Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli

Tiruchi, Trichy

—  city  —
Clock-wise from top: Rockfort, Jambukeswarar Temple, Thiruvanaikaval, Upper Anaicut, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam
Tiruchirappalli
Location of Tiruchirappalli
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates 10°48′18″N 78°41′08″E / 10.805°N 78.68556°E / 10.805; 78.68556Coordinates: 10°48′18″N 78°41′08″E / 10.805°N 78.68556°E / 10.805; 78.68556
Country India
Region Chola Nadu
State Tamil Nadu
District(s) Tiruchirappalli
Mayor A. Jaya
Population

Density
Metro

752,066[1] (47th)

5,127 /km2 (13,279 /sq mi)
866,354[1] (2001)

Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation

146.70 square kilometres (56.64 sq mi)

88 metres (289 ft)

Website www.trichycorporation.gov.in

Tiruchirappalli a (Tamil: தி௫ச்சிராப்பள்ளி (tiruccirāppaḷḷi) About this sound pronunciation ) (spelt as Trichinopoly in the records of British India), also called Tiruchi or Trichy (Tamil: தி௫ச்சி), is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu and also the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state. Situated at a distance of 325 kilometres (202 mi) south of Chennai and 402 kilometres (250 mi) north of Kanyakumari on the National Highway NH 45, it is located almost at the geographic centre of the state.

Tiruchirappalli is believed to have been named after the three-headed demon Trishira of Hindu mythology who is believed to have indulged in penance and obtained favours at this place. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled by the Early Cholas, Early Pandyas, Pallavas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Delhi Sultanate, Ma'bar Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British at different times. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur which served as the capital of the Early Cholas is a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. Tiruchirappalli has a number of historical monuments, the Rockfort, Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval being the most prominent among them.

Tiruchirappalli is an important industrial and educational hub of central Tamil Nadu. The factories of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project and Golden Rock Railway Workshops are located in Tiruchirappalli. The National Institutes of Technology (NIT), Indian Institute of Management, Bharathidasan University and Anna University of Technology have their campuses in the city.

Contents

Etymology

The name Tiruchirappalli is believed by some to have been derived from the Sanskrit "Trishirapuram" - 'Trishira' meaning "three-headed" and 'palli' or 'puram' meaning "City".[2][3][4] According to Hindu mythology, the town got its name from the three-headed demon Trishira who meditated on the Hindu god Shiva near the present-day Tiruchirappalli and obtained favours at this place.[2] However, this derivation is not universally accepted.[2]

Other derivations of Tiruchirappalli have been provided by the Telugu scholar C. P. Brown who suggested that Tiruchirappalli might be a derivative of the word 'Chiruta-palli' meaning "little town".[2][4] In an inscription of the sixteenth century, Tiruchirappalli is mentioned as Tiru-ssila-palli meaning "holy-rock-town" in Tamil and Henry Yule and Arthur Coke Burnell believed that the name Tiruchirappalli might have been derived from it.[2][4] A few other scholars feel that the name Tiruchirappalli might have been derived from Tiru-chinna-palli meaning "holy little town".[2][4] The Madras Glossary gives the root as Tiruććināppalli or the "holy (tiru) village (palli) of the shina (Cissampelos pareira) plant".[4]

During British rule, Tiruchirappalli was commonly referred to using the erroneous spelling "Trichinopoly".[5] The shortened forms "Trichy"[3][6] or "Tiruchi"[6] are more frequently used in common parlance.

