the Babri Mosquewas demolished by the Sangh Parivarfamily of organizationsFact|date=January 2008 on the basis of their controversial assertion that a Hindu temple belonging to a Hindu god existed at the site before the erection of the Mosque. The 2002 Gujarat violenceofficially led to the death of 1044 people, 754 Muslims and 290 Hindus. Human Rights Watchputs the death toll at higher figures, with 2000 deaths, mostly Muslim. [ [http://hrw.org/reports/2002/india/ http://hrw.org/reports/2002/india/] "Hrw.org" Retrieved on 05-24-07 ]
Ethnic persecution refers to perceived
persecutionbased on ethnicity. Its meaning is parallel to racism, (based on race).
Persecution of Germans
The persecution of
ethnic Germans refers to systematic activity against groups of ethnic Germans based on their ethnicity.
Historically, this has been due to two causes: the German population were considered, whether factually or not, linked with German nationalist regimes such as those of the
Nazisor Kaiser Wilhelm. This was the case in the World War I era persecution of Germans in the United States, and also in Eastern and Central Europe following the end of World War II. While many victims of these persecutions did not, in fact, have any connection to those regimes, cooperation between German minority organisations and Nazi regime did occur, as the example of Selbstschutzshows, which is still used as a pretense of hostilities against those who did not take part in such organisations. After World War II, many such Volksdeutschewere killed or driven from their homes in acts of vengeance, others in ethnic cleansing of territories prior to populating them with citizens of the annexing country. In other cases (e.g. in the case of the formerly large German-speaking populations of Russia, Estonia, or the Transylvanian (Siebenbürgen) German minority in Rumania and the Balkans) such persecution was a crime committed against innocent communities who had played no part in the Third Reich.
Persecution based on sexual orientation
Persecution of Communists
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PERSÉCUTION — Persécuter, ce fut d’abord suivre ou poursuivre en justice (persequi ), jusqu’au bout. Les persécutions du pouvoir romain contre les chrétiens et celles de l’Inquisition contre les hérétiques furent des actions judiciaires régulièrement menées.… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Persecution — • The unlawful coercion of another s liberty or his unlawful punishment Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Persecution Persecution … Catholic encyclopedia
persecution — Persecution. s. f. v. Vexation, poursuite injuste & violente. L Evangile dit, Heureux sont ceux qui souffrent persecution pour la justice. toutes les persecutions qu on a faites aux Chrestiens n ont servi qu à augmenter la Religion Chrestienne.… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
persecution — mid 14c., oppression for the holding of a belief or opinion, from O.Fr. persecution (12c.), from L. persecutionem (nom. persecutio), noun of action from persequi pursue, start a legal action, from per through + sequi follow (see SEQUEL (Cf.… … Etymology dictionary
persecution — per·se·cu·tion n: punishment or harassment usu. of a severe nature on the basis of race, religion, or political opinion in one s country of origin claimed persecution and sought asylum Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996 … Law dictionary
Persecution — Per se*cu tion, n. [F. pers[ e]cution, L. persecutio.] 1. The act or practice of persecuting; especially, the infliction of loss, pain, or death for adherence to a particular creed or mode of worship. [1913 Webster] Persecution produces no… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Persecution — Persecution, lat. deutsch, Verfolgung … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
persecution — Persecution, Vexatio, Afflictio … Thresor de la langue françoyse
persecution — [pʉr΄sə kyo͞o′shən] n. [ME persecucion < OFr < L persecutio] a persecuting or being persecuted … English World dictionary
Persécution — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Une persécution est un type d oppression consistant à appliquer à une personne ou un groupe de personnes des mesures ou des traitements injustes, violents … Wikipédia en Français