- French communeToul is a historic fortified town of
canton=Chief town of 2 cantons
intercomm=Communauté de communes
alt moy=|alt mini=|alt maxi=
sans=16,945|date-sans=1999|dens=|date-dens=1999Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Reichsstadt Tull" (de)
"Ville libre de Toul (fr)
conventional_long_name = Imperial City of Toul
common_name = Toul|
continent = Europe
region = Central Europe
country = France
era = Middle Ages
status = City-state
empire = Holy Roman Empire
government_type = Republic|
year_end = 1552
life_span = ? – 1552|
event_start = Gained "
date_start = "Uncertain"
annexed by France
Treaty of Westphalia
p1 = Bishopric of Toul
s1 = Early Modern France
flag_s1 = Pavillon royal de France.svg|
capital = Toul|
France, a " sous-préfecture" of the Meurthe-et-Moselle"département", with a population of 17,000.
Toul is located between
Commercyand Nancy, and situated between the Moselle Riverand the Canal de la Marne au Rhin.
612, King Theudebert IIof Austrasiawas defeated by King Theuderic IIof Burgundy near Toul. By the Treaty of Meerssenof 870, Toul became part of East Francia, the later Holy Roman Empire. During the High Middle Ages, it became a Free Imperial City. Toul was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552; this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphaliaof 1648. It then was a part of the French province of the Three Bishoprics.
siegeof 1870during the Franco-Prussian War, the last time that Toul's defenses were used as a classical fortress, 64 guns opened fire at 6am on September 23, and the fortress surrendered at 3pm after 2,433 shells had been fired.
Toul was the seat of the bishops of Toul; the diocese was founded around
365and existed until 1807.
The most striking features are the impressive stone ramparts. It is not known precisely when they were first built, but there appears to have been a fortified town at this location since the earliest recorded history. Today, the ramparts encircle and define the old town. They are built of dressed white stone, and topped with grass, and in places are over five metres high.
There is a great deal of Roman archæology in the area and allegedly some in the town. The Roman
fortified townof Grand is some 30km away, with its great amphitheatreand temple to the Cult of Apollo.
The old town's architecture is dominated by past glories in various states of decay, including a major gothic cathedral, which is in a poor condition and is being slowly restored. Many of the houses were built as canonical residences in the
Late Middle Agesand bear vestiges in the form of ornamental stonework.
There is no trace of the monastery, however its wine-cellars still exist, under the shops on the North side of the Rue Gambetta. (Access is possible via the Camera Shop).
Toul is at the intersection of the
Moselle River(which divides into the river proper and the "Moselle Canalisée" just outside the town) with the Canal de la Marne Au Rhin, and was once, consequently, an important port. The barges known as "péniches" still navigate these watercourses commercially, typically carrying steel, though in the summer much more of the water traffic is for pleasure.
There is a main-line railway station at Toul, the last major station before the (once vast, and still very large) marshalling yards at
Nancy. However, the Paris-Strasbourg TGVline, now under construction, will pass about 20km north of Toul, approximately mid-way between Metzand Nancy. Its completion will likely reduce Toul's importance as a station.
* , since 1987
Gerard of Toul, bishop
Antoine Augustin Calmet, monk
Marcel Bigeard, military leader
Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, military leader
Louis Majorelle, furniture designer and manufacturer
Toul-Rosieres Air Base
Arrondissement of Toul
* [http://www.mairie-toul.fr Official site]
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