History

Tiruchirappalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Tamil Nadu, its earliest settlements dating back to the 2nd millennium BC. Sir William Larke, Director of the British Iron and Steel Federation, stated:

The centre of origin is variously placed in India, where there are historical traditions and remains indicating a highly developed iron culture. Hyderabad and Trichinopoly are considered by many to have been the centers of production of wootz... This steel was noted for centuries, being carried by merchants from India to Damascus and Toledo.[7]

Uraiyur, which served as the capital of the Early Cholas from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century AD is identified by some with a suburb of present-day Tiruchirappalli.[8] The city is mentioned as "Orthoura" by the historian, Ptolemy.[9] The world's oldest surviving dam, the Kallanai, was built by Karikala Chola across the Kaveri River, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) from Uraiyur.[10][11]

Map of Tiruchirappalli town in 1955

The medieval history of Tiruchirappalli begins with the reign of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I who ruled over South India in the 6th century AD. Mahendravarman constructed the cave-temples within the Rockfort.[12] Following the demise of the Pallavas in the 8th century AD, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Medieval Cholas who ruled till the 13th century AD.[13]

When the Chola Empire began to decline, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Pandyas[14] who ruled from 1216 to 1311 when they were defeated by Malik Kafur.[15] The victorious armies of the Delhi Sultanate are believed to have plundered and ravaged the kingdom.[15][16] According to a local legend, the idol of the Hindu god Ranganatha in the temple of Srirangam was saved from destruction by burying it under a bilva tree.[16][17] Tiruchirappalli was ruled by the Delhi and Madurai sultanates from 1311 to 1378 when it was annexed by the Vijayanagar Empire.[18]Tiruchirappalli remained a part of the Vijayanagar Empire[19] and its successor, the Madurai Nayak kingdom till 1736.[20] It served as the capital of the Madurai Nayak kingdom from 1616[21] to 1634[22] and from 1665[23] to 1736. In 1736, the last Madurai Nayak ruler Meenakshi committed suicide and Tiruchirappalli was conquered by Chanda Sahib[20] who ruled the kingdom from 1736 to 1741 when he was captured and imprisoned by the Marathas.[24][25] Tiruchirappalli was administered by the Maratha general Murari Rao from 1741 to 1743, when it was annexed to the Carnatic kingdom.[25] When the Nawab of the Carnatic Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah was dethroned by Chanda Sahib in the year 1751, he fled to Tiruchirappalli and set up his base there.[26] The subsequent siege of Tiruchirappalli by Chanda Sahib led to the Second Carnatic War.[26]

At the end of the Second Carnatic War, the kingdom was eventually restored to Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah who was later forced to cede Tiruchirappalli to the British East India Company for non-payment of dues.[27] The district of Trichinopoly was constituted in 1801 with the city of Trichinopoly or Tiruchirappalli as its capital and John Wallace as its first District Collector.[28]

During the Company Raj and later, the British Raj, Tiruchirappalli emerged as one of the most important cities in India. It was popular throughout the British Empire for its unique variety of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar.[29] According to the 1871 Indian census, the first in British India, Tiruchirappalli had a population of 76,530 making it the second largest city in Madras Presidency, next only to the capital city of Madras.[30]

In the early 20th century, Tiruchirappalli grew further achieving a decadal population growth rate of 36.9 percent during the period 1941-51.[31] However, following India's independence, Tiruchirappalli has fallen behind other cities as Salem[32][33] and Coimbatore[34] in terms of growth. As of 2001, Tiruchirappalli was the fourth largest city in Tamil Nadu after Chennai, Coimbatore and Madurai.[35]

Geography and climate

Tiruchchirappalli
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
14
 
30
20
 
 
5.4
 
33
21
 
 
9.5
 
35
23
 
 
51
 
37
26
 
 
65
 
37
26
 
 
35
 
37
27
 
 
61
 
36
26
 
 
86
 
35
26
 
 
147
 
35
25
 
 
192
 
32
24
 
 
132
 
30
23
 
 
84
 
29
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Indian Meteorological Department[36] For graphing purposes, the precipitation numbers of this graph are at a scale of 1:10.
A view of Tiruchirappalli city, the Kaveri river and Srirangam Island from the top of the Rockfort

