Toul


Toul

French commune
nomcommune=Toul

région=Lorraine
département=Meurthe-et-Moselle
("sous-préfecture")
arrondissement=Toul
canton=Chief town of 2 cantons
insee=|cp=54200|maire=|mandat=2001-2008
intercomm=Communauté de communes
du Toulois

longitude=5.89166666667
latitude=48.675
alt moy=|alt mini=|alt maxi=
hectares=3,059
km²=30.59
sans=16,945|date-sans=1999|dens=|date-dens=1999Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Reichsstadt Tull" (de)
"Ville libre de Toul (fr)
conventional_long_name = Imperial City of Toul
common_name = Toul|
continent = Europe
region = Central Europe
country = France
era = Middle Ages
status = City-state
empire = Holy Roman Empire
government_type = Republic|
year_start =
year_end = 1552
life_span = ? – 1552|
event_start = Gained "Reichsfreiheit"
date_start = "Uncertain"
event_end = Three Bishoprics
annexed by France
date_end =
1552
event_post = Treaty of Westphalia
recognises annexation
date_post =
1648|
p1 = Bishopric of Toul
image_p1 =
s1 = Early Modern France
flag_s1 = Pavillon royal de France.svg|
capital = Toul|
footnotes =
Toul is a historic fortified town of France, a "sous-préfecture" of the Meurthe-et-Moselle "département", with a population of 17,000.

Geography

Toul is located between Commercy and Nancy, and situated between the Moselle River and the Canal de la Marne au Rhin.

History

Toul was known to the Romans as "Tullum Leucorum", and was the capital of the Gaulish tribe of the Leuci.

In 612, King Theudebert II of Austrasia was defeated by King Theuderic II of Burgundy near Toul. By the Treaty of Meerssen of 870, Toul became part of East Francia, the later Holy Roman Empire. During the High Middle Ages, it became a Free Imperial City. Toul was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552; this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It then was a part of the French province of the Three Bishoprics.

During the siege of 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War, the last time that Toul's defenses were used as a classical fortress, 64 guns opened fire at 6am on September 23, and the fortress surrendered at 3pm after 2,433 shells had been fired.

Toul was the seat of the bishops of Toul; the diocese was founded around 365 and existed until 1807.

ights

The most striking features are the impressive stone ramparts. It is not known precisely when they were first built, but there appears to have been a fortified town at this location since the earliest recorded history. Today, the ramparts encircle and define the old town. They are built of dressed white stone, and topped with grass, and in places are over five metres high.

There is a great deal of Roman archæology in the area and allegedly some in the town. The Roman fortified town of Grand is some 30km away, with its great amphitheatre and temple to the Cult of Apollo.

The old town's architecture is dominated by past glories in various states of decay, including a major gothic cathedral, which is in a poor condition and is being slowly restored. Many of the houses were built as canonical residences in the Late Middle Ages and bear vestiges in the form of ornamental stonework.

There is no trace of the monastery, however its wine-cellars still exist, under the shops on the North side of the Rue Gambetta. (Access is possible via the Camera Shop).

Transportation

Toul is at the intersection of the Moselle River (which divides into the river proper and the "Moselle Canalisée" just outside the town) with the Canal de la Marne Au Rhin, and was once, consequently, an important port. The barges known as "péniches" still navigate these watercourses commercially, typically carrying steel, though in the summer much more of the water traffic is for pleasure.

There is a main-line railway station at Toul, the last major station before the (once vast, and still very large) marshalling yards at Nancy. However, the Paris-Strasbourg TGV line, now under construction, will pass about 20km north of Toul, approximately mid-way between Metz and Nancy. Its completion will likely reduce Toul's importance as a station.

Twin towns

* , since 1987

Famous citizens

* Saint Gerard of Toul, bishop
* Antoine Augustin Calmet, monk
* Marcel Bigeard, military leader
* Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, military leader
* Louis Majorelle, furniture designer and manufacturer

ee also

*Toul-Rosieres Air Base
*Arrondissement of Toul

External links

* [http://www.mairie-toul.fr Official site]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Toul — Toul …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Toul — Escudo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Toul —   [tul],    1) Stadt in Lothringen, Département Meurthe et Moselle, Frankreich, an der Mosel und am Rhein Marne Kanal, 17 300 Einwohner; Gießerei, Holz , Glas , Papier und Bekleidungsindustrie, Reifenfabrik; …   Universal-Lexikon

  • TOUL — TOUL, city in the department Meurthe et Moselle in N.E. France. The earliest reference to the existence of Jews there is The Life of St. Mansuy, written in 974, in which the author mentions a Jewish physician in Toul. The tosafists eliezer of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Toul — (spr. tūl), Arrondissementshauptstadt im franz. Depart. Meurthe et Moselle, 204 m ü. M., am linken Ufer der Mosel, am Marne Rhein und am Ostkanal, nur 35 km von der deutschen Grenze, Knotenpunkt der Ostbahn und Festung ersten Ranges mit einem… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • toul — en Lorraine, et le païs à l environ de Toul, Tulingi, hodie Tullenses. Inde Tullensis Episcopus …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Toul — (spr. Tuhl), 1) Arrondissement im französischen Departement Meurthe; 241/2 QM., 65,500 Ew.; 2) Hauptstadt u. Festung dritten Ranges daselbst, an der Mosel (darüber steinerne Brücke) u. der Paris Strasburger Eisenbahn, mehre Kirchen (darunter die… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Toul — (spr. tul), Stadt und Festung ersten Ranges im franz. Dep. Meurthe et Moselle, an der Mosel und dem Rhein Marne Kanal, (1901) 12.287 E., Befestigungswerke im Umfang von 46 km; bis 1552 deutsche Reichsstadt, seitdem französisch, kapitulierte 23.… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Toul — (Tuhl), ehemals das deutsche Tull, frz. Festung an der Mosel u. der Paris Straßburger Eisenbahn, mit alter Kathedrale, 9000 E., lebhafter Fabrikation. Das Bisthum T. gehörte zu den ältesten u. ausgedehntesten u. war Reichsfürstenthum, die Stadt… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Toul — 48° 40′ 30″ N 5° 53′ 30″ E / 48.675, 5.89166666667 …   Wikipédia en Français


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