- Silbury Hill
Infobox World Heritage Site
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites
State Party =
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, ii, iii
ID = 373
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1986
Session = 10th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/373
Silbury Hill is a 40-metre (130-ft.) high man-made chalk
moundnear Avebury in the English county of Wiltshirecoord|51|24|56|N|1|51|27|W|region:GB_type:landmark|display=title. The Hill lies at gbmapping|SU100685.
Silbury Hill is the largest man-made earthen
moundin Europe, [Atkinson 1967.] and dates from the Neolithicperiod. Its purpose however, is still highly debated. There are several other Neolithic monuments in the area, including the West Kennet Long Barrowand Stonehenge.
Composed principally of chalk excavated from the surrounding area, the mound stands 40-metres (130-ft.) high [The measurement is taken from the present ground level at the top of silt that has accumulated in the trench surrounding the tumulus, to a depth of nine meters (Atkinson 1974:127).] and covers about 5 acres (2.2 hectares). It is a display of immense technical skill and prolonged control over labour and resources. Archaeologists calculate that Silbury Hill was built about 4750 years ago and that it took 18 million man-hours, or 500 men working 15 years (Atkinson 1974:128) to deposit and shape 248,000 cubic metres (8.75 million feet³) of earth and fill on top of a natural hill. Euan W. Mackie asserts [Mackie, "Science and Society in Prehistoric Britain" (New York: St. Martin's Press) 1977.] , that no simple late Neolithic tribal structure as usually imagined could have sustained this and similar projects, and envisages an authoritarian theocratic power elite with broad ranging control across southern Britain.
The base of the hill is circular and 167 m (550 ft) in diameter. The summit is flat-topped and 30 m (100 ft) in diameter. A smaller mound was first constructed, and in a later phase much enlarged. The initial structures at the base of the hill were perfectly circular and surveying reveals that the centre of the flat top and the centre of the cone that describes the hill, lie within a metre of one another (Atkinson 1974:128).
The first phase, carbon-dated to 2750 ±95 BC (Atkinson 1969), consisted of a gravel core with a revetting kerb of stakes and
sarsenboulders. Alternate layers of chalk rubble and earth were placed on top of this, the second phase involved heaping further chalk on top of the core, using material excavated from an encircling ditch. At some stage during this process the ditch was backfilled and work was concentrated on increasing the size of the mound to its present height using material from elsewhere.
18th & 19th centuries
There have been several excavations of the mound, which attracted the notice of the seventeenth-century antiquary
John Aubrey, whose notes in his "Monumenta Britannica" have not yet been published. [ [http://www.britannia.com/wonder/emsilbry.html Earth Mysteries: Silbury Hill] ] . Later, William Stukeleywrote that a skeleton and bridle had been discovered during tree planting on the summit in 1723. It is probable that this was a later, secondary burial, however. The first purposeful excavation came when a team of Cornish miners led by the Duke of Northumberlandsunk a shaft from top to bottom in 1776. In 1849 a tunnel was dug from the edge into the centre. Other excavations were undertaken in 1867 and 1886, and William Flinders Petrieinvestigated the hill after the First World War.
In 1968-70 professor
Richard J. C. Atkinsonundertook work at Silbury which was broadcast on BBCtelevision. This excavation revealed most of the environmental evidence known about the site including the remains of winged ants which indicate that Silbury was begun in an August. Atkinson dug numerous trenches at the site and reopened the 1849 tunnel, where he found material suggesting a Neolithic date, although none of his radiocarbon dates are considered reliable by modern standards. He argued that the hill was constructed in steps, each tier being filled in with packed chalk, and then smoothed off or weathered into a slope. Others [ [http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba70/feat2.shtml British Archaeology magazine, May 2003 ] ] have identified a spiral path climbing to the top and consider the construction to have been incremental; the path provided a processional route to the summit.
After heavy rains in May 2000, a collapse of the 1776 excavation shaft caused a hole to form in the top of the hill.
English Heritageundertook a seismic survey of the hill to identify the damage caused by earlier excavations and determine the hill's stability. Repairs were undertaken; however, the site remained closed to the public.
English Heritage's archaeologists also excavated two further small trenches as part of the remedial work and made the important discovery of an antler fragment, the first from a secure
archaeological contextat the site. This produced a reliable radiocarbon date of c. 2490-2340 BC, dating the second mound convincingly to the Late Neolithic. Other recent work has focused on the role of the surrounding ditch which may not have been a simple source of chalk for the hill but a purpose-built water-filled barrier placed between the hill and the rest of the world.
In March 2007,
English Heritageannounced that a Roman village the size of 24 football pitches had been found at the foot of Silbury Hill. It contained regularly laid out streets and houses. [ [http://uk.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUKL1053491320070310 Reuters News] .]