Tiruchirappalli is located at 10°48′18″N 78°41′08″E / 10.8050°N 78.6856°E / 10.8050; 78.6856.[5] The average elevation is 88 metres (289 ft).[37] It is located almost at the geographic centre of the state of Tamil Nadu.[38] The topology of Tiruchirappalli is almost flat with a few isolated hillocks rising above the surface, the highest of which is the Rockfort.[39][40] The city spread over an area of 146.7 square kilometres (56.6 sq mi) is situated on the plains between the Shevaroy Hills to the north and the Palni Hills to the south and south-west.[41] The city is situated at the head of the Cauvery Delta[42] which commences 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of Tiruchirappalli[43] where the Cauvery River branches into two streams forming the island of Srirangam.[44]

The land immediately surrounding the Kaveri is made up of fertile alluvial soil deposited by the Kaveri and its tributary, the Kollidam.[45] Further south, the surface is covered by poor-quality black soil.[45] The alluvial soil is conducible for agriculture and crops such as ragi (finger millet) and cholam (maize) are grown.[46] North-east of Tiruchirappalli runs a belt of cretaceous rock known as the "Trichinopoly Group".[47] Layers of archaean rocks, granite and gneiss covered by a thin bed of conglomeratic laterite are found to the south-east of the city.[39] The flora of Tiruchirappalli city and its surrounding areas is similar to that of the Cauvery delta.[48] Cattle are found in large numbers in the region.[49]

The city is divided into three parts: The Cantonment area to the south, the temples to the north and the bazaar in the center of the city.[50] Most of Tiruchirappalli's hotels and government and post offices are situated in the cantonment while most of Tiruchirappalli's temples are located in the north.[50] The Rockfort and its temple are situated in the center of the city and surrounded by a bazaar.[50] Densely-populated industrial and residential areas have recently emerged in the northern part of the city.[33] Residential areas also cover the southern edge of the city.[33] The city is completely surrounded by agricultural fields.[33]

During the summer months of March to May, Tiruchirappalli is extremely hot and dry during daytime.[51] However, the evenings are rendered cool by cold winds that blow from the south-east.[51] It is quite sultry during September and October but cool and pleasant from November to February.[51] According to a popular saying, the climate of Tiruchirappalli is "eight months hot and four hotter."[51]

The city gets its drinking water supply from five headworks on the Cauvery River and 1,470 bore wells linked to 60 service reservoirs in and around the city.[52]

The city is at a distance of 325 kilometres (202 mi) south-west of Chennai[3] and 402 kilometres (250 mi) north of Kanniyakumari on the National Highway NH 45 and 205 kilometres (127 mi) south-east of Coimbatore[53] and 128 kilometres (80 mi) west from the Bay of Bengal coast,[54] The city of Madurai is situated 161 kilometres (100 mi) south of Tiruchirappalli.[53]

Demographics

St Joseph College Church, Tiruchirappalli

According to the 2001 census, the Tiruchirappalli had a population of 752,066 with in the corporation limits at a density of 5,127 persons per km2,[1][57] with 376,125 men (50.01 percent) and 375,941 women(49.99 percent).[59] The urban agglomeration had a population of 866,354.[1][38] Tiruchirappalli metropolitan area constitutes the fourth largest metropolitan area in Tamil Nadu and the 47th in India.[57] 11.41 percent of the population was under six years of age.[59] Tiruchirappalli had a literacy rate of 88.71 percent.[59] The provisional results of the 2011 India census released by the Government of India give the population of Tiruchirappalli metropolitan area as 846,915[58] and the urban agglomeration as 1,021,717.[60]There are a total of 286 slums in Tiruchirappalli with a population of about 162,000.[52]

