Single-8 is a
motion picture film formatintroduced by Fujifilmof Japanin 1965 as an alternative to the KodakSuper 8 format. The company Konan (that developed the Konan-16 subminiature camera) claims in its [http://www.konan.com/hp2001/english/company/history.htm history page] to have developed the Single-8 system in 1959.
Although the film is thinner, the other dimensions of Single-8 such as the sprocket holes and sound track, are the same as Super 8. Single-8 can be projected in Super 8 projectors and vice versa. Single-8 comes pre-loaded in B-shaped cartridges, with two separate spools unlike the coaxial system of Super 8. As a result, Single-8 film offered unlimited rewind, whereas Super 8 rewind was limited to several seconds and relied on there being sufficient empty space within the cartridge for the rewound film to pile up inside.
The Single 8 cartridge was designed to use the camera's film gate to hold the film in place during exposure, in contrast to the
Kodaksystem which had a plasticgate built into the cartridge. This should provide better image steadiness than Super 8 although camera design and maintenance are probably more important factors.
It has a
polyesterbase that is thinner than the Kodak films, so splicing the two formats together in a finished film may require adjustment of the projector's focus at the join.
Although never as popular internationally as Super 8, the format continued to live in parallel. As of early 2007, Fuji still manufactures two versions of Single-8 film.
FujichromeR25N is Daylight Balanced Filmstock, while Fujichrome RT200N is Tungsten Balanced(3400K) for indoor filming. The Sound Filmbrand is no longer made, although a magnetic sound stripe can be added to the film after processing. This option is chosen whenever sending the exposed film to Fuji in Japan. In addition to Fuji's own film, Black and White Filmis available from Japanese company Retro Enterprises. This Single-8 black & white reversal film, named Retro-X, is of ASA/ ISO200 and is manufactured in Germany.
Although Fujifilm has stopped exportation of Single-8 Film to other countries, individual companies in the
USAand Europeimport the filmstock independently. Single-8 is readily available in its home country of Japanwhere even used cameras can reach high prices in online auctions on Yahoo! Japan. A used FujicaZC1000, the top of the line Single-8 camera, can fetch prices upwards to 250,000 Japanese Yen. DAICON FILM of Japan (now Gainax) produced a series of well-known tokusatsufilms in the 1980s using Single-8 film, some now available on DVD.
Processing Single-8 Film
Fuji's Single-8 developing process is not the same as Process EM-26, but close. There is more involved in the removal of the remjet antihalation backing than the now long discontinued
KodakEktachrome Process EM-26 films. The color chemistrywhile close, is a bit different, particularly the Color Developer.
It is often recommended sending Fuji Single-8 film to
Fujifilmin Japan for processing. It averages about 3 weeks. Since they are a mechanised lab authorised and setup to process their own filmstock, it is usually recommended that they do it. The reason given is two-fold: to keep Single-8 film alive, the filmstock must be purchased and used, and to keep the processing support going from Fuji, it needs to be sent in for processing. The more they process, the faster the turnaround time is. Otherwise it could stretch out to 9 weeks or better as it was a few years ago due to lack of incoming film volume. International dealers of Single-8 film will send the film bought from them to Japan for processing.
List of film formats
* [http://www.fujifilm.co.jp/single8/ Official Fuji Single-8 Website]
* [http://members8.tsukaeru.net/muddy/single8/single8_e/single8_e.htm English Version of Japanese Website Listing All Single-8 Cameras Made]
* [http://www.single8film.com American website providing Single 8 info and manuals]
* [http://film.club.ne.jp/English/single_8film.htm English-language Single-8 page on the Japanese Film Club site]
* [http://www.saunalahti.fi/animato/filmhist/filmhist.html Film formats history]
* [http://www.gainax.co.jp/anime/daicon/ultra.html Info on "Return of Ultraman", movie shot in Single-8 with a Fujica ZC1000 camera. Japanese only.]
Commercial sites offering filmstock and processing
* [http://www.single8film.com American website providing Single 8 filmstock and processing]
* [http://members.aol.com/Super8mm/Super8mm.html A New York based company providing a variety of 8 mm filmstock and services, including Single-8]
* [http://film.club.ne.jp/English/eng_single8_film2003.htm English language site of Japanese exporter of Single-8 film, with processing included]
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