- Granular synthesis
Granular synthesis is a basic sound synthesis method that operates on the
microsoundtime scale. It is often based on the same principles as sampling but often includes analog technology. The samples are not used directly however, they are split in small pieces of around 1 to 50 ms in length, or the synthesized sounds are very short. These small pieces are called grains. Multiple grains may be layered on top of each other all playing at different speed, phase and volume.
The result is no single tone, but a
soundscape, often a cloud, that is subject to manipulation in a way unlike any natural sound and also unlike the sounds produced by most other synthesis techniques. By varying the waveform, envelope, duration, spatial position, and density of the grains many different sounds can be produced.
The result is usable as music, sound effects or as raw material for further processing by other synthesis or DSP effects. The range of effects that can be produced include amplitude modulation, time stretching, stereo or multichannel scattering, random reordering, disintegration and morphing.
Dennis Gaborresearched how human beings communicate and hear. The result of his investigations was the theory of granular synthesis, although Greek composer Iannis Xenakisclaimed that he was actually the first inventor of this synthesis technique (Xenakis, Formalized Music, preface xiii). Curtis Roadsis often credited as the first person to implement a digital granular synthesis engine. Canadian composer Barry Truaxwas one of first to implement real-time versions of this synthesis technique.
* cite book
last = Roads
first = Curtis
year = 2001
title = Microsound
publisher = MIT Press
location = Cambridge
id = ISBN 0-262-18215-7
* cite book
last = Miranda
first = E. R.
year = 2002
title = Computer Sound Design: Synthesis Techniques and Programming
publisher = Focal Press
location = Oxford
id = ISBN 0-240-51693-1
* [http://www.artesonoro.net/tesisgran/indicegran.html "Les techniques granulares dans la synthèse sonore] by Manuel Rocha Iturbide. Doctoral Thesis. University of Paris VIII, Paris France, 1999.
Credits and info about the software used.
* [http://music.calarts.edu/~eric/gs.html Granular Synthesis] by Eric Kuehnl
* [http://artesonoro.net/articulos/The%20development%20of%20GiST.pdf "The development of GiST, a Granular. Synthesis Toolkit Based on an Extension of the FOF Generator"] by Gerhard Eckel and
Manuel Rocha Iturbide
* [http://www.artesonoro.net/tesisgran/portadagran.html Searching for a global synthesis technique through a quantum conception of sound.] by Manuel Rocha Iturbide.
Digital signal processing
Micromontageaudio montage on the time scale of microsounds
* [http://www.lownorth.nl/software/products/RTGS-x.html RTGS-X] Real-Time Granular Synthesizer X (for Mac OS X).
* [http://www.audioease.com/download/thOnk_0+2.sit.hqx thOnk_0+2] Granular synthesis without having to think at all. Free. Non-realtime. Mac OS 9.
* [http://www.essl.at/works/replay.html REplay PLAYer] generative granular synthesis software for Mac
* [http://hem.passagen.se/rasmuse/Granny.htm Granulab] real-time granular synthesizer for Win32
Chaosynth[http://x2.i-dat.org/~csem/UNESCO/9/ (link)] cellular automata granular synthesizer by Eduardo Reck Miranda.
* [http://www.mcrow.net/Vocal%20Modeler.htm Vocal Modeler] Special vocal effect for Reaktor that uses granular synthesis.
* [http://www.crusher-x.de crusherX-Live!] granular synthesis system for Windows
* [http://people.bath.ac.uk/masjpf/CDP/cgromody.htm CDP] granular synthesizer from the Composer's Desktop Project
* [http://mffmtimescale.sourceforge.net/ WSOLA] time scale modification of audio using granular synthesis
* [http://www.mcrow.net/White%20FX.htm White FX] White FX is a granular effect for Reaktor
* [http://www.audiomulch.com Audiomulch] Audiomulch is a real-time audio processing tool which has some "contraptions" which offer granular synthesis.
* [http://atomiccloud.gersic.com Atomic Cloud] Atomic Cloud is an easy to use real-time grain cloud generator for Windows
* [http://www.csounds.com/cecilia/ Cecilia] / [ftp://ftp.musique.umontreal.ca/FTP_Musique/] Cecilia provides one of the best frontends available for employing granular synthesis and brassage techniques. It uses the CSound language (PC/Mac/Linux).
* Reason, from
Propellerhead Softwarereleased a virtual device called the Malström. The device, dubbed a 'Graintable' synthesizer, combines granular and wavetable synthesis technologies.
Csoundcomprehensive music software including granular synthesis ( [http://www.csounds.com/manual/html/SiggenGranular.html overview] over granular synthesis opcodes)
SuperColliderprogramming language for real time audio synthesis
Reaktorvisual programming environment for sampling, granular sampling, sequencing and modular synthesis
Max/Mspgraphical authoring software for real-time audio and video
Puredata(Pd) graphical programming language for real-time audio and video
ChucKaudio programming language for real-time audio synthesis
Real-time Cmixprogramming language for real-time audio synthesis, including several algorithms for granular synthesis.
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