The population is predominantly Hindu, and there are sizable numbers of Christians[61] and Muslims.[62] Sikhs[63] and Jains[64] are also present in smaller numbers. The most widely spoken language is Tamil,[65] though there are also significantly large numbers of people speaking Telugu,[66] Saurashtrian[67] and Kannada [68] The standard dialect of Tamil spoken is the Central Tamil dialect.[69][70] Saurashtrian is the mother tongue of the Patnūlkarars who migrated from Gujarat in the 16th century AD.[71] There is also a substantial population of Sri Lankan Tamil migrants, most of whom are housed in refugee camps on the outskirts of the city.[72] There are also sizeable populations of Gujaratis and Marwaris resident in the city.[73] Most Muslims in the city are Labbays.[74] Roman Catholics in Tiruchirappalli are affiliated to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiruchirapalli[75] while Protestants are affiliated to the Trichy-Tanjore Diocese of the Church of South India.[76]

As a separate division of the Southern Railway is headquartered at Tiruchirappalli city, there is a considerably strong Anglo-Indian population in the city.[77]

Culture and society

A Carnatic music concert

A resident of Tiruchirappalli is generally referred to as a Tiruchiite.[78][79] The city formed a part of the traditional Chola heartland and has a number of exquisitely-sculpted temples and forts. Situated at the edge of the Cauvery Delta, the culture of Tiruchirappalli is similar to the Brahminical culture prevalent elsewhere in the delta.[80] Most internationally known Christian denominations have a presence in the city thereby giving it the name "Rome of the East".[81] With a substantial population of students and migrant industrial workers from different parts of India, Tiruchirappalli has a more cosmopolitan outlook than the surrounding countryside.[82][83] Tiruchirappalli is home to many Carnatic musicians[84][85] and film artistes.[86][87]

Mohini Alangaram, Garuda Sevai, Vaikunta Ekadasi,[88] Srirangam car festival, Teppakulam float festival and the Samayapuram Mariamman flower festival are some of the important festivals celebrated in Tiruchirappalli.[89] Festivals like New Year[79] and Christmas and other Indian festivals like Deepavali[90] and Holi[82] are also celebrated with pomp and splendour. There are shopping outlets of handicraft chains Khadi Kraft and Poompuhar and bookshop Higginbotham's, Trichinopoly cigars, handicrafts. Cheap jewellery made from artificial diamonds are available in the bazaar situated to the immediate north of the Tiruchirappalli railway junction.[91] Boxes of scotch whisky and photographic film smuggled from Sri Lanka are also available.[91] The Trichy Travel Federation (TTF) was formed on May 5, 2009 to promote Tiruchirappalli as a favourable tourist destination.[92]

Both vegetarian and non-vegetarian hotels offering traditional Tamil cuisine as well as North Indian dishes are located in Tiruchirappalli city.[93] Vasanta Bhavan, a leading food chain originated in Tiruchirappalli in 1969.[94]

Economy

The economy of Tiruchirappalli is mainly industrial. During British rule, the city was known for its tanneries, cigar-manufacturing units and oil presses.[73] At its peak, over 12 million cigars were manufactured and exported annually.[73] Tanned hides and skins from Tiruchirappalli were exported to the United Kingdom.[73]

The city has a number of retail and wholesale markets, the chief among them being the Gandhi market which is an important source of vegetables[95] for the whole region.[96][97] Other notable markets in the city are the flower bazaar in Srirangam[97] and the mango market at Mambazha Salai.[98]

Tiruchirappalli is a major engineering equipment manufacturing hub in Tamil Nadu. The Golden Rock Locomotive Workshops, moved to Tiruchirappalli from Nagapattinam in 1928, is one of the three railway locomotive manufacturing units in Tamil Nadu.[99] The workshops produced 650 conventional and low-container flat wagons during the year 2007-08.[100] The chief workshop manager's office at Golden Rock was awarded a star rating by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency for the proper and regulated usage of electricity in its offices.[101]