11 May, 2007, Skanska, under the direction of English Heritage, began a major programme of stabilisation, filling the tunnels and shafts from previous investigations with hundreds of tonnes of chalk. At the same time a new archaeological survey was conducted using modern equipment and techniques. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/wiltshire/6645367.stm BBCNews – Tunnel open again at Silbury hill] ] The work finished in Spring 2008: a "significant" new understanding of the monument's construction and history had been obtained. [cite journal|last=Pitts|first=Mike|date= 2008-06-06|title=Silbury is safe|journal=British Archaeology|publisher=Council for British Archaeology|location=York, England|issue=101|pages=8|issn=1357-4442]
Few prehistoric artefacts have ever been found on Silbury Hill: at its core there is only clay, flints, turf, moss, topsoil, gravel, freshwater shells, mistletoe, oak, hazel, sarsen stones, ox bones, and antler tines. Roman and medieval items have been found on and around the site since the nineteenth century and it seems that the hill was reoccupied by later peoples.
The exact purpose of the hill is unknown, though various suggestions have been put forward.
According to legend, this is the last resting place of a King Sil, represented in a lifesize gold statue and sitting on a golden horse. A local legend noted in 1913 [Robt. M. Heanley, "Silbury Hill" "Folklore" 24.4 (December 1913), p. 524] states that the
Devilwas carrying an apron of soil to drop on the citizens of Marlborough, but he was stopped by the priests of nearby Avebury. In 1861 it was reported [In "Wilts Archaeological Magazine" December 1861 p 181, noted by J. B. Partridge, "Wiltshire Folklore" "Folklore" 26.2 (June 1915), p 212.] that hundreds from Kennett, Avebury, Overton and the neighbouring villages thronged Silbury Hill every Palm Sunday.
Moses B. Cotworthstated at the beginning of the twentieth century that Silbury was a giant sundialto determine seasons and the true length of the year. More recently, the writer Michael Dameshas identified Silbury Hill as the winter goddess, but he acknowledges that the monument remains finally a stupendous enigma.
Michael Dames (see "References") put forward a composite theory of seasonal rituals, in an attempt to explain Silbury Hill and its associated sites (
West Kennet Long Barrow, the Avebury henge, The Sanctuaryand Windmill Hill), from which the summit of Silbury Hill is visible.
Paul Devereux (see "References") observes that Silbury and its surrounding monuments appear to have been designed with a system of inter-related sightlines, focusing on the step several metres below the summit. From various surrounding barrows and from Avebury, the step aligns with hills on the horizon behind Silbury, or else with hills in front of Silbury, leaving only the topmost part visible. In the latter case, Devereux hypothesises that ripe cereal crops grown on the intervening hill would perfectly cover the upper portion of Silbury with the top of the corn and the top of Silbury coinciding.
Silbury Hill is located in the Kennett Valley, at
Ordnance Surveymapping six-figure grid reference SU100685 (coord|51|24|56|N|1|51|27|W |display=inline|region:GB). It is close to the A4, also the route of a Roman road, between Beckhampton and West Kennett.
The hill's vegetation is species-rich chalk grassland, dominated by Upright Brome and
False Oat-grass, but with many species characteristic of this habitat, including a strong population of the rare Knapweed Broomrape. This vegetation has led to a 2.3- hectarearea of the site being notified as a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest, this notification initially being given in 1965. The site is unique in that its slopes have 360-degree aspects, allowing comparison between growth of the flora on the differently-facing slopes of the hill.
European Megalithic Culture
*Atkinson, R.J.C., "Antiquity" 41 (1967)
*Atkinson, R.J.C., "Antiquity" 43 (1969), p 216.
*Atkinson, R.J.C., "Antiquity" 44(1970), pp 313–14.
*Atkinson, R.J.C., "Neolithic science and technology", "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London." Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences (1974) pp.127f.
*Dames, Michael, 1977 "The Avebury Cycle" Thames & Hudson Ltd, London
*Dames, Michael, 1976 "The Silbury Treasure" Thames & Hudson Ltd, London
*Devereux, Paul, 1999 "Earth Memory: Practical Examples Introduce a New System to Unravel Ancient Secrets" Foulsham
*Vatcher, Faith de M and Lance Vatcher, 1976 "The Avebury Monuments", Department of the Environment HMSO
* [http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba70/feat2.shtml British Archaeology magazine article on Silbury]
* [http://britannia.com/wonder/emsilbry.html Earth Mysteries: Silbury Hill]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/wiltshire/7059874.stm BBC news: Monument's tunnels to be filled]
* [http://pegasusarchive.org/ancientbritain/silbury_hill.htm Ancient Britain: Silbury Hill]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/media/avdb/news/uk/video/148000/bb/148578_16x9_bb.ram Secrets of Silbury Hill] , a short BBC report on the archeological work at Silbury Hill
* [http://www.naturalengland.org.uk/citation/citation_photo/1002057.pdf SSSI Citation sheet at Natural England]
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