A High Pressure Boiler manufacturing plant was set up by the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), India's largest public sector engineering company, in May 1965.[102][103] This was followed by a Seamless Steel Plant set up at a cost of INR58 crore (US$13 million) and a Boiler Auxiliaries Plant. The three manufacturing units constitute the BHEL industrial complex and cover a total area of about 22,927.4 square metres (246,788 sq ft). The plant can generate up to 6.2 MW of electricity using coal as a resource.[104] Other important industries in Tiruchirappalli include the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) which was established at Senthaneerpuram in the then Golden Rock municipality in the year 1966.[105] and the Trichy Steel Rolling Mills which was started as a private limited company on June 27, 1961.[106] The Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited manufactures rectified spirit,[105] acetaldehyde,[105] acetic acid,[105] acetic anhydride[107] and ethyl acetate. It is one of the biggest private sector distilleries in Tamil Nadu and produced 13.5 million litres of spirit alcohol between December 2005 and November 2006.[108] A weapon manufacturing unit[109] and a Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP) facility[110] are run by the Ordnance Factory Board of the Government of India.[111] The HAPP unit, set up in the late 1980s, comprises a Flexible manufacturing system (FMS), the first of its kind in India.[112]

EID Parry's sugar factory at Pettavaithalai[113] and Dalmia Group cement factory at Dalmiapuram are some major manufacturing units located on the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli.[114]

The annual software exports of the Tiruchi region amount to INR26.21 crore (US$5.8 million).[35] The ELCOT IT Park, the first IT park in the city has been commissioned at a cost of INR60 crore (US$13.5 million) and inaugurated by the Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, M. K. Stalin on December 9, 2010.[115][116] Set up by the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu, the park occupies an area of 59.74 hectares (147.6 acres) and constitutes a Special Economic Zone.[116][117] The Indian software company Infosys, is planning to start its operations in Tiruchirappalli.[118]

Transport

Train waiting at the Tiruchirappalli Junction

Tiruchirappalli is well connected by road, rail and air with most cities and towns in India.[119][120] The National Highways NH 45, NH 45B, NH 67, NH 210 and NH 227 pass through the city.[121] Tiruchirappalli forms a part of the Division no. 1 of the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation which is headquartered at Kumbakonam.[122] There are regular buses to Thanjavur,[53] Pudukkottai,[53] Kanniyakumari,[53] Chennai,[53] Madurai,[53] Palani,[53] Puducherry,[123] Coimbatore,[53] Kodaikanal[53] and Tirupathi.[53] Buses are also available to destinations in Karnataka and Kerala. The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) operates special bus services between Bangalore and Tiruchirapalli during weekends.[124] There are two major bus termini: the Chathram Bus Stand and the Central Bus Station,[53] both situated close to each other.[123] The bus termini are situated at a distance of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the main railway station.[53] The city has an efficient local bus transportation system - both government-operated as well as private.[123]

The Tiruchirapalli Airport is the second most busiest airport in Tamil Nadu

The Great Southern of India Railway Company was established in 1853 with its headquarters at Tiruchirappalli.[125] In 1859, the company constructed its first railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli and Nagapattinam.[125] Currently, Tiruchirappalli is an important railway junction in central Tamil Nadu and constitutes a separate division of the Southern Railway.[126] There are frequent trains to Chennai, Madurai, Chidambaram, Bangalore, Rameswaram, Mangalore, Tirupathi, Kolkata, Guwahati and Cochin.[127] There are nine daily express trains operating on the Chennai-Tiruchirappalli line, important among which are Vaigai Express, Pallavan Express and the Rockfort Express.[128] The Mysore-Mayiladuthurai Express plies between Tiruchirappalli and Mysore on a daily basis, stopping at Bangalore on the way.[128] Tiruchirappalli has rail connectivity with most important cities and towns in India.[119]

The Tiruchirapalli International Airport is the second biggest airport in Tamil Nadu in terms of passenger traffic, cargo traffic as well as aircraft movement.[129] It was first used to handle air traffic in 1938 when Tata Airlines commercial flights stopped at Tiruchirappalli on the Karachi-Colombo route.[130] In 1948, Air Ceylon commenced daily passenger flights between Tiruchirappalli and Colombo via Jaffna.[131][132] There are regular flights to Chennai,[128] Kochi,[41] Kozhikode,[123] Sri Lanka,[133]Kuala Lumpur,[134] Sharjah[133] and Kuwait.[133]

Administration and politics

Corporation officials
Mayor
A. Jaya[135]
Deputy Mayor
M. Ashik Meera[136]
Corporation Commissioner
K. Veera Raghava Rao[137]
Commissioner of Police
E. Ma. Masanamuthu[138] d

The municipality of Tiruchirappalli was inaugurated under the Town Improvements Act 1865 on November 1, 1866 covering an area of 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi)[139] and originally consisted of two ex-officio and nine nominated members.[140] Elections to the council were introduced in 1877 and the first chairman was elected in 1889.[140] The municipality was upgraded to a municipal corporation as per the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Act 1994[141] by inclusion of the Srirangam and Golden Rock municipalities.[142] The municipal corporation currently covers an area of 146.7 square kilometres (56.6 sq mi) and comprises 60 wards and four administrative zones: Srirangam, Ariyamangalam, Golden Rock and Abhishekapuram.[143]

The Tiruchirappalli Municipal Corporation building

The Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Council, the legislative body, comprises 60 councilors elected from each of the 60 wards and is headed by a mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor.[144] The executive wing is made up of seven departments: General administration, revenue, town planning, engineering, public health, information technology and personnel and is headed by a City Commissioner. The Commissioner is assisted by two executive engineers for the east and west sections, and Assistant Commissioners for personnel, accounts and revenue departments, a public relations officer, a city engineer, a city health officer and an Assistant Commissioner for each of the four zones.[145]

The city of Tiruchirappalli is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by four elected members, one each for the Tiruchirappalli – I, Tiruchirappalli – II, Srirangam and Tiruverumbur constituencies.[146][147] Tiruchirappali is also a part of the Tiruchirappalli Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India, once every five years.[147][148] The Lok Sabha seat has been held by the Indian National Congress for four terms (1957–62,[149] 1984-89,[150] 1989-91[151] and 1991-96[152]), the Communist Party of India for three terms (1962–67,[153] 1971-77[154] and 1977-80[155]) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2001–04 and 2009–present[156]) and Bharatiya Janata Party (1998-99[157] and 1999-2001[158]) for two terms each. Candidates from the Communist Party of India (Marxist),[159] Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) and the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[160] have won once each. Indian politician Rangarajan Kumaramangalam who served as the Minister of Power in the government of Atal Behari Vajpayee,[161] was elected to the Lok Sabha from Tiruchirappalli in the 1998 and 1999 elections.[157][158]

Law and order is enforced by the Tamil Nadu police, which, for administrative purposes, has constituted Tiruchirappalli city as a separate district.[138]The district is divided into eight sub-divisions with a total of 16 police stations. The Tiruchirappalli city police force is headed by a Commissioner of police assisted by Deputy Commissioners. Law and order enforcement in the suburban areas are handled by the Tiruchirappalli district police.[162] As of 2008, Tiruchirappalli had a crime rate of 459.99 making it the second highest among cities in Tamil Nadu.[163] However, Tiruchirappalli had the lowest proportion of murder, rape and kidnapping cases.[163]

Education

Even during British rule, Tiruchirappalli was recognized as an important educational centre in India.[164] St. Joseph's College, opened in Nagapattinam in 1846 and transferred to Tiruchirappalli in 1883, is one of the oldest educational institutions in South India.[165] The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) college, established in 1883, is another premium missionary institution in the city.[164]

Tiruchirappalli has a total of 27 arts, science and law colleges,[166] notable ones being the National College,[167] Bishop Heber College,[168] Jamal Mohamed College[169] and the Government Law College.[170] There are also 35 engineering colleges in the city.[35][166] The National Institutes of Technology have a campus at Thuvakudi on the outskirts of the city.[171][172][173] The Tiruchirappalli branch of Anna University was established following the bifurcation of Anna University in 2007.[174] A total of 64 self-financing colleges offering courses on engineering, architecture, management and computer applications in the districts of Ariyalur, Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur and Tiruvarur are affiliated to this University.[175] The SRM Group of Colleges established the SRM Institute of Science and Technology at Irungalur near Tiruchirappalli followed by Chennai Medical College and Hospital in 2007. A proposal by the group to include the institutions in the SRM University is under review of the Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Government of India.[176]

The Bharathidasan University is based in Tiruchirappalli and exercises its jurisdiction over colleges in Tiruchirappalli district and seven neighbouring ones.[177] The university runs a management school, the Bharathidasan Institute of Management in Tiruchirappalli in collaboration with BHEL.[178] The Government of India's Ministry for Human Resources Development (HRD) has approved a proposal for the setting up of a campus of the Indian Institute of Management in Tiruchirappalli and the campus is expected to start functioning from the 2011-12 academic season.[179][180][181]

There are a total of 100 government and private schools in Tiruchirappalli.[166] The National High School was established in 1886 to counter Christian propaganda in missionary-run schools.[164] The RSK Higher Secondary School,[182] Campion Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School,[183] and St. Johns Vestry Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School[184][185] are some of the notable schools in the city.

Sports and recreation

Synthetic turf hockey ground in the Anna Stadium

Hockey and cricket are the most popular sports in Tiruchirappalli.[186] Former Indian goalkeepers Charles Cornelius and Leslie Fernandez hail from the city.[187] Construction of astro turf and an indoor stadium are currently in progress at the Anna Stadium complex, the city's principal hockey ground.[187] Apart from the hockey ground, the stadium complex also includes a football ground, an athletic track, a swimming pool, a gymnasium, badminton court and a sports hostel.[188] The Tiruchirappalli District Cricket Association (TDCA) is one of the constituents of the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association and regulates school, college and club cricket in the district. First class cricket matches are held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (previously, the Khajamalai Stadium).[189] At the golden jubilee celebrations of the association in 2008-09, plans have been mooted for the setting up of another cricket stadium and an academy in the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli city.[190][191] The Mannarpuram Cricket Academy is one of the noted cricket coaching academies in Tiruchirappalli.[192] Domestic football,[193]tennis[194] and volleyball[195] tournaments are held in and around the city. International chess tournaments have also been held in Tiruchirappalli.[196]

There are very few sources of entertainment in the city.[197] The municipal corporation has been blamed for alleged decrepit conditions of its parks.[198] The Trichinpoly Club or Trichy Club was established in Tiruchirappalli Cantonment in 1869.[199] The club was disbanded in 1972 and its assets were taken over by the Madras Club.[200] The P. T. Rajan Park, Chinnaswamy Park, Lourdusamy Park, Raja Park, Parangiri Velusamy Park and Ibrahim Park are some of the important government-run parks in the city.[198] Of these, the Raja Park and Ibrahim Park are frequented by children.[186] There have been plans to set up a zoological park at M. R. Palaiyam on the outskirts of the city.[201] Once completed, the zoo is expected to house about 500 animals belonging to 50 different species. The Anna Science Centre runs a planetarium in Tiruchirappalli.[202]

The Rasika Ranjana Sabha, founded in 1914, is the only popular venue for art and cultural events in the city.[203][204] According to the Limca Book of Records, the Morris theatre complex in Tiruchirappalli runs the largest number of regular film shows in the world.[205] The Urvasi theatre is another notable movie theatre in Tiruchirappalli.[206] There are a few shopping malls in the city, the Femina Shopping Mall (FSM)[207] and the Spencer's Shopping Mall[208] being the most prominent among them.

Media

According to the Registrar of newspapers in India, a total of 111 newspapers have been registered in Tiruchirappalli.[209] The weekly newspaper Wednesday Review, founded in 1905, is the first prominent journal to be published from Tiruchirappalli.[210] Among the major English-language newspapers being published from Tiruchirappalli are The Hindu which launched a Tiruchirappalli edition in 2004[211][212] and The New Indian Express which was publishing from Tiruchirappalli even before The Hindu.[213] Some of the important Tamil-language newspapers that publish a Tiruchirappalli edition are Dina Thanthi[214]Dina Mani,[215]Dina Malar, Malai Malar, Dinakaran,[216]Tamil Murasu and Tamil Sudar.[209] Popular Tamil weekly Ananda Vikatan launched a local supplement for Tiruchirappalli on the occasion of the 85th anniversary of its founding.[217]

The first radio transmission station in Tiruchirappalli was opened by the All India Radio (AIR) on May 16, 1939.[218][219] AIR started providing direct-to-home enabled radio broadcasting service from 2006.[220] In 2007, the AIR launched a separate Carnatic music channel - Ragam from Tiruchirappalli.[221] Apart from the government-owned AIR, private radio channels as Hello FM and Suryan FM also operate FM stations in Tiruchirappalli.[222] Indira Gandhi National Open University's Gyan Vani started broadcasting from Tiruchirappalli in 2008.[223] Tiruchirappalli's first campus community radio was started by Holy Cross College on December 22, 2006.[224]

Television broadcasting from Chennai was started on August 15, 1975.[225] Satellite television channels have been available from 1991 onwards.[226] Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus[227][228][229] and Sun Direct DTH.[230]

Utility services

Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB).[231] Tiruchirappalli is the headquarters of the Trichy region of TNEB. The city along with its suburbs forms the Trichy Metro Electricity Distribution Circle which is further sub-divided into six divisions.[231] A Chief Distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters at Tennur.[231] Water supply is provided by the Tiruchirappalli City Corporation.[232] Of the six headworks from which the city gets its water supply, four are maintained by the municipal corporation and the rest by other agencies.[233] Apart from the Gandhi market, Central Bus terminus and the Chathram bus terminus, solid waste management in the city is handled by the corporation.[233] About 400 tonnes of solid waste are released from city every year.[234] The principal garbage dumping ground is at Ariyamangalam.[235] Recently, the Tiruchirappalli city corporation has gone in for scientific closure of the garbage dump and its replacement with a sewage treatment plant.[235] Waste water management in the Trichy-Srirangam under ground drainage (UGD) areas are handled by the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD) and in other areas by the Tiruchirappalli Municipal Corporation.[233] The high toxicity of the waste water released by the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) is a major cause of concern for the corporation.[236] The corporation's annual expenditure for the year 2010-11 is estimated to be Rs. 155.94 crores.[237] Under the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Tiruchirappalli, with a sanitation coverage of 70 percent was ranked sixth in India and first in Tamil Nadu on the basis of sanitation for the year 2009-10.[238] In January 2010, Tiruchirappalli became the first city in India where open defecation was prevented in all its slums.[239]

Tiruchirappalli comes under the Tiruchi Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider.[240] There are a total of about 20,000 business telephone subscribers in the city.[241] Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available.[242] Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service.[243] BSNL began offering wireless internet services with the commencement of Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) transmission in 2008.[242] Tiruchirappalli is one of the few cities in India where BSNL's Caller Line Identification (CLI) based internet service Netone is available.[244] Softnet (STPI), Tata VSNL, Bharti and Reliance are other major broadband internet service providers in the city.[245]

Tiruchirappalli has a passport office which commenced its operations on March 23, 1983. Apart from Tiruchirappalli, it also caters to the needs of seven adjacent districts namely, Karur, Nagappattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Ariyalur and Tiruvarur.[246]

Notes

Footnotes

  • ^ The official spelling, as per the municipal corporation website is "Tiruchirappalli". However, the spellings Tiruchirapalli, Tiruchchirapalli and Tiruchchirappalli are also widely used.
  • ^ The 2011 population totals are provisional. The actual statistics of the 2011 India census are yet to be released.
  • ^ Click on the "Commissioner Office" tab to get the name and contact details of police commissioner of Tiruchirappalli city district.

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